U.S. Navy Cold Fusion Research

The LENR-CANR.org library includes several papers by U.S. Navy researchers at the China Lake Naval Weapons Laboratory, the Naval Research Laboratory and Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center (SPAWARS). Here are some examples:

Miles, M., NEDO Final Report – Electrochemical Calorimetric Studies Of Palladium And Palladium Alloys In Heavy Water. 2004, University of La Verne.

Szpak, S., et al., Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrodes prepared by co-deposition. Thermochim. Acta, 2004. 410: p. 101.

A sample IR camera video clip that was shown by Frank Gordon during ICCF10. It is described in the ICCF10 paperand PowerPoint slides titled, Polarized D+/Pd-D2O System: Hot Spots and “Mini-Explosions”. The video clip shows two views, Surface and Profile:

Time/space dependency of “hot spots”.

Left – at elevated temperature arrows indicated spots whose temperature was outside of the camera range

Right – distribution of cell temperature. A-A electrode surface temperature, B-B solution temperature.

From the PowerPoint descriptions for Slides 4 and 5: ” In the upper left, several different temperatures are represented by the colors with the lighter blue being hotter. Toward the edge of the electrode, the temperatures are lower. Also, these frames ‘freeze’ the action which is actually very dynamic with flashes of the light blue that decays back to the surrounding temperature. Over time, the flashes become more frequent and tend to cluster in an area with the average temperature of that area becoming hotter than the surrounding areas. Over time, the entire electrode surface reaches the hotter temperature and the process repeats itself with flashes of colors representing hotter temperatures starting to show up. . . .

The short video clip . . . shows the hot spots, initially in a small area of the electrode that over about 1.5 minutes expands to cover a significant portion of the electrode’s surface.”

The video clip is available here in two formats, Windows Media Video (WMV) and Real Media (RM):

SzpakIR.wmv (12 MB)

SzpakIR.rm (8 MB)

In their latest 2006 experiments, Szpak, Mosier-Boss et al. use external high voltage or magnetic fields and CR-39 to detect high energy particles. The CR-39 is placed in close proximity to the cathode because the particles do not travel far. These experiments appear to be highly reproducible.

Here are some other papers describing the co-deposition and electric fields:

Szpak, S., et al., The effect of an external electric field on surface morphology of co-deposited Pd/D films. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2005. 580: p. 284-290.

Szpak, S., et al., Evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice. Naturwiss., 2005. 92(8): p. 394-397.

We also recommend these papers:

Mosier-Boss, P. A. Thermal and Nuclear Aspects of the Pd/D2O System, Vol 1 (Long: 3 MB), Vol 2From the Introduction to Vol. 1:

As I write this Foreword, California is experiencing rolling blackouts due to power shortages. Conventional engineering, planned ahead, could have prevented these blackouts, but it has been politically expedient to ignore the inevitable. We do not know if Cold Fusion will be the answer to future energy needs, but we do know the existence of Cold Fusion phenomenon through repeated observations by scientists throughout the world. It is time that this phenomenon be investigated so that we can reap whatever benefits accrue from additional scientific understanding. It is time for government funding organizations to invest in this research.

Dr. Frank E. Gordon
Head, Navigation and Applied Sciences Department
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego

The March 29, 2003 issue of the New Scientist magazine featured interviews with Miles and Mosier-Boss, in an article by B. Daviss, Reasonable Doubt, p. 36. The synopsis: ” No sooner had cold fusion surfaced than it was written off, and the idea of extracting virtually limitless free energy from water became taboo. So how come a small band of experienced researchers working for the US Navy just can’t let it drop? Bennett Daviss takes up their strange story”

Miles, M. Calorimetric Principles and Problems in Pd-D2O Electrolysis

Miles, M. Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Systems, Final Report. We have uploaded an improved version of this, with better copies of the figures, and Acrobat formatted Bookmarks and Table of Contents. In lectures and correspondence about this paper, Miles emphasizes the last two sections: Discussion and Summary. He makes three critical points in these sections:

  1. The choice of cathode material is crucial to the outcome of the experiment. Table 10 shows that some sources of palladium nearly always produce excess, and some never work.
  2. The fact that helium is correlated with the excess heat has been confirmed many ways, but perhaps most dramatically with a simple true/false statistical test. ” The odds are . . . approximately one in a million that our complete set of 33 heat and helium results could be obtained from random experimental errors in our calorimetry and helium measurements. A more rigorous treatment in Appendix C gives the probability as one out of 750,000 for our set of 33 heat and helium results.”
  3. This research area has the potential to provide the human race with a nearly unlimited new source of energy. We hope that other scientists will continue to investigate this difficult research area until the challenging problems impeding progress are solved.

Here is a general reader’s guide to the experiments of M. Miles, by J. Rothwell. Here is a web site describing Miles and his work: http://coldfusion-miles.com/

Several other papers by Miles and other present and retired U.S. Navy researchers are listed below.


List of Papers By U.S. Navy Researchers

Papers are listed by the principal author’s last name. All documents listed here are also listed in our regular Library index files. Some of these papers are not on file.

DOWNLOAD Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Theoretical Framework for Anomalous Heat and 4He in Transition Metal Systems. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.
DOWNLOAD Chubb, S.R. Nuts and Bolts of the Ion Band State Theory. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.
DOWNLOAD Chubb, S.R. Impact of Boundary Effects Involving Broken Gauge Symmetry on LENR’s. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.
DOWNLOAD Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. Deuteron Fluxing and the Ion Band State Theory. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.
DOWNLOAD Dominguez, D.D., P.L. Hagans, and M.A. Imam. The effect of microstructure on deuterium loading in palladium cathodes. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.
DOWNLOAD Hagans, P.L., D.D. Dominguez, and M.A. Imam. Surface composition of Pd cathodes. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.
DOWNLOAD Hubler, G.K., Anomalous Effects in Hydrogen-Charged Palladium – A review (PowerPoint slides). Surf. Coatings Technol., 2007.
DOWNLOAD Melich, M.E. and W.N. Hansen. Some Lessons from 3 Years of Electrochemical Calorimetry. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, ” Frontiers of Cold Fusion” . 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
DOWNLOAD Melich, M.E. and W.N. Hansen. Back to the Future, The Fleischmann-Pons Effect in 1994. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.
DOWNLOAD Miles, M., K.H. Park, and D.E. Stilwell. Electrochemical Calorimetric Studies of the Cold Fusion Effect. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.
DOWNLOAD Miles, M. and B.F. Bush. Calorimetric Principles and Problems in Pd-D2O Electrolysis. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, ” Frontiers of Cold Fusion” . 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
DOWNLOAD Miles, M., et al., Correlation of excess power and helium production during D2O and H2O electrolysis using palladium cathodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 346: p. 99.
DOWNLOAD Miles, M. and K.B. Johnson, Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Systems, Final Report. 1996, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division.
DOWNLOAD Miles, M. and K.B. Johnson, Electrochemical insertion of hydrogen into metals and alloys. Infinite Energy, 1996. 1(5 & 6): p. 68.
DOWNLOAD Miles, M. Correlation Of Excess Enthalpy And Helium-4 Production: A Review. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.
DOWNLOAD Miles, M., NEDO Final Report – Electrochemical Calorimetric Studies Of Palladium And Palladium Alloys In Heavy Water. 2004, University of La Verne.
DOWNLOAD Mosier-Boss, P.A. and S. Szpak, The Pd/(n)H system: transport processes and development of thermal instabilities. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1999. 112: p. 577.
DOWNLOAD Mosier-Boss, P.A. and S. Szpak, The Pd/(n)H system: transport processes and development of thermal instabilities. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1999. 112: p. 577.
DOWNLOAD Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Thermal and Nuclear Aspects of the Pd/D2O System, ed. S. Szpak and P.A. Mosier-Boss. Vol. 1 A Decade of Research at Navy Laboratories. 2002: SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, U.S. Navy.
DOWNLOAD Mosier-Boss, P.A. and M. Fleischmann, Thermal and Nuclear Aspects of the Pd/D2O System, ed. S. Szpak and P.A. Mosier-Boss. Vol. 2. Simulation of the Electrochemical Cell (ICARUS) Calorimetry. 2002: SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, U.S. Navy.
DOWNLOAD Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al. Pd/D Co-Deposition: Excess Power Generation and Its Origin (paper and PowerPoint slides). in 233rd ACS National Meeting. 2007. Chicago, IL.
DOWNLOAD Mosier-Boss, P.A., S. Szpak, and F. Gordon. Production of High Energy Particles Using the Pd/D Co-Deposition Process (PowerPoint slides). in APS March Meeting. 2007. Denver, CO.
DOWNLOAD Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Use of CR-39 in Pd/D co-deposition experiments. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., 2007. 40: p. 293-303.
Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Detection of Energetic Particles and Neutrons Emitted During Pd/D Co-Deposition, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook, J. Marwan and S. Krivit, Editors. 2008, Oxford University Press.
DOWNLOAD Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Reply to Comment on ‘The Use of CR-39 in Pd/D Co-deposition Experiments’: A Response to Kowalski. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., 2008. 44: p. 287-290.
Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Triple tracks in CR-39 as the result of Pd–D Co-deposition: evidence of energetic neutrons. Naturwiss., 2008.doi:10.1007/s00114-008-0449-x(96): p. 135-142.
DOWNLOAD Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Characterization of tracks in CR-39 detectors obtained as a result of Pd/D Co-deposition. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., 2009. 46.
Nagel, D.J., The status of ‘cold fusion’. Radiat. Phys. Chem., 1998. 51: p. 653.
DOWNLOAD Nagel, D.J., Fusion Physics and Philosophy. Accountability Res., 2000. 8: p. 137.
DOWNLOAD Nagel, D.J. and M.A. Imam. Energetics Of Defects And Strains In Palladium. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.
DOWNLOAD

Szpak, S. Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. This contains an introduction followed by twelve papers that are also loaded into the Library separately. The individual papers are:

DOWNLOAD INCLUDED Szpak, S., et al., On the behavior of the Pd/D system: Evidence for tritium production. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 38.
DOWNLOAD INCLUDED Szpak, S., et al., Electrochemical charging of Pd rods. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 309: p. 273.
DOWNLOAD INCLUDED Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and S.R. Scharber, Charging of the Pd/(n)H system: role of the interphase. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 337: p. 147.
DOWNLOAD INCLUDED Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and C.J. Gabriel, Absorption of deuterium in palladium rods: Model vs. experiment. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 365: p. 275.
DOWNLOAD INCLUDED Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and R.D. Boss, Comments on the analysis of tritium content in electrochemical cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 373: p. 1.
DOWNLOAD INCLUDED Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith, Deuterium uptake during Pd-D codeposition. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 379: p. 121.
DOWNLOAD INCLUDED Szpak, S., et al., Cyclic voltammetry od Pd + D codeposition. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 380: p. 1.
DOWNLOAD INCLUDED Mosier-Boss, P.A. and S. Szpak, The Metal Hydrogen System: Interphase Participation in H-Transport. 1995, Naval Control, Command and Ocean Surveillance Center, RDT& E Division.
DOWNLOAD INCLUDED Szpak, S., et al., On the behavior of the Pd/D system: Evidence for tritium production. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 38.
DOWNLOAD INCLUDED Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Calorimetry of Open Electrolysis Cells. 1995, Naval Control, Command and Ocean Surveillance Center, RDT& E Division.
DOWNLOAD INCLUDED Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith, On the behavior of the cathodically polarized Pd/D system: Search for emanating radiation. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 210: p. 382.
DOWNLOAD INCLUDED Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith. Reliable Procedure for the Initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, ” The Science of Cold Fusion” . 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.
DOWNLOAD INCLUDED Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith. Comments on Methodology of Excess Tritium Determination. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, ” Frontiers of Cold Fusion” . 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
DOWNLOAD Szpak, S., et al. Polarized D+/Pd-D2O System: Hot Spots and “Mini-Explosions”. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.
DOWNLOAD Szpak, S., et al. Polarized D+/Pd-D2O System: Hot Spots and “Mini-Explosions” PowerPoint slides. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.
DOWNLOAD Szpak, S., et al., Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrodes prepared by co-deposition. Thermochim. Acta, 2004. 410: p. 101.
DOWNLOAD Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Precursors And The Fusion Reactions In Polarised Pd/D-D2O System: Effect Of An External Electric Field – PowerPoint presentation. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.
DOWNLOAD Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Precursors And The Fusion Reactions In Polarised Pd/D-D2O System: Effect Of An External Electric Field. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.
DOWNLOAD Szpak, S., et al., Evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice. Naturwiss., 2005.
DOWNLOAD Szpak, S., et al., The effect of an external electric field on surface morphology of co-deposited Pd/D films. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2005.580: p. 284-290.
DOWNLOAD Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Experimental Evidence for LENR in a Polarized Pd/D Lattice. in NDIA 2006. 2006. Washington, DC.
Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon, Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice: emission of charged particles.Naturwiss., 2007. DOI 10.1007.
DOWNLOAD Szpak, S., et al. LENR Research Using Co-Deposition. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.
DOWNLOAD Szpak, S., et al. SPAWAR Systems Center-Pacific Pd:D Co-Deposition Research: Overview of Refereed LENR Publications in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.