2004 DoE Review

In December 2004 the Department of Energy (DoE), Office of Science, published a review of cold fusion, Report of the Review of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. This Special Collection includes:

The DoE Report and Reviews

Here is the DoE report itself, Report of the Review of Low Energy Nuclear ReactionsThis Report and the two attachments listed in it came from a DoE website, www.science.doe.gov, no longer available. The DoE did not release the 18 anonymous reviews the report was based on, but we have made them available here.

Brief History of the DoE Review

After The Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-10) in 2003, several leading cold fusion researchers contacted the US Department of Energy and asked them to set up a review panel to examine cold fusion results and determine whether cold fusion research should be funded.

The DOE first looked at cold fusion in 1989, in the ERAB report. The panel was convened soon after cold fusion was announced, and it finished its work several months before the first serious cold fusion application experiments were completed, and a year or two before they could be published. The ERAB report concluded that cold fusion probably does not exist, but that some funding might be appropriate. Despite this, funding was cut off and the report was cited as justification for this decision.

The New Scientist magazine broke the news of this new panel in the March 20, 2004 issue, in a short article by Ben Daviss, “Upfront: News in perspective” on page 6. On March 25, 2004, the New York Times published an article titled, “U.S. Will Give Cold Fusion Second Look, After 15 Years,” by Kenneth Chang. Chang conducted an e-mail interview with Dr. James F. Decker, deputy director of the science office in the Energy Department. Decker confirmed that the panel is being formed, and he wrote: “It was my personal judgment that their request for a review was reasonable.” On November 6, 2003, Decker met with Peter Hagelstein (MIT) Michael McKubre (SRI International), and David J. Nagel (George Washington University). Decker said, “They presented some data and asked for a review of the scientific research that has been conducted. The scientists who came to see me are from excellent scientific institutions and have excellent credentials.”

News of the DoE review was described in an article in Physics Today, “DoE Warms to Cold Fusion,” by Toni Feder. The article quotes MIT professor Mildred Dresselhaus, who was on the ERAB panel, and the head of DeE’s Office of Science: “I think scientists should be open minded. Historically, many things get overturned with time.” Reports of the DoE review were pubished in other newspapers, including the Deseret News and MIT’s Technology Review. Weinberger, S., Warming Up to Cold Fusion, in Washington Post Magazine. 2004. p. W22., described the review when it was in progress.

Aftermath: The DoE reneges,  and Scientific American attacks

Most cold fusion researchers were disappointed by the Review, because it was replete with technical errors and misunderstandings. (See Critique below.) Two documents are available in the LENR-CANR library that help explain how this failure occurred and why.  The article ”The US Government Once Again Evaluates Cold Fusion,” appearing in the winter issue of 21st Century Science and Technology, gives the general background to the process. A technical rebuttal, A Response to the Review of Cold Fusion by the DoE was sent to the DoE with a request that it be circulated to the reviewers. This subject is too important for evaluations to be based on a misunderstanding of the experimental results and be influenced by personal animosity toward the subject.

Despite the technical problems with the report, researchers were satisfied that the DoE was at last being reasonable, and that the Review left the door open to serious research project proposals:

“….The nearly unanimous opinion of the reviewers was that funding agencies should entertain individual, well-designed proposals for experiments that address specific scientific issues relevant to the question of whether or not there is anomalous energy production in Pd/D systems, or whether or not D-D fusion reactions occur at energies on the order of a few eV.. . .”

Prof. Melvin Miles applied to the DoE  to fund an up-to-date cold fusion research project, which would extend and build upon his years of research at the China Lake Naval Air Warfare Center. Miles is one of the world’s top electrochemists and he retired from China Lake as a Distinguished Fellow. He is now a professor at the University of La Vern. The DoE flatly rejected his application, without even submitting it to a peer-review process. It responded with a surly list of impossible Catch-22 requirements, such as telling him he would have to publish his experiments in a peer-reviewed journal before the experiments can be funded or performed! In other words, the DoE  was never serious, and the statements in the Review are mere window dressing. This travesty is described in a new document, The DoE Lies Again.

The Scientific American reported on the DoE Review, and it added four statements to the report which are incorrect and totally at odds with the literature. See: News, The Scientific American Slams Cold Fusion Again.

Critique of the DoE review by C. Beaudette

A Response to the DoE by Charles Beaudette is availalble in our library. Beaudette is the  author of  the  book Excess Heat: Why Cold Fusion Prevailed.

Critique of the DoE Review by E. Storms and J. Rothwell

December 2004.

Overall, the review is inconclusive. It says, for example: “Two-thirds of the reviewers commenting on Charge Element 1 did not feel the evidence was conclusive for low energy nuclear reactions, one found the evidence convincing, and the remainder indicated they were somewhat convinced. Many reviewers noted that poor experiment design, documentation, background control and other similar issues hampered the understanding and interpretation of the results presented.” Many in the cold fusion field share this complaint. However, this is a strawman that was not part of the charge given the reviewers. The reviewers were asked whether the claims, taken in total, are real and whether further study should be encouraged using a level of funding required to overcome these handicaps. To this charge, the response was lukewarm.

The DoE asked 18 experts in various fields of science to evaluate the reality and value of cold fusion (LENR). A person outside of science, but concerned about the possible value of such an ideal energy source, would expect the evaluation to be done with competence, objectivity and a concern for the benefits the claims would give if true. Instead, the effort was flawed by an obvious lack of interest by most reviewers. This indifference is evidenced by serious flaws in their justification for rejecting many of the claims. Competent people can disagree about the meaning of observation and can even choose to reject claims. However, only an indifferent and sloppy reviewer comes to such conclusions based on an incomplete or false understanding of the observations. For example, most reviewers, “did not find the production of excess power convincing.” They justify this rejection because excess power did not occur over the total time of the experiment, because not all possible explanations have been investigated, and because excess power is only a fraction of applied power. These objections were raised in spite of the fact that time is required for the effect to turn on and the reason for this requirement is known numerous other explanations have been suggested and all have been shown not to be correct and the magnitude of a novel effect is not a logical reason for its rejection. If these criteria were applied to science in general, many of the ideas now accepted would have to be abandoned. The reviewers did not believe the claimed excess energy, if real, had a nuclear origin. One important piece of evidence for a nuclear origin is that fact that when excess energy is measured, helium is also detected in the evolving gas, in amounts consistent with a fusion reaction. Reviewers rejected this helium because the helium concentration measured, in most cases, is much less than the concentration in air. They suggested that a leak in the apparatus may be the source of helium. They ignored the peer-reviewed literature, which clearly demonstrates why such a leak cannot explain the helium: helium is only measured when excess energy is measured; a leak would also provide argon which is not detected the cells are demonstrated to be leak tight in blank runs; and in most cases the systems had a pressure greater than the surrounding air pressure. Furthermore, similar measurements giving consistent results have been obtained at six laboratories in three countries. Knowing these facts, a person has to shake his head in dismay at the willing disregard of published evidence.

So what did the DoE panel accomplish? They showed the world that the subject was worth an effort to evaluate, they offered to fund proposals if they were properly prepared and passed peer review, and they demonstrated that the average reviewer may not be willing to evaluate such proposals fairly.

Nevertheless, like the ERAB Panel report, the reviewers recommended well designed proposals be submitted by individuals. This recommendation should be taken seriously, if for no other reason than to test the intent of the recommendation. We will have to wait and see what the DoE does next when proposals are actually submitted before we can judge the value of this review effort. This could be a big step forward.

The 18 reviewers’ comments are more thoughtful and scientific than the summary report by the DoE, but they still lack objectivity and clarity, in our opinion. For example, reviewer #7 writes:

The paper by Iwamura et al. presented at ICCF10 (Ref. 47 in DOE31) does an exhaustive job of using a variety of modern analytical chemistry methods to identify elements produced on the surface of coated Pd cold-fusion foils. . . .

The analytical results, from a variety of techniques, such as mass spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy, are very nice. It seems difficult at first glance to dispute the results. However, the Japanese workers conclude, not that the elements in question are constituents from the interior of the Pd that migrated to the surface, but that they are the products of sequential nuclear reactions, in which changes of atomic number and atomic mass of 4 and 8 are preferred.

From a nuclear physics perspective, such conclusions are not to be believed . . .

The reviewer rejects the results based on nuclear theory it is “not to be believed,” but then proposes an alternative explanation based on the anomalous element diffusing from the palladium interior. The anomalous element could not migrate from the interior of the palladium because:

  1. Deuterium atoms, flowing from the surface to the interior, would cause diffusion of the anomalous element away from the surface, not toward the surface.
  2. Mass spectroscopy done at various depths shows that the anomalous element was not present in the palladium.
  3. The element that was originally on the surface disappears at the same rate as the anomalous element appears.
  4. The isotopes of the anomalous element are unnatural, and the isotope shifts are exactly what are expected should the missing element transmute into the new element

Since the initial element disappears, if migration is the cause of the change, we have to postulate that the element applied to the surface migrates toward the interior, while the anomalous element migrates in the opposite direction toward the surface. Such explanations are mere handwaving, and violate as many expected behaviors as does cold fusion but in a different field of science. This kind of reasoning is typical of most reviews. In any case, the reviewer has missed the main point. Iwamura’s data certainly justifies further study. The proposed theories, regardless of their source (including the reviewer’s own hypothesis), are irrelevant.

Material Submitted to the DoE

Before the review panel convened, five researchers wrote a paper for the DoE: Hagelstein, P.L., et al., New Physical Effects in Metal Deuterides. This paper has 130 References, including several in our Library, which are listed below. Items with hyperlinks are included in the library.

References in “New Physical Effects in Metal Dueterides”

1a, b. Fleischmann, M., S. Pons, and M. Hawkins, Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 261: p. 301 and errata in Vol. 263.

1c. Fleischmann, M., et al., Calorimetry of the palladium-deuterium-heavy water system. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 287: p. 293.

2. Jones, S.E., et al., Observation of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 737.

3. Storms, E., Calorimetry 101 for Cold Fusion Methods, Problems and Errors. 2004, LENR-CANR.org.

4. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann. Calorimetry of the Palladium-Deuterium System. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute. p. 1

5. Gozzi, D., et al. Multicell Experiments for Searching Time-Related Events in Cold Fusion. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

6. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Isothermal Flow Calorimetric Investigations of the D/Pd System. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion” .1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

7. Not in database

8. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Calorimetry and Electrochemistry in the D/Pd System. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute. p. 20

9. Kunimatsu, K., et al. Deuterium Loading Ratio and Excess Heat Generation During Electrolysis of Heavy Water by Palladium Cathode in a Closed Cell Using a Partially Immersed Fuel Cell Anode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion” . 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

10. Hasegawa, N., et al. Observation of Excess Heat during Electrolysis of 1 M LiOD in a Fuel Cell Type Closed Cell. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

11. McKubre, M.C.H. and F.L. Tanzella. Materials Issues of Loading Deuterium into Palladium and the Association with Excess Heat Production. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

12. Bertalot, L., et al. Analysis of Tritium and Heat Excess in Electrochemical Cells With Pd Cathodes. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy. p. 3

13. Koonin, S.E. and M. Nauenberg, Calculated fusion rates in isotopic hydrogen molecules. Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 690

14. Bockris, J. and A.K.N. Reddy, Modern electrochemistry; an introduction to an interdisciplinary area. 1970, New York: Plenum Press.

15. Pons, S., et al., Method and Apparatus for Power Generation. 1990: WO 90/10935,1990.

16. Bertalot, L., et al. Power Excess Production in Electrolysis Experiments at ENEA Frascati. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France. See: ICCF5 Part 1, p. 34

17. Storms, E. Some Thoughts on the Nature of the Nuclear-Active Regions in Palladium. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

18. Storms, E. Relationship Between Open-Circuit-Voltage and Heat Production in a Pons-Fleischmann Cell. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

19. Swartz, M.R. and G.M. Verner. Excess Heat from Low Electrical Conductivity Heavy Water Spiral-Wound Pd/D2O/Pt and Pd/D2O-PdCl2/Pt Devices. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: in print.

20. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann. The Calorimetry of Electrode Reactions and Measurements of Excess Enthalpy Generation in the Electrolysis of D2O Using Pd-based Cathodes. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy. p. 349

21. Fleischmann, M. The Experimenters’ Regress. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France. See: ICCF5 Part 1, p. 152

22. Miles, M., et al. Thermal Behavior of Polarized Pd/D Electrodes Prepared by Co-deposition. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

23. Cravens, D. Factors Affecting Success Rate of Heat Generation in CF Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. See: ICCF4 Vol. 2 p. 18-1

24. Storms, E., Some Characteristics of Heat Production Using the “Cold Fusion” Effect. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 96.

25. Not in database

26. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Excess Power Observations in Electrochemical Studies of the D/Pd System; The Influence of Loading. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

27. McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Development of Advanced Concepts for Nuclear Processes in Deuterated Metals, TR-104195. 1994, Electric Power Research Institute.

28. Takahashi, A., et al. Anomalous Excess Heat by D2O/Pd Cell Under L-H Mode Electrolysis. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

29. Aoki, T., Y. Kurata, and H. Ebihara. Study of Concentrations of Helium and Tritium in Electrolytic Cells with Excess Heat Generations. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

30. Storms, E., A Study of Those Properties of Palladium That Influence Excess Energy Production by the “Pons-Fleischmann” Effect. Infinite Energy, 1996. 2(8): p. 50.

31. De Marco, F., et al. Progress Report on the Research Activities on Cold Fusion at ENEA Frascati. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. p. 145

32. Takahashi, A., et al. Neutron Spectra from D2O-Pd Cells with Pulsed Electrolysis. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228″. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York. p. 323

33. Takahashi, A., et al. Neutron Spectra and Controllability by PdD/electrolysis Cell With Low-High Current Pulse Operation. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy. p. 93

34. Bockris, J., D. Hodko, and Z. Minevski. The Mechanism of Deuterium Evolution on Palladium: Relation to Heat Bursts Provoked By Fluxing Deuterium Across the Interface. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy. p. 337

35. Yamaguchi, E. and T. Nishioka. Direct Evidence for Nuclear Fusion Reactions in Deuterated Palladium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan. See: ICCF3 Part 1, p. 179

36. Sugiura, H. and E. Yamaguchi. Calorimetric Analysis of the Excess Heat Generated from Pd:D and Pd:H by the ‘In-vacuo’ Method. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT. p. 366

37. Yamaguchi, E. and H. Sugiura. Excess Heat and Nuclear Products from Pd:D/Au Heterostructures by the ‘In-vacuo’ Method. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT. p. 420

38. Bartolomeo, C., et al. Alfred Coehn and After: The Alpha, Beta and Gamma of the Palladium-Hydrogen System. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.See: ICCF4 Vol. 4 p. 19-1

39. Celani, F., et al. High Power µs Pulsed Electrolysis Using Palladium Wires: Evidence for a Possible “Phase” Transition Under Deuterium Overloaded Conditions and Related Excess Heat. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France. See: ICCF5 Part 1, p. 57

40. Celani, F., et al. New Kinds of Electrolytic Regimes and Geometrical Configurations to Obtain Anomalous Results in Pd(M)-D Systems. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. p. 93

41. Preparata, G. Everything Thing You Always Wanted to Know About Cold Fusion Calorimetry. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. p 93

42. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Concerning Reproducibility of Excess Power Production. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France. See: ICCF5 Part 1, p. 17

43. Tian, J., et al. Anomalous heat flow and its correlation with deuterium flux in a gas-loading deuterium-palladium system. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

44. Bockris, J., et al. Triggering of Heat and Sub-Surface Changes in Pd-D Systems. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1994. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

45. Li, X.Z., et al. PROGRESS IN GAS-LOADING D/Pd SYSTEM — The feasibility of a self-sustaining heat generator –. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

46. Iwamura, Y., M. Sakano, and T. Itoh, Elemental Analysis of Pd Complexes: Effects of D2 Gas Permeation. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 2002. 41: p. 4642.

47. Iwamura, Y., et al. Low Energy Nuclear Transmutation In Condensed Matter Induced By D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes: Correlation Between Deuterium Flux And Nuclear Products. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

48. Letts, D. and D. Cravens. Laser Stimulation Of Deuterated Palladium: Past And Present. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

49. Cravens, D. and D. Letts. Practical Techniques In CF Research – Triggering Methods. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

50. Passell, T.O. Charting the Way Forward in the EPRI Research Program on Deuterated Metals. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France. See: ICCF5 Part 2, p. 603

51. Passell, T.O. Evidence for Lithium-6 Depletion in Pd Exposed to Gaseous Deuterium and Hydrogen. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press. 299

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53. Not in database

54. Case, L.C. Catalytic Fusion of Deuterium into Helium-4. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

55. Miles, M., et al., Correlation of excess power and helium production during D2O and H2O electrolysis using palladium cathodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 346: p. 99.

56. Bush, B.F. and J.J. Lagowski. Methods of Generating Excess Heat with the Pons and Fleischmann Effect: Rigorous and Cost Effective Calorimetry, Nuclear Products Analysis of the Cathode and Helium Analysis. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

57. Botta, E., et al. Search for 4He Production from Pd/D2 Systems in Gas Phase. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

58. Botta, E., et al. Measurement of 4He Production from D2 Gas-Loaded Pd Samples. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

59. Qiao, G.S., et al. Nuclear Products in a Gas-Loading D/Pd and H/Pd System. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada. p. 314

60. Gozzi, D., et al. Excess Heat and Nuclear Product Measurements in Cold Fusion Electrochemical Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.See: ICCF4 Vol. 1 p. 2-1

61. Bockris, J., et al. Tritium and Helium Production in Palladium Electrodes and the Fugacity of Deuterium Therein. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan. See: ICCF3 Part 1, p. 231

62. Liaw, B.Y., P.L. Tao, and B.E. Liebert. Recent Progress on Cold Fusion Research Using Molten Salt Techniques. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy. p. 92

63. Sakaguchi, H., G. Adachi, and K. Nagao. Helium Isotopes from Deuterium Absorbed in LaNi5. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan. See:ICCF3 Part 2, p. 527

64. Morrey, J.R., et al., Measurements of helium in electrolyzed palladium. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 659.

65. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Helium (4He, 3He) within deuterated Pd-black. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1997. 73: p. 1.

66. Not in database

67. Lipson, A.G., et al. Evidence for DD-Reaction and a Long-Range Alpha Emission in Au/Pd/PdO:D Heterstructure as a Result of Exothermic Deuterium Deposition. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy. p. 231

68. Lipson, A.G., et al. In-Situ Charged Particles And X-Ray Detection In Pd Thin Film-Cathodes During Electrolysis In Li2SO4/H2O. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

69. Miles, M. Correlation Of Excess Enthalpy And Helium-4 Production: A Review. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

70. McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Energy Production Processes In Deuterated Metals. 1998, EPRI: Palo Alto.

71. Cellucci, F., et al. X-Ray, Heat Excess and 4He in the Electrochemical Confinement of Deuterium in Palladium. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

72. Del Giudice, E., et al. Production of excess enthalpy in the electrolysis of D2O on Pd cathodes. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

73. De Ninno, A., et al. 4He Detection In A Cold Fusion Experiment. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

74. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann. Heat After Death. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

75. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, Calorimetry of the Pd-D2O system: from simplicity via complications to simplicity. Phys. Lett. A, 1993. 176: p. 118.

76. Bernardini, M., et al. Anomalous Effects Induced by D2O Electrolysis of Titanium. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

77. Miles, M. Calorimetric Studies of Palladium Alloy Cathodes Using Fleischmann-Pons Dewar Type Cells. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy. p. 105

78. Fleischmann, M. Searching for the consequences of many-body effects in condensed phase systems. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press. p. III

79. Dardik, I., et al. Intensification Of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Using Superwave Excitation. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

80. Miles, M., K.B. Johnson, and M.A. Imam. Heat and Helium Measurements Using Palladium and Palladium Alloys in Heavy Water. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

81. Klopfenstein, M.F. and J. Dash. Thermal Imaging during Electrolysis of Heavy Water with a Ti Cathode. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: Vancouver, Canada. p. 98

82. Storms, E. Excess Power Production from Platinum Cathodes Using the Pons-Fleischmann Effect. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

83. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, A new energy caused by “Spillover-deuterium”. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1994. 70 ser. B: p. 106.

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