Archives for October 2014

Levi et al. publish a second, extended report on Rossi reactor

The professors who published a report on Andrea Rossi’s high temperature reactor have followed up with second, extended test and a more detailed report:

Levi, G., et al., Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel. 2014, Bologna University. A copy is here.

Five outside experts in mass spectroscopy and related fields contributed four appendixes covering the radiation, materials, SIMS and ICP analyses. The research was sponsored by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Elforsk AB., Officine Ghidoni SA, and Industrial Heat LLC (USA).

This test produced 1.5 megawatt-hours of energy continuously, over 32 days. This is 5,825 MJ, or as much energy as you get from burning 139 kg of gasoline. This is a new record for a cold fusion reaction. Previous large reactions produced 50 to 300 MJ.

Michael McKubre reviewed the paper here.

Mats Lewan described the paper here.

Thomas Clarke reviewed that paper here, citing a number of errors.

Here is the Abstract and part of the conclusion:

New results are presented from an extended experimental investigation of anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube operating at high temperatures. The reactor, named E-Cat, is charged with a small amount of hydrogen-loaded nickel powder plus some additives, mainly Lithium. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils around the reactor tube. Measurements of the radiated power from the reactor were performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras. The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three-phase power analyzer. Data were collected during 32 days of running in March 2014. The reactor operating point was set to about 1260ºC in the first half of the run, and at about 1400°C in the second half. The measured energy balance between input and output heat yielded a COP factor of about 3.2 and 3.6 for the 1260ºC and 1400ºC runs, respectively. The total net energy obtained during the 32 days run was about 1.5 MWh. This amount of energy is far more than can be obtained from any known chemical sources in the small reactor volume. A sample of the fuel was carefully examined with respect to its isotopic composition before the run and after the run, using several standard methods: XPS, EDS, SIMS, ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The isotope composition in Lithium and Nickel was found to agree with the natural composition before the run, while after the run it was found to have changed substantially. Nuclear reactions are therefore indicated to be present in the run process, which however is hard to reconcile with the fact that no radioactivity was detected outside the reactor during the run.

In summary, the performance of the E-Cat reactor is remarkable. We have a device giving heat energy compatible with nuclear transformations, but it operates at low energy and gives neither nuclear radioactive waste nor emits radiation. From basic general knowledge in nuclear physics this should not be possible. Nevertheless we have to relate to the fact that the experimental results from our test show heat production beyond chemical burning, and that the E-Cat fuel undergoes nuclear transformations. It is certainly most unsatisfying that these results so far have no convincing theoretical explanation, but the experimental results cannot be dismissed or ignored just because of lack of theoretical understanding. . . .

Magnus Olofsson, the CEO of Elforsk wrote about this paper in NyTeknik. He said (Google translation):

Elforsk has in recent years followed the development of what has come to be called nuclear reactions at low energy, LENR – Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. Elforsk include published a compilation of knowledge about LENR. Elforsk has also co-funded the current measurements and earlier measurements. While the earlier measurements showed an unexplained excess energy. . . .

Elforsk takes now the initiative to build a comprehensive Swedish research initiative. More knowledge is needed to understand and explain. Let us engage more researchers in searching [this] phenomenon and then explain how it works.

Here is the official statement about this paper at Elforsk’s website, in Swedish and English.