Complete Bibliography

1. Abbas, A., Implications of Theoretical Ideas Regarding Cold Fusion. Cold Fusion, 1996. 15: p. 8.

First Author: Abbas, A.
All Authors: Abbas, A.
Keywords: theory


2. Abbenseth, R. and H. Wipf, Thermal Expansion and Lattice Anharmonicity of Pd-H and Pd-D Alloys. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1980. 10: p. 353.

First Author: Abbenseth, R.
All Authors: Abbenseth, R., Wipf, H.
Keywords: Thermal Expansion, Lattice Parameter, PdH, PdD


3. ABC, "Good Morning America". 1994.

First Author: ABC
All Authors: ABC
Keywords: history


4. Abell, G.C. and A. Attalla, NMR Evidence for Solid-Fluid Transition Near 250 K of 3He Bubbles in Palladium Tritide. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1987. 59(9): p. 995.

First Author: Abell, G. C.
All Authors: Abell, G. C., Attalla, A.
Keywords: Pd tritium, Helium, PdT


5. Abell, G.C., et al., Helium release from aged palladium tritide. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 41(2): p. 1220.

First Author: Abell, G. C.
All Authors: Abell, G. C., Matson, L. K., Steinmeyer, R. H., Bowman Jr., R. C., Oliver, B. M.
Keywords: Helium diffusion, PdT


6. Aben, P.C. and W.G. Burgers, Surface Structure and Electrochemical Potential of Palladium while Absorbing Hydrogen in Aqueous Solution. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1989. 56: p. 1989.

First Author: Aben, P. C.
All Authors: Aben, P. C., Burgers, W. G.
Keywords: Pd, hydrogen, lattice Parameter, overvoltage, phase Diagram, PdH


7. Aberdam, D., et al., Limits on neutron emission following deuterium absorption into palladium and titanium. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1990. 65(10): p. 1196.

First Author: Aberdam, D.
All Authors: Aberdam, D., Avenier, M., Bagieu, G., Bouchez, J., Cavaignac, J. F., Collot, J., Durand, R., Faure, R., Favier, J., Kajfasz, E., Koang, D. H., Lefievre, B., Lesquoy, E., Pessard, H., Rouault, A., Senateur, J. P., Stutz, A., Weiss, F.
Keywords: neutron, method


8. Abriola, D., et al., Examination of nuclear measurement conditions in cold fusion experiments. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 265: p. 355.

First Author: Abriola, D.
All Authors: Abriola, D., Achterberg, E., Davidson, M., Debray, M., Etchegoyen, M. C., Fazzini, N., Niello, J. F., Ferrero, A. M. J., Filevich, A., Galia, M.C., Garavaglia, R., B., Garcia, Gettar, R. T., Gil, S., Grahmann, H., Huck, H., Jech, A., Kreiner, A. J., Macchiavelli, A. O., Magallanes, J. F., Maqueda, E., Marti, G., Pacheco, A. J., Percz, M. L., Pomar, C., Ramirez, M., Scassera, M.
Keywords: gamma emission, neutron, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, PdCl2


9. AbuTaha, A.F., Cold fusion - engineering perspectives. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 391.

First Author: AbuTaha, A. F.
All Authors: AbuTaha, A. F.
Keywords: lattice stress, stored energy critique


10. AbuTaha, A.F., Cold fusion - the heat mechanism. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 345.

First Author: AbuTaha, A. F.
All Authors: AbuTaha, A. F.
Keywords: critique lattice stress, stored energy fractofusion


11. Abyaneh, M., et al. Concerning the Modeling of Systems in Terms of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED): The Special Case of "Cold Fusion". in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Abyaneh, M.
All Authors: Abyaneh, M., Fleischmann, M., Del Giudice, E., Vitiello, G.
Keywords: theory


12. Ackermann, E., Indicators of Failed Information Epidemics in the Scientific Journal Literature: A Publication Analysis of Polywater and Cold Nuclear Fusion. Scientametrics, 2005. 66(3).

First Author: Ackermann, E.
All Authors: Ackermann, E.
Keywords: review


13. Adachi, G., H. Sakaguchi, and K. Nagao, (3)He and (4)He from D2 absorbed in LaNi5. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1992. 181: p. 469.

First Author: Adachi, G.
All Authors: Adachi, G., Sakaguchi, H., Nagao, K.
Keywords: Helium LiNi5, D2


14. Adamenko, S. and V. Vysotskii. Experimental Observation And A Possible Way To The Creation Of Anomalous Isotopes And Stable Superheavy Nuclei Via The Electron-Nucleus Collapse. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Adamenko, S.
All Authors: Adamenko, S., Vysotskii, V.
Keywords: superheavy nuclei

The problem of supercompression of a solid target to a collapse state is considered. The basic principles of construction and the parameters of an experimental setup ensuring such a supercompression are described. The model and method of creation and evolution of superheavy nuclear clusters with 250<A<500 and A>3000-5000 in the controlled collapse zone and in the volume of a remote accumulating screen are discussed. The evolution of such clusters results in the synthesis of isotopes with 1<A<500 and with anomalous spatial distribution in the volume of a remote screen. These phenomena were interpreted on the basis of the idea of the formation of a self-organizing and self-supporting collapse of the electron-nucleus plasma under the action of a coherent driver up to a state close to the nuclear substance.

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15. Adamenko, S. and V. Vysotskii. The Conditions And Realization Of Self-Similar Coulomb Collapse Of Condensed Target And Low-Energy Laboratory Nucleosynthesis. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Adamenko, S.
All Authors: Adamenko, S., Vysotskii, V.
Keywords: theory


16. Adamenko, S. and V. Vysotskii. Observation And Modeling Of The Ordered Motion Of Hypothetical Magnetically Charged Particles On The Multilayer Surface And The Problem Of Low-Energy Fusion. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Adamenko, S.
All Authors: Adamenko, S., Vysotskii, V.
Keywords: theory


17. Adamenko, S. and V. Vysotskii. The possible mechanism of creation of light magnetic monopoles in strong magnetic field of a laboratory system. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Adamenko, S.
All Authors: Adamenko, S., Vysotskii, V.
Keywords: theory

In this work the reasons and mechanism of the creation of unknown magneto-charged particles, which were observed in experiments on supercompression of condensed target in Kiev Electrodynamics Laboratory "Proton-21", are discussed. It is shown that these particles are most probably the hypothetical light magnetic monopoles that were introduced by George Lochak as magneto-excited neutrinos. The parameters of these particles (including mass of monopole and both size and binding energy of monopole-antimonopole pair) and the method of their creation are discussed and calculated.

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18. Adkisson, W.M., The Cause of and Happenings During Cold Fusion Events. 1991.

First Author: Adkisson, W. M.
All Authors: Adkisson, W. M.
Keywords: history


19. Adler, P.N., R.L. Schulte, and H. Margolin, Deuterium surface segregation in titanium alloys. Metal. Trans., 1990. 21A: p. 2003.

First Author: Adler, P. N.
All Authors: Adler, P. N., Schulte, R. L., Margolin, H.
Keywords: TiD, transmutation, D2, Ti


20. Adzic, R.R., et al. Tritium Measurements and Deuterium Loading in D2O Electrolysis With a Palladium Cathode. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Adzic, R. R.
All Authors: Adzic, R. R., Gervasio, I., Bae, I., Cahan, B., Yeager, E.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, tritium, OCV, loading, ICCF-1

ABSTRACT

Measurements have been performed to check on the Fleischmann-Pons (F-P) phenomena. They involved 1) measurements of tritium in the cell solution and the gas above it; and 2) determination of the D/Pd ratio by coulometry. Enhancement of tritium in the D2O solution was found in these two open glass cells, as well as in another four cells with Ni-anodes. The largest enhancement factor found was ~50. The neutron measurements were inconclusive.

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21. Afanaseyev, V.P., et al. On the Possibility of D-D Fusion Stimulation by High-Current Arc Discharge in Gas-Filled Metal. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Afanaseyev, V. P.
All Authors: Afanaseyev, V. P., Dyuzhev, G. A., Logatchev, A. A., Tsirkel', B. I., Shkolnik, S. M., Kazarinov, N., Solin, L. M.
Keywords: Ti, Pd, D2, gas discharge, neutron


22. Affatato, S., et al. Measurement of a Very Low Neutron Background Within a Significant Gamma-Ray Environment by Means of a Coincidence Spectrometer with n-g Pulse-Shape Discrimination. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Affatato, S.
All Authors: Affatato, S., Bertin, A., Bruschi, M., Bulgarelli, D., Bystritsky, V. M., Capponi, M., D'Antone, I., DeCastro, S., Galli, D., Marconi, U., Massa, I., Morganti, M., Moroni, C., Piccinini, M., Poli, M., Semprini-Cesari, N., Villa, M., Vitale, A., Zavattini, G., Zoccoli, A.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission, method


23. Afonichev, D. High-Frequency Radiation And Tritium Channel. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Afonichev, D.
All Authors: Afonichev, D.
Keywords: tritium, neutron, Ti

In the process of deformation at a temperature T=710C of titanium alloy samples preliminarily saturated by deuterium a radiation, which is not a neutron flow was detected. Electromagnetic radiation in the range of radio frequencies was detected in titanium alloy samples in the process of their saturation by deuterium. The probable mechanism of its occurrence may be a retardation of charged particles in the metallic matrix.

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24. Afonichev, D. Ascending Diffusion Or Transmutation. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Afonichev, D.
All Authors: Afonichev, D.
Keywords: transmutation

In any field of investigations new ideas in combination with newly developed equipment can provide advance results. In view of arising interest to cold nuclear fusion (CNF) [1] and searches for consequences of its occurrence the study of the interaction of hydrogen with metals has coincided with the wide spread of the micro-probe X-ray spectrum analysis. This analysis is performed during measurements of alloying element concentration [1] with resolution of about 1x1 µm2.

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25. Afonichev, D. and M. Murzinova, Indicator of the process of cold fusion. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2003. 28: p. 1005-1010.

First Author: Afonichev, D.
All Authors: Afonichev, D., Murzinova, M.
Keywords: Cold nuclear fusion, Titanium, Deuterium, Tritium, Electromagnetic radiation, Radio frequencies


26. Afonichev, D. About products of nucleus reactions during diffusion of deuterium through palladium membrane (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Afonichev, D.
All Authors: Afonichev, D.
Keywords: Tritium

On the basis of the results of our previous experiments on deformation of deuterium saturated titanium alloy samples and saturation of titanium alloys, the mechanism of cold nuclear fusion proceeding via the tritium channel is proposed.

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27. Afonichev, D. and E.G. Galkin. On the products of nucleus reactions formed during deuterium diffusion through palladium membrane. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Afonichev, D.
All Authors: Afonichev, D., Galkin, E. G.
Keywords:

We report on the results of experimental observation of interaction of deuterons in a palladium membrane in deuterium gas under the pressure of P=0,07 Mpa. The temperature fluctuation with an amplitude of DT=4¸50 C was observed. After a 42 hour experiment, a significant increase in the number of of tritium (3T) atoms, N>109, has been revealed, while no traces of 4He have been found.

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28. Agelao, G. and M.C. Romano, Heat and helium production during exothermic reactions between gases through palladium geometrical elements loaded with hydrogen. Fusion Technol., 2000. 38: p. 224.

First Author: Agelao, G.
All Authors: Agelao, G., Romano, M. C.
Keywords: D2 Pd foil, film health


29. Agnello, M., et al. Search for Neutron Emission in Titanium-Deuterium Systems. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Agnello, M.
All Authors: Agnello, M., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Feliciello, A., Iazzi, F., Minetti, B., Cherubini, R., Haque, A. M. I., Ricci, R. A.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, D2


30. Agnello, M., et al. Improvement of the TOFUS Apparatus. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Agnello, M.
All Authors: Agnello, M., Iazzi, F., Minetti, B., Botta, E., Bressani, T., Brunasso, O., Calvo, D., Dattola, D., Gianotti, P., Lamberti, C., Zecchina, A.
Keywords: apparatus, method, neutron, ICCF-2


31. Agnello, M., et al. Measurement of 2.5 MeV Neutron Emission from Ti/D and Pd/D Systems. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Agnello, M.
All Authors: Agnello, M., Botta, E., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Feliciello, A., Gianotti, P., Iazzi, F., Lamberti, C., Minetti, B., Zecchina, A.
Keywords: Ti, Pd, neutron, D2, ICCF-3

A new set of measurements of neutron emission from gas (D2 and H2) loaded Ti and Pd systems has been carried out in the TOFUS experiment. The temperature and pressure controls of the gas loading apparatus were improved. The results concerning the Ti/D system show the presence of a small 2.5 MeV neutron emission, with a signal having a statistical significance of ~ 5 sigma. The results on the Pd/D system doesn't show a statistically significant signal (less ~ 2 sigma).

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32. Agostino, R.G., et al. Electronic Fingerprint of D Site Occupation in Pd Deuteride. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Agostino, R. G.
All Authors: Agostino, R. G., Filosa, R., Formoso, V., Liberti, G., De Ninno, A., D'Acapito, F., Colonna, S.
Keywords: Pd, PdD, structure, ICCF-8


33. Ahern, B.S., K.H. Johnson, and J. Clark, H. R., Method of Maximizing Anharmonic Oscillations in Deuterated Alloys. 1995: US Patent #5,411,654.

First Author: Ahern, B. S.
All Authors: Ahern, B. S., Johnson, K. H., Clark, Jr. , H. R.
Keywords:


34. Ahern, B.S. Energy Localization The key to Understanding Energy in Nanotechnology & Nature (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Ahern, B. S.
All Authors: Ahern, B. S.
Keywords: Theory

Nature assembles ordered structures out of chaos without a temperature gradient or energy input.

Systems generally go from ordered to chaotic.

How does nature go from the chaotic to ordered?

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35. Aiello, S., et al., Nuclear fusion experiment in palladium charged by deuterium gas. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 115.

First Author: Aiello, S.
All Authors: Aiello, S., De Filippo, E., Lanzano, G., Lo Nigro, S., Pagano, A.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, D2, Pd, gamma emission, particle emission


36. Aina, R. and U. Mastromatteo. Investigation of anomalous densities of high-energy alpha-particles tracks in CR-39 detectors during electrolysis of heavy water on palladium cathodes (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Aina, R.
All Authors: Aina, R., Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

No meaningful evidence of specific particle emission with E>2.5 MeV during D2O electrolysis (comparable track count), with or without Pd codeposition.

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37. Aizawa, H., et al., Detecting Energetic Charged Particle in D2O and H2O Electrolysis Using a Simple Arrangement of Cathode and CR-39. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Aizawa, H.
All Authors: Aizawa, H., Mita, K., Mizukami, D., Uno, H., Yamada, H.
Keywords: Charged particle, CR-39

Electrolysis of D2O and H2O solutions is carried out under several DC current patterns using a Ni film cathode. A CR-39 track detector is set in close contact with the cathode to detect an energetic charged particle. An impressive increasing in number of etch pit is occasionally observed.

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38. Akimoto, T., et al. Temperature dependency on counting efficiency of NE213 liquid scintillator for low level neutron measurement. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Akimoto, T.
All Authors: Akimoto, T., Mizuno, T., Saito, T., Murai, I., Kumada, T.
Keywords: neutron, detection, method, NE213, ICCF-6


39. Akita, H., et al. Electrolytic Hydrogen/Deuterium Absorption into Pd, Pd-Rh, and Pd-Ag Alloys in Fuel Cell Type Closed Cell. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Akita, H.
All Authors: Akita, H., Tsuchida, Y., Nakata, T., Kubota, A., Kobayashi, M., Yamamoto, Y., Hasegawa, N., Hayakawa, N., Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: Pd, Pd-Ag, Pd-Rh, loading, Au, ICCF-4, electrolysis, D2O, H2O


40. Al Katrib, A.K. and D.J. Nagel. Can Water be the Origin of Excess Energy? in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Al Katrib, A. K.
All Authors: Al Katrib, A. K., Nagel, D. J.
Keywords:

This study was initiated due to the concern of some critics of LENR research that small energy changes in many H2O or D2O molecules in electrochemical cells can explain observed excess heat. More than three hundred LENR papers from 1989 to 2008 that reported excess energy were acquired and reviewed to extract quantitative results and other information. Excess energies and cell volumes were found in 17 papers. These data were used to compute eV per water molecule values. Most experiments showed excess energy outputs that would lead to ratios below the vibrational energy of water molecules at room temperature (0.04 eV/molecule). However, 65% of the papers, which reported both excess energies and cell volumes, indicated values significantly higher. The highest reported value was 42.6 eV/molecule. Eleven ratios are far beyond what is plausible for water to be the source of anomalous heat. Therefore, it is concluded that some unknown rearrangement of water molecules in many LENR experiments is not the source of excess heat.

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41. Albagli, D., et al., Measurement and analysis of neutron and gamma-ray emission rates, other fusion products, and power in electrochemical cells having Pd cathodes. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 133.

First Author: Albagli, D.
All Authors: Albagli, D., Ballinger, R. G., Cammarata, V., Chen, X., Crooks, R. M., Fiore, C., Gaudreau, M. P. J., Hwang, I., Li, C. K., Linsay, P., Luckhardt, S. C., Parker, R. R., Petrasso, R. D., Schloh, M., Wenzel, K. W., Wrighton, M. S.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd helium neutron- heat-, gamma emission, D2O, MIT


42. Alber, D., et al., Search for neutrons from cold nuclear fusion. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1989. 333: p. 319.

First Author: Alber, D.
All Authors: Alber, D., Boebel, O., Schwarz, C., Duwe, H., Hilscher, D., Homeyer, H., Jahnke, U., Spellmeyer, B.
Keywords: neutron, Jones


43. Alberg, M.A., et al., Upper limits to fusion rates of isotopic hydrogen molecules in palladium. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. 41: p. 2544.

First Author: Alberg, M. A.
All Authors: Alberg, M. A., Wilets, L., Rehr, J. J., Mustre de Leon, J.
Keywords: theory, Born-Oppenheimer, Pd fusion rate


44. Albers, P., et al., Investigations of palladium catalysts on different carbon supports. J. Catal., 1999. 181: p. 145.

First Author: Albers, P.
All Authors: Albers, P., Burmeister, R., Seibold, K., Prescher, G., Parker, S. F., Ross, D. K.
Keywords: catalyst, Pd


45. Aleksan, R., et al., Limits on electrochemically induced fusion of deuterium by neutron flux measurements. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 234: p. 389.

First Author: Aleksan, R.
All Authors: Aleksan, R., Avenier, M., Bagieu, G., Bouchez, J., Cavaignac, J. F., Collot, J., Cousinou, M. C., Declais, Y., Dufour, Y., Durand, R., Faure, R., Favier, J., Kajfasz, E., De Kerret, H., Koang, D. H., Lefievre, B., Lesquoy, E., Mallet, J., Nagy, E., Obolensky, M., Pessard, H., Pierre, F., Stutz, A., Wuethrick, J. P.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, D2O


46. Alekseev, V.A., et al., Tritium production in the interaction of dense streams of deuterium plama with metal surfaces. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1995. 21: p. 231.

First Author: Alekseev, V. A.
All Authors: Alekseev, V. A., Vasil'ev, V. I., Romodanov, V. A., Ryshkov, Yu. F., Rylov, S. V., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Ya. B., Strunnikov, V. M.
Keywords: Ti, V, Fe, Zr, Nb, tritium, gas discharge


47. Alessandrello, A., et al., Search for cold fusion induced by electrolysis in palladium. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1990. A103: p. 1617.

First Author: Alessandrello, A.
All Authors: Alessandrello, A., Bellotti, E., Cattadori, C., Antonione, C., Bianchi, G., Rondinini, S., Torchio, S., Fiorini, E., Guiliani, A., Ragazzi, S., Zanotti, L., Gatti, C.
Keywords: gamma emission, neutron, tritium, fractofusion, D2, Helium electrolysis, heat-, negative


48. Alexander, K.F., Cold nuclear fusion. Wissensch. Fortschr., 1989. 39: p. 9 (in German).

First Author: Alexander, K. F.
All Authors: Alexander, K. F.
Keywords: Review


49. Alexandrov, D. Heavy Electrons in Nano-Structure Clusters of Disordered Solids. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Alexandrov, D.
All Authors: Alexandrov, D.
Keywords: theory

The existence of heavy electrons is found theoretically in nano-structure clusters of disordered solids. The basis of the investigation is the electron band structures of disordered semiconductors previously determined by the author. The existence of electron energy pockets is found for the electrons in the conduction bands of these semiconductors that are nano-confining potential valleys of dimensions in the range of the primitive cell. The electron wave function of the confined electron is determined in when the electron interacts with local electrical field that is external for the energy pocket, and the average velocity of the electron is found. An expression for electron mass of an electron localized in pocket is derived. It is found that this electron mass is greater than the electron mass at rest and the confined electrons are designated heavy electrons. The possibility of interactions of protons with heavy electrons is discussed.

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50. Alguero, M., et al. On the Subsistence of Anomalous Nuclear Effects After Interrupting the Electrolysis in F-P Type Experiments with Deuterated Ti Cathodes. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Alguero, M.
All Authors: Alguero, M., Fernandez, F., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti D2O, loading neutron ICCF-4 electrolysis


51. Alguero, M., et al. An Experimental Method to Measure the Rate of H(D)-Absorption by a Pd Cathode During the Electrolysis of an Aqueous Solution: Advantages and Disadvantages. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Alguero, M.
All Authors: Alguero, M., Fernandez, J. F., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: D/Pd, method loading, Pd, electrolysis ICCF-5

An experimental set up to measure the rate of BCD) uptake by a Pd cathode during the electrolysis of an aqueous electrolyte has been built and its behavior is analyzed. The experimental procedure is based on the pressure changes that take place within a closed electrolytic cell during the hydride (deuteride) formation. Calibration of the system has been done by accomplishing electrolysis with two Pl electrodes and the error sources have been studied. A protocol to be used in Pd hydrogenation (deuteration) is defined. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of this experimental m ethod against measurements of the Pd electric resistance variations are briefly discussed.

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52. Alguero, M., et al., An interpretation of some postelectrolysis nuclear effects in deuterated titanium. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 390.

First Author: Alguero, M.
All Authors: Alguero, M., Fernandez, J. F., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, Ti, D2O fractofusion


53. Allard, K., et al., Application of the Electron-Donation Model for Hydrogen Absorption to Palladium-Rich Alloys. Hydrogen-Gold-Palladium. J. Phys. Chem., 1968. 72: p. 136.

First Author: Allard, K.
All Authors: Allard, K., Maeland, A. J., Simons, J. W., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: H, electron Structure Au-Pd Phase Diagram, loading


54. Altaiskii, M.V., et al., Fluctuational enhancement of quantum mechanical and wave barrier penetrability and some physical consequences. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1990. 52(1): p. 78 (in Russian).

First Author: Altaiskii, M. V.
All Authors: Altaiskii, M. V., Artekha, S. N., Barts, B. I., Bar'yakhtar, V. G., Moiseev, S. S.
Keywords: Theory fluctuations vibration distance


55. Amato, I., Cold Fusion Keeps Its Head Just Above Water. Science News, 1989. 13: p. 278.

First Author: Amato, I.
All Authors: Amato, I.
Keywords: history


56. Amato, I., Cold Fusion Saga: Trials and Tribulations. Science News, 1990. 137(24): p. 374.

First Author: Amato, I.
All Authors: Amato, I.
Keywords: history


57. Amato, I., If Not Cold Fusion, Try Fracto-Fusion? Science News, 1990. 137: p. 87.

First Author: Amato, I.
All Authors: Amato, I.
Keywords: history, fractofusion


58. Amato, I., Cold Fusion:Wanted Dead And Alive, in Science News. 1990. p. 14.

First Author: Amato, I.
All Authors: Amato, I.
Keywords: review, newspaper


59. Amato, I., Cluster Fusion: Close But No Cigar. Science, 1992. 256(5054): p. 178.

First Author: Amato, I.
All Authors: Amato, I.
Keywords: history


60. Ambadkar, A. and J. Dash, Electrolysis Of D2O With A Palladium Cathode Compared With Electrolysis Of H2O With A Platinum Electrode: Procedure And Experimental Details. 2003, Portland State University: Porland, OR.

First Author: Ambadkar, A.
All Authors: Ambadkar, A., Dash, J.
Keywords: heat

A description of experimental procedures used by Ambadkar and Dash at the Low Energy Nuclear Laboratory (LENL), Portland State University.

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61. Amini, F. Production Method for Violent TCB Jet Plasma from Cavity. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Amini, F.
All Authors: Amini, F.
Keywords: cavitation, ultrasonic, heat

1. Introduction

One of our hydropower plants (Masjed - E - Soleyman, Iran) has four Francis turbines. Two units on the right side (looking downstream) share a common penstock and a common long tailrace tunnel, and the other two units on the left also share a penstock and tailrace tunnel. Upon commissioning of one unit, the hydraulic transient in the draft tube during load rejection above 75% was excessive. It was apparent that the guide vane closing law that had been adopted would result in water column separation during load rejection at full power. Tests with a slower closing rate showed that the risk of column separation was reduced, but a violent surge developed in the draft tube close to maximum over speed. The energy level and cavity volume that are produced are much more than those of regular TCB (Transient Cavitation Bubbles) experiments, and therefore, we should expect more intense effects than a regular TCB jet produces.

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62. Amini, F., The Study of Cavitation Bubble-Surface Plasmon Resonance Interaction For LENR and Biochemical processes. 2013, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Amini, F.
All Authors: Amini, F.
Keywords: Cavitation

The cavitation bubble resonator (CBR) can be used as a new coupling technique. The purpose of this paper is to study coupled SPR-CBR, coupled CBR-Nickel and coupled CBR-Biochemical. It is expected the cavitation bubble resonator assists a pseudo coupling process. The design of nano CBR cell can play a significant role in the sciences of therapeutic drugs and power generation.

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63. An, X.W., et al., Calorimetric investigation of electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium. Thermochim. Acta, 1991. 183: p. 107.

First Author: An, X. W.
All Authors: An, X. W., Yan, H. K., Han, B. X., Guo, D., Xie, D. Y., Zhu, Q. H., Hu, R. H.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, heat, D2O, H2O


64. An, H.K., et al., Analysis of deformed palladium cathodes resulting from heavy water electrolysis. Fusion Technol., 1995. 27: p. 408.

First Author: An, H. K.
All Authors: An, H. K., Jeong, E. I., Hong, J. H., Lee, Y.
Keywords: Pd Ti Au surface layer heat electrolysis D2O


65. Andermann, G. Theoretical Model for Low Temperature Nuclear Events. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Andermann, G.
All Authors: Andermann, G.
Keywords: theory


66. Andermann, G. A Theoretical Model (Nu-Q) for Rationalizing Electrochemically Induced Nuclear Events Observed in Deuterium Loaded Pd Cathodes. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Andermann, G.
All Authors: Andermann, G.
Keywords: theory dineutron ICCF-1


67. Anderson, I.S., D.K. Ross, and C.J. Carlile, The Structure of the g Phase of Palladium Deuteride. Phys. Lett. A, 1978. 68: p. 249.

First Author: Anderson, I. S.
All Authors: Anderson, I. S., Ross, D. K., Carlile, C. J.
Keywords: structure, PdD, lattice Parameter, gamma phase


68. Anderson, G.C., Clandestine NSF Panel Warms to Cold Fusion. The Scientist, 1989.

First Author: Anderson, G. C.
All Authors: Anderson, G. C.
Keywords: history


69. Anderson, R.E., et al. Neutron Measurements in Search of Cold Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Anderson, R. E.
All Authors: Anderson, R. E., Goulding, C. A., Johnson, M. W., Butterfield, K. B., Gottesfeld, S., Baker, D. A., Springer, T. E., Garzon, F. H., Bolton, R. D., Leonard, E. M., Chancellor, T.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, D2, D2O, neutron


70. Anderson, R.E. and S.E. Jones. Comments on an Experiment at Yale on Cold Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Anderson, R. E.
All Authors: Anderson, R. E., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: neutron, error, critique


71. Anderson, D.M. and J. Bockris, Cold Fusion at Texas A&M. Science, 1990. 249: p. 463.

First Author: Anderson, D. M.
All Authors: Anderson, D. M., Bockris, J.
Keywords: history


72. Anderson, J., et al., Letters and Response about Cold Fusion at Texas A&M. Science, 1990. 249: p. 463-465.

First Author: Anderson, J.
All Authors: Anderson, J., Bockris, J., Worledge, D. H., Taubes, G.
Keywords: history


73. Anderson, M., Big Idea: Bring Back the "Cold Fusion" Dream, in Discover Magazine. 2012.

First Author: Anderson, M.
All Authors: Anderson, M.
Keywords: Theory


74. Andreani, R., La fusione 'fredda'" ("'Cold' fusion"). Energ. Nucl. (Rome), 1989. 6: p. 8 (in Italian).

First Author: Andreani, R.
All Authors: Andreani, R.
Keywords: history


75. Andresen, B.D., et al., Potentially explosive organic reaction mechanisms in Pd/D2O electrochemical cells. Chem. Health Safety, 1994. 1: p. 44.

First Author: Andresen, B. D.
All Authors: Andresen, B. D., Whipple, R. E., Alcaraz, A., Haas, J. S., Grant, P. M.
Keywords: explosion, SRI, accident


76. Angelone, M. Neutron Detection: Principles, Methods, Issues (and Tips) (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Angelone, M.
All Authors: Angelone, M.
Keywords: neutron

In this paper a very brief review of the main physical laws and basic detection principles for neutrons are addressed. The main issues to be faced when measuring pulsed "neutron emission", as claimed in most experiments, are addressed too.
It is not in the author's intention to investigate whether or not neutrons are actually emitted in CMNS phenomena, however, an "ideal"; experiment that could allow to unambiguous measurement of neutrons from a CMNS type experiment will be outlined.

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77. Angelone, M. Neutron Detection: Principles, Methods, Issues (and Tips). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Angelone, M.
All Authors: Angelone, M.
Keywords:

The production and detection of neutrons in the so called "cold fusion" phenomena is claimed since the first announcement by Fleischmann and Pons in 1989. In the last twenty years the same claim has
been made by other authors despite they were operating under different experimental conditions. However, most of the scientific community is yet sceptic about the actual emission of neutrons from events that in a more general statement are known as "low energy nuclear reactions in condensed matte- (CMNS) and the methods adopted by the various authors are often subjected to several criticisms. Indeed CMNS phenomena are rather complex and relate with several different subjects so synergy among various experts is necessary. Among these subjects, neutron detections requires a particular care and expertise because the measurements are carried out with a very low signal to noise ratio. In this paper a very brief review of the main physical laws and basic detection principles for neutrons are addressed. It is not in the autho-s intention to investigate whether or not neutrons are actually emitted in CMNS phenomena, however, some tips that could allow to unambiguous measurement of neutrons from a CMNS type experiment will be addressed too.

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78. Anghaie, S., P. Froelich, and H.J. Monkhurst, On fusion/fission chain reactions in the Fleischmann-Pons 'cold fusion' experiment. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 500.

First Author: Anghaie, S.
All Authors: Anghaie, S., Froelich, P., Monkhurst, H. J.
Keywords: theory, fission,, fusion Li chain reaction


79. Antanasijevic, R.D., et al., Preliminary observations on possible implications of new Bohr orbits (resulting from electromagnetic spin-spin and spin-orbit coupling) in 'cold' quantum mechanical fusion processes appearing in strong 'plasma focus' and 'capillary fusion' experiments. Phys. Lett. A, 1993. 180: p. 25.

First Author: Antanasijevic, R. D.
All Authors: Antanasijevic, R. D., Lakicevic, I., Maric, Z., Zevic, D., Zaric, A., Vigier, J. P.
Keywords: Theory spin-spin, neutron, Pd, gas discharge electron mass


80. Antanasijevic, R.D., et al. "Cold Fusion" in Terms of New Quantum Chemistry: The Role of Magnetic Interactions in Dense Physica Media. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Antanasijevic, R. D.
All Authors: Antanasijevic, R. D., Konjevic, D. J., Maric, Z., Sevic, D. M., Vigier, J. P., Zaric, A. J.
Keywords: neutron, X-ray, plasma, gas discharge, ICCF-5

Various recently reported "break even" in different types of "cold fusion" experiments have a common physical origin if one assumes that one should add, in dense states, the action of magnetic interactions of oriented nuclear spins to the usual Coulomb forces. In that case one is led to predict a) the existence of new "tight" quantum molecular states (associated to new "tight" Bohr orbits) which correspond to the emission of X--ray lines and excess energy b) the associated apparition of a certain amount of nuclear fusion reactions due to those magnetic interactions and enhanced tunneling by strong electron concentrations. They appear in the form of neutron (or γ) bursts and various types of "ashes" of particular nuclear fusion reactions in electrolysis, glow discharge, capillary devices, resonance sonoluminescence and plasma discharge experiments. They both contribute to observable energy excess in amounts which vary which chosen set-ups.

To explore this assumption two experiments are presented here i.e. 1) discharge experiments in plasma focus and "capillary fusion" devices (i.e. nuclear fusion) of 10^8 neutrons/burst 2) X-ray measurements in deuterium plasma focus which confirm the existence of new Bohr orbits.

New possible experiments to check it are also briefly discussed.

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81. Antonov, V.E., et al., Phasometric T-P Diagram of the Rh-H System up to 400 C and Pressure of 67 kbar. Doky. Akad. Sci. SSSR, 1979. 248: p. 131.

First Author: Antonov, V. E.
All Authors: Antonov, V. E., Belash, I. T., Koltighin, V. M., Poniatovskii, E. G.
Keywords: Rh, H, phase Diagram


82. Antonov, V.E., et al., The Solubility of Hydrogen in the Platinum Metals under High Pressure. Platinum Met. Rev., 1984. 28: p. 158.

First Author: Antonov, V. E.
All Authors: Antonov, V. E., Belash, I. T., Malyshev, V. Yu., Ponyatovsky, E. G.
Keywords: Mn, Fe, Co, Mo, Tc, Re, Au, Ru, Os, Ir, Pt, Pd, H, solubility, phase Diagram, structure, resistance, pressure


83. Antonov, A.V., et al., An attempt to observe cold thermonuclear fusion during the electrolysis of heavy water. Sov. Phys. Lebedev Inst. Rep., 1990(5): p. 52.

First Author: Antonov, A. V.
All Authors: Antonov, A. V., Benetskii, B. A., Ginodman, V. B., Zherikhina, L. N., Klyachko, A. V., Konobeevskii, E. S., Mordovskoi, M. V., Popov, V. I., Rozantsev, A. I., Tskhovrebov, A. M.
Keywords: neutron, electrolysis, Pd, D2O


84. Antonov, V.E., et al., The Pd-Pt-H System: Phase Transformations at High Pressure and Superconductivity. Phys. Stat. Sol. A, 1993. 78: p. 137.

First Author: Antonov, V. E.
All Authors: Antonov, V. E., Antonova, T. E., Belash, I. T., Ponyatovsky, E. G., Rashupkin, V. I.
Keywords: Pd, Pt, H, phase diagram, superconductivity, resistivity, lattice parameter


85. Anufriev, G.S. and B.S. Boltenkov, Helium isotopes and hydrogen in aluminium and other metals. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1991. 56(2): p. 73 (in Russian).

First Author: Anufriev, G. S.
All Authors: Anufriev, G. S., Boltenkov, B. S.
Keywords: 3He/4He, helium, tritium Al, Ag, Ni, electrolysis


86. Aoki, T., Y. Kurata, and H. Ebihara. Study of Concentrations of Helium and Tritium in Electrolytic Cells with Excess Heat Generations. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Aoki, T.
All Authors: Aoki, T., Kurata, Y., Ebihara, H.
Keywords: heat+, tritium, helium, Pd, D2O, current density, gamma emission, neutron, ICCF-4, electrolysis, negative

Concentrations of helium and tritium in gas and liquid phases in calorimetric cells with excess heat generations were measured. Values of factor F (nuclear ash) defined as ratio of amount of heat released by particular nuclear reactions to the excess heat, were calculated to be F(He in gas phase) ≈ (416)×10^-3 and F(T in liquid phase) ≈ (86)×10^-10, and upper limit of F(T in gas phase) ≤ 1×10^-6. These extremely small values suggested either that (1) the nuclear reactions might occur in deep inside of the Pd cathode, or (2) the major amount of the detected excess heat could not match with the heat expected from the nuclear reactions if the reactions occurred on the surface of Pd cathodes.

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87. Aoki, T., et al. Search for neutrons emitted from sodium tungsten bronzes. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Aoki, T.
All Authors: Aoki, T., Kurata, Y., Ebihara, H., Yoshikawa, N.
Keywords: neutron, W-bronze, NaWO3, ICCF-6


88. Aoki, T., et al., Search for nuclear products of the D + D nuclear fusion. Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 6(1): p. 22.

First Author: Aoki, T.
All Authors: Aoki, T., Kurata, Y., Ebihara, H., Yoshikawa, N.
Keywords: Pd, tungsten bronze, electrolysis, D2, heat, neutron, gamma emission, tritium, helium, NaWO3, negative

Nuclear products which were caused by the D + D nuclear fusion reaction were searched in electrolytic cells and in gas phase of Pd + D systems. Measurements of nuclear products were made for gamma-ray, neutron, tritium and helium. To detect neutron, liquid scintillation and 3He counters were used. For gamma-ray measurement, a NaI detector was used. For tritium concentration measurement in gas phase, a gas proportional chamber was fabricated and operated in low background level. The signals of those detectors were fed to Pulse Height Analyzer and recorded as energy spectra which were carefully compared with background spectra. A different type of neutron hunting was also tried in the instants of pressurizing and depressurizing the deuterium gas in crystal. A large size crystal of tungsten bronze was prepared for the experiment.

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89. Aoyama, T., et al., Highly reliable low-level neutron detection using 3He proportional counters. Radioisot., 1991. 40: p. 188.

First Author: Aoyama, T.
All Authors: Aoyama, T., Mori, C., Uritani, A., Matsui, T., Naito, K.
Keywords: neutron, electrolysis, method


90. Apak, R., Conformism in chemistry and the results. Kim. Sanayi, 1989. 31: p. 157-8 (in Turkish, Engl. abstr.).

First Author: Apak, R.
All Authors: Apak, R.
Keywords: history


91. Apicella, M., et al. Reproducibility of Excess of Power and Evidence of 4He in Palladium Foils Loaded with Deuterium (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Apicella, M.
All Authors: Apicella, M., Branover, H., Castagna, E., Dardik, I., El-Boher, A., Lesin, S., Mazzitelli, G., McKubre, M. C. H., Sarto, F., Sibilia, C., Santoro, E., Tanzella, F. L., Violante, V., Zilov, T.
Keywords: heat, helium

This presentation was given at the March APS meeting in Los Angeles, CA, March 24, 2005. Published by www.newenergytimes.com. Topics covered include: Material Science & Excess of Power Reproducibility, Surface Electronic Excitations with Lasers Trigger, Excess Power Reproducibility, Experimental Results

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92. Apicella, M., et al. Some recent results at ENEA. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Apicella, M.
All Authors: Apicella, M., Castagna, E., Capobianco, L., D'Aulerio, L., Mazzitelli, G., Sarto, F., Rosada, A., Santoro, E., Violante, V., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Sibilia, C.
Keywords: Excess heat

Recent research activity at ENEA, in the field of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, has been oriented to material science and Laser triggering in order to increase the reproducibility of excess of power production during loading of palladium with deuterium. Isoperibolic calorimetry in gas phase, isoperibolic and flow calorimetry with electrochemical systems have been carried out. Nuclear ashes detection was done by means of high resolution and high sensitivity mass spectrometer. Material science studies allowed to obtain a palladium showing high solubility for hydrogen isotopes and giving deuterium concentration at equilibrium larger than 0.95 (as D/Pd atomic fraction) with a reproducibility larger than 90%. Excess of power production by using the above-mentioned material achieves a reproducibility up to 30% without triggering. Laser irradiation with a proper polarization seems to have a significant role in further increasing of the excess of power production reproducibility. Heat bursts exhibit an integrated energy at least 10 times greater than the sum of all possible chemical reactions within a closed cell. The energy gain calculated at the end of the experiments is observed with deuterium but not with hydrogen. Preliminary measurements give a 4He signal in reasonable agreement with the expected values by assuming a D + D = 4He + heat (24 MeV for event) reaction.

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93. Apicella, M., et al. Mass spectrometry: critical aspects related to the particles detection in the Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Apicella, M.
All Authors: Apicella, M., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Sarto, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: mass spectrometer, method

SUMMARY * Mass spectrometry - potentiality of the technique - details on the measurement * Critical aspects and experimental requirements for: - mass spectrometer - measurment apparatus * Experimental set up at ENEA and some results

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94. Apicella, M., et al. Mass Spectrometry: Critical Aspects of Particles Detection related to Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Apicella, M.
All Authors: Apicella, M., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Sarto, F., Violante, V.
Keywords:

The detection of transmutations in Fleischmann and Pons experiments is a critical issue in order to assess the nuclear origin of the excess heat production. A very accurate study in this field has been carried out in ENEA, aimed to investigate the possible occurrence of nuclear transmutation in nickel hydride thin films. The research work, which took several years and involved an international collaboration between many research laboratories, came to the conclusion that the experiments didn't produce any evidence of transmutation experiments, pointing out the importance of using state of the art instrumentation in performing such a kind of study.

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95. Apostol, M. and I.A. Dorobantu, On a competition between solid state and nuclear scale energies. A possible theoretical approach to cold fusion in palladium and other transitional elements. Rev. Roum. Phys., 1989. 34: p. 233.

First Author: Apostol, M.
All Authors: Apostol, M., Dorobantu, I. A.
Keywords: Theory


96. Appleby, A.J., et al. Evidence for Excess Heat Generation Rates During Electrolysis of D2O in LiOD Using a Palladium Cathode-A Microcalorimetric Study. in Workshop on Cold Fusion Phenomena. 1989. Santa Fe, NM.

First Author: Appleby, A. J.
All Authors: Appleby, A. J., Srinivasan, S., Kim, Y. J., Murphy, O. J., Martin, C. R.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis


97. Appleby, A.J., et al. Anomalous Calorimetric Results During Long-Term Evolution of Deuterium on Palladium from Alkaline Deuteroxide Electrolyte. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Appleby, A. J.
All Authors: Appleby, A. J., Kim, Y. J., Murphy, O. J., Srinivasan, S.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis surface effect H2O Li6 Na current density helium ICCF-1

Convincing evidence of anomalous thermal fluxes from palladium cathodes in LiOD solutions is provided. When combined with other evidence for tritium formation, these argue for the existence of solid state nuclear processes in this system. Compared with previous work, effects are only seen at a relatively low level, and they appear to decrease with decreasing electrode surface/volume ratio. They are also observed in a sealed cell with internal gas recombination, which requires no thermodynamic corrections. The effect of lithium ion is seen to be specific, and the effect seems to involve only the palladium surface layers.

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98. Arachi, Y., et al., Structural analysis of nano-sized-Pd/ZrO2 composit after H(D) absorption. Solid State Ionics, 2006. 177: p. 1861-1864.

First Author: Arachi, Y.
All Authors: Arachi, Y., Emura, S., Omura, A., Nunogaki, M., Asai, T., Yamaura, S., Inoue, A., Arata, Y.
Keywords: Hydrogen absorption, XAFS, Nano-sized composite


99. Arapi, A., et al. Experimental observation of the new elements production in the deuterated and/or hydride palladium electrodes, exposed to low energy DC glow discharge. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Arapi, A.
All Authors: Arapi, A., Ito, R., Sato, N., Itagaki, M., Narita, S., Yamada, H.
Keywords: glow diacharge, D2, H2, transmutation, Ba, Ni, Li, Be, ICCF-9

Elemental and isotopic structures of the palladium cathode before and after experiment under DC glow discharge were investigated by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Production of new elements with various atomic masses and impurities increase were surveyed. By analyzing obtained results, it was found that beryllium and nickel for deuterium-palladium system, and lithium, nickel and barium for hydrogen-palladium system, were generated during glow discharge experiments.

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100. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Achievement of intense 'cold fusion' reaction. Kaku Yugo Kenkyu, 1989. 62: p. 398 (In Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: on-off effect, electrolysis, Pd, neutron, heat


101. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Achievement of an intense cold fusion reaction. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 95.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory, method, Pd, electrolysis, neutron, hardness heat+


102. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Achievement of intense 'cold' fusion reaction. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1990. 66: p. 1.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, pressure, heat+, neutron+, D2O, fractofusion


103. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Corroborating evidence for 'cold' fusion reaction. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1990. 66(B): p. 110.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: on-off effect, electrolysis, Pd, neutron, Pd-Ni, layer


104. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang. "Cold" Fusion in a Complex Cathode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd, Ni, D2, layer, neutron, electrolysis, D2O, H2O ICCF-3

A new cathode was developed, consisting of a nickel ride with a palladium layer applied by plasma spraying, the palladium layer activates the surface functions of the deuteride it cathode. High reproducibility of a "cold" fusion reaction is confirmed by using this cathode.

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105. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Reproducible "Cold" Fusion Reaction Using A Complex Cathode. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 287.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, energy


106. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, 'Cold' fusion caused by a weak 'on-off effect'. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1992. 66: p. 33.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: on-off effect, electrolysis, Pd, neutron, theory


107. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, 'Cold' fusion in deuterated complex cathode. Kaku Yugo Kenkyu, 1992. 67((5)): p. 432 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Ni, Pd, electrolysis, heat, layer, D2O, neutron H2O


108. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Excess heat in a double structure deuterated cathode. Kaku Yugo Kenkyu, 1993. 69((8)): p. 963 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: complex cathode, Pd, electrolysis, heat+, pressure, Pd-black


109. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, A new energy generated in DS-cathode with 'Pd-black'. Koon Gakkaishi, 1994. 20(4): p. 148 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd-black heat+ particle

Abstract: It was verified that a new kind of energy is caused by "Spillover-Deuterium" generated in a double structure (DS)-cathode with "Pd-black". Using this cathode, the authors confirmed the sustained production of a significantly abnormal amount of energy over a period of several months that could not be ascribed to chemical reaction energy. The chemical reaction energy of 0.1 [mol] Pd-black used is only 4[kJ], but more than 200[MJ] of excess energy was continuously produced for over 3000 [hr] at an average rate of 50-100 [kJ/hr] using a DS-cathode with a same quantity of Pd-black. Intermittent operation over a period of two years using this structure proved the complete reproducibility of these results.

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110. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, A new energy caused by "Spillover-deuterium". Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1994. 70 ser. B: p. 106.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd-black, D2 surface analysis, heat+, structure


111. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang. Excess Heat and Mechanism in Cold Fusion Reaction. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory heat+ ICCF-5 particle lattice quake

The authors have proposed a new "Model" which can reasonably explain the existence of Cold Fusion Reaction and also verify the generation of tremendous excess energy in the DS-cathode, which is fifty thousand times higher than chemical reaction energy. The new model is named "Latticequake Model". Cold fusion is caused by high energy deuterium similar to "hot" fusion.

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112. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Achievement of solid-state plasma fusion ("cold fusion"). Koon Gakkaishi, 1995. 21((6)): p. 303 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd D2O, Helium, heat+, Pd-black


113. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Peculiar relation between hot plasma fusion and solid-state plasma fusion ("cold fusion"). Koon Gakkaishi, 1995. 21: p. 130 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory, heat+, Pd-black, D2O electrolysis


114. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Cold fusion caused by 'lattice quake'. Koon Gakkaishi, 1995. 21: p. 43 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory Pd-black D2O electrolysis, heat+


115. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Cold fusion reactions driven by 'Latticequake'. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1995. 71: p. 98.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory


116. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang. Achievement of Solid-State Plasma Fusion ("Cold Fusion"). in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd-black, D2, heat+, helium ICCF-6 particle


117. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Generation and mechanism of solid-state plasma fusion ("cold fusion"). Koon Gakkaishi, 1996. 22(1): p. 29 (Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory


118. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Deuterium nuclear reaction process within solid. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1996. 72 Ser. B: p. 179.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Theory, helium


119. Arata, Y. and C. Zhang, Presence of helium (4/2He, 3/2He) confirmed in highly deuterated Pd-black by the new detecting methodology. J. High Temp. Soc., 1997. 23: p. 110 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, C.
Keywords: Helium method, D2O


120. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Solid-state plasma fusion ('cold fusion'). J. High Temp. Soc., 1997. 23 (special volume): p. 1-56.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory, helium heat+,, lattice quake, D2O, Pd-black, 4He


121. Arata, Y. and C. Zhang, Presence of helium (4/2He, 3/2He) confirmed in deuterated Pd-black by the "vi-effect" in a "closed QMS" environment. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1997. 73: p. 62.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Helium D2O, H2O


122. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Helium (4He, 3He) within deuterated Pd-black. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1997. 73: p. 1.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: helium heat+, Pd-black


123. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Anomalous difference between reaction energies generated within D2O-cell and H2O-cell. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2, 1998. 37: p. L1274.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+ D2O, H2O

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, http://www.ipap.jp/jjap/index.htm. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:

Both D2O-cell and H2O-cell are constructed with the same Double Structure Cathode (DS-cathode), and connected in series as a "Double-cell" to examine the energy generation under the same electrolytic current. D2O-cell generates tremendously excess energy during a long. Such as over several thousand hours, but any energy is never generated in H2O-cell when the chemical energy is subtracted in both cells. . . .

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124. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Anomalous 'deuterium-reaction energies' within solid. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1998. 74 B: p. 155.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, Pd-black, heat+, D2O, H2O

Both D2O-cell and H2O-cell are constructed with the same Double Structure Cathode (DS-cathode) and connected in series as a "Double-cell" to examine the energy generation under the same electrolytic current. D20-cell generates tremendously excess energy during a long period such as over several thousand hours, but any energy is never generated in H2O-cell when the chemical energy is subtracted in both cells.

Furthermore, "Mixed-cell" blended with D2O and H2O electrolytes (D2O /H2O=2 in weight) also generates an excess energy, but with the considerably different characteristics from D2O-cell.

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125. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Observation of Anomalous Heat Release and Helium-4 Production from Highly Deuterated Fine Particles. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2, 1999. 38: p. L774.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+ D2O, H2O

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, http://www.ipap.jp/jjap/index.htm. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. We hope to make reprints of this and other cold fusion related papers available here. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:

Observations were made of the anomalous production of 4He atoms as well as the anomalous heat release when Pd fine particles are highly deuterated inside an enclosed Pd metal vessel used as a cathode in electrolysis of D2O. A mass analysis of the remnant Pd powders after the 2000-hr heat production revealed substantial production of 4He atoms.

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126. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Anomalous production of gaseous 4He at the inside of 'DS cathode' during D2O-electrolysis. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1999. 75: p. 281.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, helium Pd-black, D2O

Abstract: Observations were made of the abundant production of gaseous 4He inside a double-struc­ture Pd cathode ("DS-cathode") which continuously had released excess heat of about 5~ 10 W over 2,000 hrs in the electrolysis of D2O. These 4He atoms were found from the inner atmosphere within the DS-cath­ode included the highly deuterated Pd fine powders.

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127. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Definitive difference between [DS-D2O] and [Bulk-D2O] cells in 'deuterium-reaction'. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1999. 75 Ser. B: p. 71.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+, Helium, D2O


128. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Critical condition to induce 'excess energy' within [DS-H2O] cell. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1999. 75 Ser. B: p. 76.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+, Helium D2O


129. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang. Sono Implantation of Hydrogen and Deuterium from Water into Metallic Fine Powders. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: cavitation , powder, Ti, Fe, Pd, Ag, Ta, Pt, Au, loading, method. ICCF-8


130. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang. Definite Difference amoung [DS-D2O], [DS-H2O] and [Bulk-D2O] Cells in the Deuterization and Deuterium-reaction. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: heat+ Pd-black D2, H2, Helium ICCF-8 particle


131. Arata, Y., Developmental challenge in new energy source. 'Solid state plasma fusion'". Kotai Butsuri, 2000. 35(1): p. 67 [in Japanese].

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y.
Keywords: Review


132. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang. Picnonuclear fusion generated in "lattice-reactor" of metallic deuterium lattice within metal atom-clusters. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: gas loading, sonofusion, heat, D2, He, nanoparticle, loading, ICCF-9


133. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Formation of Condensed Metallic Deuterium Lattice and Nuclear Fusion. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 2002. 78(Ser. B): p. 57.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: PdD D2 Pd structure particle composition ZrO2

Abstract: It was confirmed that nanometer-sized metal powder (atom clusters or simply clusters) can absorb an extremely large amount of deuterium/hydrogen atoms more than 300% against the number density of host metal. Within such clusters, the bonding potential widely changes from the center region to peripheral ones, so that the zig-zag atom-chains are always formed dynamically around the average position of atoms and the degree of filling up of the constituent atoms for the fcc type metal reduces to about 0.64 from 0.74 in bulk metal, i.e., vacant space increases to 0.36 from 0.26. As a result, a large amount of deuterium/hydrogen atoms are instantly dissolved into such host-clusters at room temperature. . . .

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134. Arata, Y. and Y. Zhang. Development of Compact Nuclear Fusion Reactor Using Solid Pycnodeuterium as Nuclear Fuel. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y.
Keywords: Palladium Black, pressure

Based on the functioning of Pd black inside a DS-Cathode, which has produced irrefutable evidence for the existence of solid nuclear fusion, new materials were developed to absorb abundant D/H atoms, up to levels as high as 300% of Pd number. These absorbed atoms were solidified densely inside each unit cell of the host lattice as solid-state "Pycnodeuterium" or "Pycnohydrogen." Stimulation energy with Pycnodeuterium easily caused intense solid-state
nuclear fusion, whereas with Pycnohydrogen no reaction occurred. As the result, it was clarified that Pycnodeuterium is by far the best nuclear fuel compared to all other nuclear fuels.

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135. Arata, Y., The Formation Of "Solid Deuterium'" Solidified Inside Crystal Lattice And Intense Solid-State Nuclear Fusion ("Cold Fusion'"). Il Nuovo Saggiatore, 2004.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y.
Keywords: nano-particles,


136. Arata, Y. Development of "DS-Reactor" as the practical reactor of "Cold Fusion" based on the "DS-Cell" with "DS-Cathode". in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y.
Keywords: heat

Lecture slides describing a gas-loaded version of Arata's double-structured cathode.

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137. Arata, Y. and Y. Zhang. Establishment of the "Solid Fusion" Reactor. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y.
Keywords: nano-particles, excess heat,


138. Arata, Y. and Y. Zhang, The Establishment of Solid Nuclear Fusion Reactor. J. High Temp. Soc., 2008. 34(2): p. 85.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y.
Keywords: Excess heat


139. Arata, Y., Y. Zhang, and X. Wang. Production of Helium and Energy in the "Solid Fusion" (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, X.
Keywords: heat, helium

Conclusion:
(1) Either excess energy or helium of the ZrNiPd powder is always about ten times higher than that of the ZrPd powder.
(2) By using the weight 16 [g] of the ZrNiPd powder, the excess power 4 [watt] lasted stably for one hour, only less than one gram palladium was consumed. Its cost is lower than the ZrPd powder. We choose the ZrNiPd powder as a good material for the solid fusion.
(3) The concentration of helium was very successful. These results indicate that the reacted gas of "solid nuclear fusion" can serve as a source of helium production.

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140. Arata, Y., Y. Zhang, and X.F. Wang. Production of Helium and Energy in the "Solid Fusion". in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, X. F.
Keywords:

In this paper, a new type "Solid Fusion Reacto- has been developed to test the existence of solid state nuclear fusion ("Solid Fusion"): reproducible experiments have been made at room temperature and without external power input. (Both of the energy and helium generation affected by the reactor structure, gas flow rate, powder weight, and cooling condition were studied.) Deuterium gas loading processes of two types of nano material (ZrO2Pd35 and ZrO2Ni30Pd5) were studied respectively in this paper. The results showed the energy produced in ZrNiPd powder is higher than in ZrPd powder. Helium as an important evidence of solid-state fusion was detected by mass analyzer "QMS". As results, "Solid Fusion" has been confirmed by the helium existence.

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141. Arista, N.R., A. Gras-Marti, and R.A. Baragiola, Screening effects in nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes in dense media. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1989. 40: p. 6873.

First Author: Arista, N. R.
All Authors: Arista, N. R., Gras-Marti, A., Baragiola, R. A.
Keywords: Theory screening


142. Armacanqui, M.E. and R.A. Oriani, The Decrease of Lattice Parameter of Thin Films Caused by Cathodic Charging of Hydrogen. Scr. Metall., 1985. 19: p. 525.

First Author: Armacanqui, M. E.
All Authors: Armacanqui, M. E., Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: lattice Parameter, H2, Ti

The phenomena that take place when some b.c.c, metals are cathodically charged with hydrogen are being studied by x-ray diffraction, and some preliminary results and a plausible explanation have been reported (i). Briefly, the lattice parmeter calculated from Bragg peaks obtained from diffraction by metal near the surface of the sheet opposite the charging surface increases at a rate that is extremely low in view of the known diffusivity of hydrogen in the metal. In addition, different Bragg reflections lead to different values of lattice parameters and to different time dependencies; also, grain rotation occurs. The suggested mechanism for these phenomena involves large amounts of plastic deformation caused by stress generation caused by hydrogen concentration gradients. We report here an additional phenomenon that occurs in thin metal films sputtered upon a much thicker metal substrata when the latter is cathodically charged with hydrogen. A provisional explanation is offered.

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143. Armacanqui, M.E. and R.A. Oriani, Anomalies Accompanying the Cathodic Charging of Some bcc Metals. Corrosion, 1985. 41: p. 287.

First Author: Armacanqui, M. E.
All Authors: Armacanqui, M. E., Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: H2, lattice Parameter, loading, Ti


144. Armacanqui, M.E. and R.A. Oriani, Plastic Deformation in B.C.C. Alloys Induced by Hydrogen Concentration Gradients. Mater. Sci. and Eng., 1987. 91: p. 143.

First Author: Armacanqui, M. E.
All Authors: Armacanqui, M. E., Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: H, dislocation, Ti-Mo, crack, lattice parameter, Ti

Electrolytic charging of hydrogen in to one side of polycrystalline b.c.c. Ti-30Mo plates (where the composition is given in approximate weight per cent) is found to generate dislocations at which the hydrogen atoms are trapped during their diffusion across the metal thickness. The defect generation is a result of stresses arising from the hydrogen concentration gradient at the entry surface. The generation of dislocations occurs on initiating the charging and persists thereafter with emission of dislocations towards the far side of the plate. As a consequence, slip lines and subgrains are formed at the entry and far sides. . . .

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145. Armacanqui, M.E. and R.A. Oriani, Lattice Expansion and Contraction in Sputtered Metal Films due to Hydrogen Charging. Mater. Sci. and Eng., 1987. 92: p. 127.

First Author: Armacanqui, M. E.
All Authors: Armacanqui, M. E., Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: lattice Parameter, H2, Ti

Hydrogen charging of Ti-3OMo plates (where the composition is in approximate weight per cent) sputtered with thin films of iron, tantalum or titanium results in an increase or decrease in the film lattice parameter, depending on the circumstances. Films thinner than 200 nm show continuous decreases in lattice parameter during charging, whereas relatively thick films show positive changes in the lattice parameter. The decrease in the lattice parameter of the film metal is a consequence of fine-scale plastic deformation caused by the hydrogen charging. . . .

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146. Armstrong, R.D., Editorial:The Cold Fusion Debate. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34: p. 1287.

First Author: Armstrong, R. D.
All Authors: Armstrong, R. D.
Keywords: history, critique


147. Armstrong, R.D., et al., Some aspects of thermal energy generation during the electrolysis of D2O using a palladium cathode. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34: p. 1319.

First Author: Armstrong, R. D.
All Authors: Armstrong, R. D., Charles, E. A., Fells, I., Molyneux, L., Todd, M.
Keywords: heat, electrolysis, Pd D2O method


148. Armstrong, R.D., et al., A long-term calorimetric study of the electrolysis of D2O using palladium cube cathodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 272: p. 293.

First Author: Armstrong, R. D.
All Authors: Armstrong, R. D., Charles, E. A., Fells, I., Molyneux, L., Todd, M.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, heat-, review, D2O


149. Arnikar, H.J., 'Cold fusion' - a misnomer. Indian J. Chem. Sci., 1990. 4: p. 65.

First Author: Arnikar, H. J.
All Authors: Arnikar, H. J.
Keywords: Polemic, review, theory


150. Arnold, W.R., et al., Cross Sections for the Reactions D-T, D-He ,T-He, He-He below 120 kev. Phys. Rev., 1954. 93: p. 483.

First Author: Arnold, W. R.
All Authors: Arnold, W. R., Phillips, J. A., Sawyer, G. A., Stovall, E. J., Tuck, J. L.
Keywords: fusion cross Section tritium D2, Helium, branching ratio


151. Arnoult, W. and R.B. McLellan, The Solubility of Carbon in Rhodium, Ruthenium, Iridium and Rhenium. Scr. Metall., 1972. 6: p. 1013.

First Author: Arnoult, W.
All Authors: Arnoult, W., McLellan, R. B.
Keywords: C, Rh, Ru, Ir, Rh, Pd, solubility


152. Arzhannikov, A.V. and G.Y. Kezerashvili, First observation of neutron emission from chemical reactions. Phys. Lett., 1991. A156: p. 514.

First Author: Arzhannikov, A. V.
All Authors: Arzhannikov, A. V., Kezerashvili, G. Ya
Keywords: LiD, fractofusion, neutron chemical reaction


153. Asami, N. and K. Matsui, Research and development for new hydrogen energy. Mater. Adv. Energy Systems & Fission and Fusion Eng., 1994. 7: p. 119.

First Author: Asami, N.
All Authors: Asami, N., Matsui, K.
Keywords: NHE


154. Asami, N., K. Matsui, and F. Hasegawa. Present Status and the Perspective of New Hydrogen Energy Project. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Asami, N.
All Authors: Asami, N., Matsui, K., Hasegawa, F.
Keywords: review, NHE ICCF-5

A research and development project, named as 'New Hydrogen Energy', has started in Japan in November, 1993, to confirm the excess heat generation during electrolysis with Pd-LiOD system as the first priority objective. The project has been supported by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) and major industries in Japan, and new laboratory was established in Sapporo.

Present status and the perspectives of the project will be reported together with main technical results. Two types of electrolysis cells, namely, open type cell system from IMRA- Europe, Inc. and the fuel cell type cell systems from IMRA- Japan, Inc. , were installed in NHE Sapporo laboratory and the experiments have started from February 1994 to demonstrate the NHE-phenomena.

Correlationships among maximum attainable DlPd ratio, deuterium absorption and desorption and the characteristics of various palladium sources and treatments have been studied and analysed based on the resultsof the material observations and instrumentational analysis such as O/M , SEM , XRD, AES , SIMS and EPMA.

The laboratory will be reinforced by introducing of mass flow calorimetry systems, and reaction products detection systems towards an interim review scheduled in late 1995.

This R&D program has been conducted under the consignment of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization(NEDO).

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155. Asami, N., et al. Material Behaviour of Highly Deuterium Loaded Palladium by Electrolysis. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Asami, N.
All Authors: Asami, N., Senjuh, T., Kamimura, H., Sumi, M., Kennel, E., Sakai, T., Mori, K., Watanabe, H., Matsui, K.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, surface analysis, single crystal, ICCF-6, electrolysis

Abstract We have presumed that achieving high reproducibility of the anomalous effect may depend upon reproducible high loading ratios of deuterium in the Palladium. By modification of the working process, heat treatment, surface treatment, and the electrolysis conditions, the deuterium loading up to 0.9~0.96 was achieved with relatively high reproducibility. Detail features of the loading and deloading process were observed by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis and by in-situ optical micrographs during electrolysis. Crystal phase and lattice parameter changes were also measured to find any new phase by the in-situ X-ray diffraction system which was newly developed at the NHE-Lab. The phase transition of α-β during the loading and unloading process was well identified, however no new phase was observed up to a loading ratio of about 0.90.

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156. Asami, N., et al., Material characteristics and behavior of highly deuterated loaded palladium by electrolysis. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 185.

First Author: Asami, N.
All Authors: Asami, N., Senjuh, T., Kamimura, H., Sumi, M., Kennel, E., Sakai, T., Mori, K., Watanabe, H., Matsui, K.
Keywords: Pd, loading, PdD, electrolysis, surface, single-crystal, D2O, electrolysis


157. Asami, N., et al. Material Behavior of Highly Deuterated Palladium. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Asami, N.
All Authors: Asami, N., Senjuh, T., Uehara, T., Sumi, M., Kamimura, H., Miyashita, S., Matsui, K.
Keywords: loading, PdD, anneal, phase change, ICCF-7


158. Asami, N., et al. Material Behavior of Highly Deuterated Palladium. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Asami, N.
All Authors: Asami, N., Senjuh, T., Uehara, T., Sumi, M., Kamimura, H., Miyashita, S., Matsui, K.
Keywords: Pd, D2, PdD, loading, composition lattice parameter structure, ICCF-9


159. Asami, T., Study on the Phenomenon Reported "Neutron Generation at Room Temperature in a Cylinder Packed with Titanium Shavings and Pressurized Deuterium Gas". J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 7-16.

First Author: Asami, T.
All Authors: Asami, T.
Keywords: Crystal lattice, Deuterium, Neutron generation, Octahedron cage, Tetrahedoron cage, Titanium

This paper describes the analysis and study of the neutron generation experiment performed under pressurized and/or evacuated conditions between room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature, using titanium shavings and deuterium gas packed in a cylinder. To clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon, the author has studied the experiment taking into account the characteristics of the phase equilibrium, the metal crystal construction, the theory of chemical bond and the first principle molecular orbital calculation. From the result of this study, it seems that the same phenomenon will happen in a similar experiment performed using another electron deficient metal with a suitable crystal construction.

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160. Asami, T. and N. Sano, Study on the Phenomenon Reported "Neutron Generation at Room Temperature in a Cylinder Packed with Titanium Shavings and Pressurized Deuterium Gas" (2). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 1-9.

First Author: Asami, T.
All Authors: Asami, T., Sano, N.
Keywords: Deuterium, Neutron generation, Proposed apparatus, Tetrahedron cage, Titanium

Following the previous study of the state of deuterium atoms in the titanium crystal (J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 5 ( 2011 ) 7), in this paper, the authors have analyzed the state of the deuterium atom in a tetrahedron cage, using the first principle molecular orbital calculation. In the simulation analysis of the tetrahedron cage, it is indicated that the titanium pair causes the deuterium atom to have ligancy 2 in the cage with two hydrogen atoms. If neutron generation occurs, we can deduce from the past experimental results that it occurs after a small increase of kinetic energy of deuterium atoms. This suggests that the quantity of neutron generated may increase if we can give kinetic energy to the adsorbed deuterium atoms in the titanium crystal by another means other than a temperature rise, at a suitable temperature and pressure. The authors propose a new experimental apparatus which appears to promote and increase the neutron generation.

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161. Asami, T., et al., Study on the Phenomenon Reported "Neutron Generation at Room Temperature in a Cylinder Packed with Titanium Shavings and Pressurized Deuterium Gas". J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 18.

First Author: Asami, T.
All Authors: Asami, T., Giorgi, G., Yamashita, K., Balanzoni, P.
Keywords: Adsorption, Coulomb force, Desorption, Deuterium, Nuclear force, Titanium

In this paper, the authors have intended to ascertain the driving force for an adsorbed deuterium atom or a deuteron to collide in titanium crystal. Recent simulation analysis results, related to the predicted cluster or cell models of deuterium atoms adsorbed in titanium crystal, together with the related calculations by Coulomb formula and Yukawa formula were investigated. Coulomb force working between deuteron-deuteron (d-d) particles is compared with the nuclear force working between them. The change of the force to each of them is evaluated in accordance with the distance between them, near the surface of the atomic nucleus. Taking into account the results of previous studies, it seems that nuclear fusion will occur occasionally without adding any specified energy. We think that there is a possibility of a collision of free deuterons through the medium of a negative charge in a deuterium atom in ligancy 2. On the other hand, we think that if a suitable amount of energy, which is far smaller than that of high temperature nuclear fusion, such as the irradiation of the alternative electromagnetic wave, for example, is supplied to adsorbed deuterium atoms and desorbed deuterons in the titanium (Ti) shavings packed in the experimental cylinder under a pressurized or evacuation condition with a suitable temperature rise, then there also will be a higher probability of nuclear fusion being achieved.

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162. Asaoka, Y., et al. Simultaneous Measurement Device of Heat and Neutron of Heavy Water Electrolysis with Palladium Cathode. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Asaoka, Y.
All Authors: Asaoka, Y., Ichiji, T., Fujita, T., Matsumura, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat-, electrolysis, neutron, gamma emission ICCF-5

An experimental device of cold fusion phenomena has been developed. Feature of the device is precise calorimetry and simultaneous measurement of excess heat, neutron and gamma-ray emitted from the electrolysis cell. The deuterium loading ratio of the palladium cathode can be measured simultaneously.
The galvanostatic electrolysis of heavy water with Pd cathode and Pt anode has been carried out in a closed cell with recombination catalyst. For precise excess heat measurement, the flow calorimetry method were adopted. Obtained accuracy of the calorimetry system was 0.2W at up to 10W of applied power. The electrolysis cell was
set in shielding and neutron emission was detected by an NE-213 liquid scintillation counter and a He-3 proportional detector. Gamma-ray emission was measured with the Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. Electric resistance of the palladium cathode and pressure of the gas phase in the electrolytic cell were measured simultaneously to evaluate the deuterium loading ratio. D/Pd ratio evaluated by each method has reached approximately 0.87.
With these in-situ measurements of heat, neutron and gamma-ray, no remarkable cold fusion phenomena have been observed up to the present time.

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163. Aspden, H., Refrigeration and electrical power generation. 1993: UK GB 2283361A.

First Author: Aspden, H.
All Authors: Aspden, H.
Keywords: thermoelectric, energy Conversion, patent,


164. Assenbaum, H.J., K. Langanke, and C. Rolfs, Effects of Electron Screening on Low-Energy Fusion Cross Sections. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1987. 327: p. 461.

First Author: Assenbaum, H. J.
All Authors: Assenbaum, H. J., Langanke, K., Rolfs, C.
Keywords: theory screening, cross section


165. Astakhov, I.I., et al., An attempt to detect neutron and gamma radiations in heavy water electrolysis with a palladium cathode. Electrochim. Acta, 1991. 36(7): p. 1127.

First Author: Astakhov, I. I.
All Authors: Astakhov, I. I., Davydov, A. D., Katargin, N. V., Kazarinov, V. E., Kiseleva, I. G., Kriksunov, L. B., Kudryavtsev, D. Yu., Lebedev, I. A., Myasoedov, B. F., Shcheglov, O. P., Teplitskaya, G. L., Tsionskii, V. M.
Keywords: neutron gamma emission, Pd, electrolysis, Li, D2O, H2O, surface analysis


166. Astakhov, I.I., et al., Diffusion of hydrogen isotopes in palladium hydride and deuteride in the presence of lithium. Russ. J. Electrochem., 1994. 30: p. 1379.

First Author: Astakhov, I. I.
All Authors: Astakhov, I. I., Kazarinov, V. E., Reznikova, L. A., Teplitskaya, G. L.
Keywords: diffusion, PdH, PdD, Li, PdLiH


167. Attas, E.M., et al., Solar flares and 'cold fusion'. Nature (London), 1990. 344: p. 390.

First Author: Attas, E. M.
All Authors: Attas, E. M., Chambers, K. W., Dueck, W., Dutton, R., McIlwain, A. K.
Keywords: Polemic, solar flares, neutron, critique


168. Augustynski, J., Commentaire: Pourquoi les experiences de 'fusion froide' de deuterium sont-elles si difficiles a reproduire. Chimia, 1989. 43: p. 99 (in French).

First Author: Augustynski, J.
All Authors: Augustynski, J.
Keywords: Li, surface analysis, layer, theory, OCV


169. Augustynski, J., M. Ulmann, and J. Liu, Electrochemical measurements on palladium cathodes in LiOD/D2O solutions related to the 'cold fusion experiments'. Chimia, 1989. 43: p. 355.

First Author: Augustynski, J.
All Authors: Augustynski, J., Ulmann, M., Liu, J.
Keywords: surface deposition, electrolysis, surface analysis, layer


170. Ault, M.R., Cold fusion: the story behind the headlines. Radiat. Prot. Manage., 1990. 8((3)): p. 49.

First Author: Ault, M. R.
All Authors: Ault, M. R.
Keywords: review


171. Avino, P., et al. Impurity measurements by instrumental neutron activation analysis on palladium, nickel and copper thin-films (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Avino, P.
All Authors: Avino, P., Rosada, A., Santoro, E., Sarto, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: mass spectrometer, contamination

AIM OF THE WORK Series of experiments analyzing the materials and substances with the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for both choosing the purest materials and discarding the others, and checking the blanks, and investigating elements present in electrodes after the test.

Preliminarily, some candidate materials to be used in the experiments were analyzed by INAA; after, electrode blanks and electrolyte solutions were analyzed, and finally, the electrodes used and the electrolyte solutions exhausted as well.

Electrolysis experiments on mono- and multi-layered thin films of Pd and Ni; possibility of observation of new atomic species; some species could be produced by nuclear transmutation in condensed matter.

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172. Azbel, M.Y., Possibility of cold fusion. Solid State Commun., 1990. 76(2): p. 127.

First Author: Azbel, M. Ya.
All Authors: Azbel, M. Ya.
Keywords: review theory


173. Azizi, O., et al., Progress towards understanding anomalous heat effect in metal deuterides. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Azizi, O.
All Authors: Azizi, O., El-Boher, A., He, J., Hubler, G. K., Pease, D., Isaacson, W., Violante, V., Gangopadhyay, S.
Keywords:


174. Azizi, O., et al., Effect of Cathode Pretreatment and Chemical Additives on H/D Absorption into Palladium via Electrochemical Permeation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Azizi, O.
All Authors: Azizi, O., He, J., Paterson, D., El-Boher, A., Pease, D., Hubler, G. K.
Keywords: Absorption, Deuterium, Impedance spectroscopy, Palladium, Permeation

In this study, we applied a variety of palladium pretreatment methods, including nitric acid etching, Aqua regia etching and electrochemical oxidation/reduction to determine the effect of cathode initial condition on hydrogen absorption into palladium during the loading process. The electrochemical behavior of palladium was characterized using electrochemical permeation, electrochemical desorption, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The hydrogen diffusion coefficient in palladium membrane was obtained using the time-lag method. The lattice diffusivity of hydrogen as well as the amounts and distribution of the diffused and trapped hydrogen were analyzed using the desorption rate of hydrogen. We also investigated the effect of pyridine, a permeation promoter on hydrogen absorption in palladium membranes. Electrochemical parameters of double layer capacitance, charge transfer resistance and surface roughness were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for both treated and untreated cathodes. This study shows that the ability to load Pd with hydrogen is only mildly affected by surface pretreatment and the chemical additives, and therefore, we consider the pretreatments a second order effect regarding the ability to load.

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175. Azumi, K., et al., Acoustic emission from a palladium electrode during hydrogen charging and its release in a LiOH electrolyte. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 347: p. 111.

First Author: Azumi, K.
All Authors: Azumi, K., Ishiguro, S., Mizuno, T., Seo, M.
Keywords: acoustic emission, electrolysis, fractofusion, Pd


176. Azzarone, D., F. Fontana, and D. Garbelli. Hydrogen/Deuterium Loading in Thin Palladium Wires. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Azzarone, D.
All Authors: Azzarone, D., Fontana, F., Garbelli, D.
Keywords: Pd, loading, D2O, electrolysis, method. ICCF-8


177. Babu, K.S.C., et al., On the formation of palladium deuteride and its relationship to suspected cold fusion. Adv. Hydrogen Energy, 1990. 8 Hydrogen Energy Prog. VIII, Vol. 2): p. 1051.

First Author: Babu, K. S. C.
All Authors: Babu, K. S. C., Lalla, N. P., Pandey, R. N., Tiwari, R. S., Srivastava, O. N.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2O H2O, p-d fusion, heat+ Pd


178. Bacchi, S., Coletanea de artigos sobre o aparelho de fusao a frio Rossi. 2011, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Bacchi, S.
All Authors: Bacchi, S.
Keywords: Review

Some articles and papers about the Rossi device translated into Portuguese.

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179. Badurek, G., H. Rauch, and E. Seidl, Search for cold fusion in palladium-deuterium and titanium-deuterium. Kerntechnik, 1989. 54: p. 178.

First Author: Badurek, G.
All Authors: Badurek, G., Rauch, H., Seidl, E.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission, titanium, D2


180. Bae, Y.K., D.D. Lorents, and S.E. Young, Experimental confirmation of cluster-impact fusion. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1991. 44: p. R4091.

First Author: Bae, Y. K.
All Authors: Bae, Y. K., Lorents, D. D., Young, S. E.
Keywords: cluster, ion bombardment


181. Bagnulo, L.H. Crack-fusion: a Plausible Explanation of Cold Fusion. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bagnulo, L. H.
All Authors: Bagnulo, L. H.
Keywords: fractofusion, theory, ICCF-2


182. Bailan, R., J.P. Blaizot, and P. Bonche, Cold Fusion in a Dense Electron Gas. J. Phys. France, 1989. 50: p. 2307.

First Author: Bailan, R.
All Authors: Bailan, R., Blaizot, J. P., Bonche, P.
Keywords: theory, screening


183. Bailey, D.C., Gammas from Cold Nuclear Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Bailey, D. C.
All Authors: Bailey, D. C.
Keywords: neutron, gamma, theory


184. Baird, J.K., Isotope effect in hydrogen atom diffusion in metals. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1994. submitted.

First Author: Baird, J. K.
All Authors: Baird, J. K.
Keywords: diffusion, PdD, PdH


185. Balabanov, N.P., Hypothesis to explain electrochemically induced nuclear fusion. Nauchni Tr., Plovdivski Univ., 1989. 26(4): p. 247 (in Bulgarian).

First Author: Balabanov, N. P.
All Authors: Balabanov, N. P.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion


186. Balbaa, I.S., et al., The Effect of Lattice Distortions on the X-Ray Measurement of Lattice Parameters for PdHx: I. Empirical Relationships. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1987. 17: p. 2041.

First Author: Balbaa, I. S.
All Authors: Balbaa, I. S., Hardy, P. A., San-Martin, A., Coulter, P. G., Manchester, F. D.
Keywords: Lattice Parameter, PdH, stress


187. Baldo, M., R. Pucci, and P.F. Bortignon, Relaxation toward equilibrium in plasmon-enhanced fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 347.

First Author: Baldo, M.
All Authors: Baldo, M., Pucci, R., Bortignon, P. F.
Keywords: review, theory


188. Baldo, M. Enhancement of Fusion Rate Induced by the Collective Electron Excitations. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Baldo, M.
All Authors: Baldo, M.
Keywords: theory, electron, excitation screening, ICCF-2


189. Balej, J. and J. Divisek, Energy balance of D2O electrolysis with a palladium cathode, Part I. Theoretical relations. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 278: p. 85.

First Author: Balej, J.
All Authors: Balej, J., Divisek, J.
Keywords: heat, method, thermodynamnic, PdD, electrolysis


190. Balescu, R., Some like it cool. Phys. Mag, 1989. 11: p. 3 (French).

First Author: Balescu, R.
All Authors: Balescu, R.
Keywords: Review


191. Balian, R., J.P. Blaizot, and P. Bonche, Cold fusion in a dense electron gas. J. Phys. France, 1989. 50: p. 2307.

First Author: Balian, R.
All Authors: Balian, R., Blaizot, J. P., Bonche, P.
Keywords: theory, screening, Born-Oppenheimer


192. Balin, D.V., et al., Experimental Investigation of the Muon Catalyzed d-d Fusion. Phys. Lett. B, 1984. 141(3/4): p. 173.

First Author: Balin, D. V.
All Authors: Balin, D. V., Maev, E. M., Medvedev, V. I., Semenchuk, G. G., Smirenin, Yu. V., Vorobyov, A. A., Zalite, Y. K.
Keywords: muon


193. Balke, B., et al., Limits on neutron emission from 'cold fusion' in metal hydrides. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. C42: p. 30.

First Author: Balke, B.
All Authors: Balke, B., Cox, L., Fackler, O., Mugge, M., Souers, P. C., Tsugawa, R. T., White, R. M.
Keywords: Ti, Pd, neutron, D2, HD, DT


194. Ban, M. Tunnel Resonance Of Electron Wave And Force Of Fluctuation. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Ban, M.
All Authors: Ban, M.
Keywords: theory,


195. Banas, J., et al., Geophysical aspects of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Nucl. Geophys., 1989. 3: p. 321.

First Author: Banas, J.
All Authors: Banas, J., Ciechanowski, M., Dulinski, M., Kreft, A., Molenda, J., Morstin, K., Stoklosa, A., Wozniak, J.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission, cosmic ray, electrolysis, D2O


196. Baranov, D., et al. Experimental Testing of the Erzion Model by Reacting of Electron Flux on the Target. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Baranov, D.
All Authors: Baranov, D., Bazhutov, Y., Khokhov, N., Koretsky, V. P., Kuznetsov, A. B., Skuratnik, Ya. B., Sukovatkin, N.
Keywords: La-Sm, Li-Sn, La-Nd, electron bombardment gamma emission, transmutation, erzion ICCF-4


197. Baranov, D., et al. Investigation of the Erzion-Nuclear Transformation by Ion Beams. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Baranov, D.
All Authors: Baranov, D., Bazhutov, Y., Koretsky, V. P., Plets, Y., Pohil, G., Sakharov, E.
Keywords: erzion, transmutation, theory, ICCF-4


198. Baranova, R.V., et al., Crystal Structure of Pd Hydride with Primitive Cubic Lattice. Sov. Phys. Crystallogr., 1980. 25: p. 736.

First Author: Baranova, R. V.
All Authors: Baranova, R. V., Khodyrev, Yu. P., Imamov, R. M., Semiletov, S. A.
Keywords: Pd, H, lattice Parameter, structure, PdH


199. Baranowski, B. and R. Wisniewski, The Electrical Resistance of Palladium and Palladium-Gold Alloy (50 wt% Au and Pd) in Gaseous Hydrogen up to 24000 at at 25Ã… C. Phys. Stat. Sol. A, 1969. 35: p. 593.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Wisniewski, R.
Keywords: Pd, H2, resistivity, PdH, H/Pd


200. Baranowski, B. and R. Wisniewski, The Electrical Resistance of Palladium and Palladium-Gold Alloy (50 wt% Au and Pd) in Gaseous Hydrogen up to 24000 at at 25 C. Phys. Stat. Sol. A, 1969. 35: p. 593.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Wisniewski, R.
Keywords: Pd, H2, resistivity, PdH, H/Pd


201. Baranowski, B., High Pressure Research on Palladium-Hydrogen Systems. Pt. Met. Rev., 1972. 16-17: p. 10.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B.
Keywords: Pd, H, pressure, resistivity, PdH


202. Baranowski, B., S. Majchrzak, and T.B. Flanagan, A High-Pressure Investigation of the Rhodium/Palladium/Hydrogen System. J. Phys. Chem., 1973. 77: p. 35.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Majchrzak, S., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, Rh, H, phase Diagram, Pd-Rh


203. Baranowski, B., T. Skoskiewicz, and A.W. Szafranski, The Metallic Behavior of Hydrogen in Palladium. Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys., 1975. 1: p. 296.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Skoskiewicz, T., Szafranski, A. W.
Keywords: Pd, H2, PdH, density Of States, Heat Capacity, superconductivity


204. Baranowski, B. and S. Majorowski, Activation Volume for Hydrogen Diffusion in Palladium Hydride. J. Less-Common Met., 1984. 98: p. L27.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Majorowski, S.
Keywords: PdH, diffusion,


205. Baranowski, B., S.M. Filipek, and W. Raczynski, Investigation of Some Metal-Hydrogen Systems in the High Pressure Region. J. Less-Common Met., 1984. 101: p. 115.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Filipek, S. M., Raczynski, W.
Keywords: Pd, D2, diffusion, pressure, Al, H2, thermodynamic, loading


206. Baranowski, B., et al., Search for 'cold fusion' in some Me-D systems at high pressures of gaseous deuterium. J. Less-Common Met., 1990. 158: p. 347.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Filipek, S. M., Szustakowski, M., Farny, J., Woryna, W.
Keywords: Pd, neutron, heat-, electrolysis, D2O, D2, CR-39, high pressure, Ni, negative


207. Baranowski, B., S.M. Filipek, and W. Raczynski, Electrolytic charging of palladium by deuterium at normal and high pressure conditions. Pol. J. Chem., 1994. 68: p. 845.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Filipek, S. M., Raczynski, W.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, pressure, loading, D2, D2O


208. Barbieri, G., A. Caravella, and E. Drioli. Concentration Polarization in hydrogen permeation through self-supported Pd-based membranes (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Barbieri, G.
All Authors: Barbieri, G., Caravella, A., Drioli, E.
Keywords: materials, permeation

Concentration polarization present in any membrane separation affects the system performance depending on the membrane permeance, i.e., a higher permeance leads to a higher polarization. Hydrogen transport in Pd-based supported membranes was described by means of a model [1] considering several elementary steps of the permeation process, improving what done by Ward and Dao for self-supported membranes. The model includes the external mass transfer in the multicomponent gaseous phases on both membrane sides, described by the Stefan-Maxwell equations. The transport of the multicomponent mixture in the multilayered porous support was also considered and described by means of the Dusty Gas Model, which takes into account Knudsen, Poiseuille and ordinary diffusion. . . .

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209. Bard, A., Comments on SRI RP-3170 Review Meeting. 1991, University of Texas: Austin, TX.

First Author: Bard, A.
All Authors: Bard, A.
Keywords: review


210. Barker, W.A., Electrostatic voltage excitation process and apparatus. 1990: US 4,961,880.

First Author: Barker, W. A.
All Authors: Barker, W. A.
Keywords: radioactivity, half-life, patent,


211. Barker, W.A., Method for enhancing alpha decay in radioactive materials. 1991: US 5,076,971.

First Author: Barker, W. A.
All Authors: Barker, W. A.
Keywords: radioactivity, half-life, patent,


212. Barnhart, B., et al., Technology Forecast: Worldwide Research on Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Increasing and Gaining Acceptance. 2009, Defense Intelligence Agency.

First Author: Barnhart, B.
All Authors: Barnhart, B., McDaniel, P., Mosier-Boss, P. A., McKubre, M. C. H., Forsley, L., DeChiaro, L.
Keywords: review

Scientists worldwide have been quietly investigating low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) for the past 20 years. Researchers in this controversial field are now claiming paradigm-shifting results, including generation of large amounts of excess heat, nuclear activity and transmutation of elements. Although no current theory exists to explain all the reported phenomena, some scientists now believe quantum-level nuclear reactions may be occurring. DIA assesses with high con fidence that if LENR can produce nuclear-origin energy at room temperatures, this disruptive technology could revolutionize energy production and storage, since nuclear reactions release millions of times more energy per unit mass than do any known chemical fuel.

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213. Barrowes, S.C. and H.E. Bergeson. Linear, High Precision, Redundant Calorimeter. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1994. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Barrowes, S. C.
All Authors: Barrowes, S. C., Bergeson, H. E.
Keywords: calorimeter, method, ICCF-4


214. Bartolomeo, C., et al. Alfred Coehn and After: The Alpha, Beta and Gamma of the Palladium-Hydrogen System. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Bartolomeo, C.
All Authors: Bartolomeo, C., Fleischmann, M., Larramona, G., Pons, S., Roulett, J., Sugiura, H., Preparata, G.
Keywords: Pd, hydrogen,, diffusion, phase diagram, Coehn, gamma phase ICCF-4 PdH


215. Barton, J.C. and F.A. Lewis, Interface Impedance and the Apparent Electrical Resistance of Palladium Hydrides in Aqueous Solutions. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1962. 58: p. 103.

First Author: Barton, J. C.
All Authors: Barton, J. C., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: resistance, PdH, resistivity


216. Barton, J.C., F.A. Lewis, and I. Woodward, Hysteresis of the Relationships Between Electrical Resistance and Hydrogen Content of Palladium. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1963. 59: p. 1201.

First Author: Barton, J. C.
All Authors: Barton, J. C., Lewis, F. A., Woodward, I.
Keywords: Pd, H2, resistance, magnetic Susceptibility


217. Barton, J.C., J.A.S. Green, and F.A. Lewis, Changes of Electrode Potential and Electrical Resistance as a Function of the Hydrogen Content of some Pd+Ni and Pd+Rh alloys. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1965.

First Author: Barton, J. C.
All Authors: Barton, J. C., Green, J. A. S., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, Rh, Ni, H, overvoltage, resistance, solubility, phase Diagram


218. Barton, J.C., W.F.N. Leitch, and F.A. Lewis, Absorption of Hydrogen by Palladized Palladium Electrodes Following Immersion in Oxidizing Solutions. Electrochim. Acta, 1966. 11: p. 1171.

First Author: Barton, J. C.
All Authors: Barton, J. C., Leitch, W. F. N., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, H, loading


219. Barts, B.I., D.B. Barts, and A.A. Grinenko, Theory of nuclear reactions with the participation of slow charged particles in solids. Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. Originally Oin: Yad. Fiz. 55 [1992] 79., 1992. 55: p. 45.

First Author: Barts, B. I.
All Authors: Barts, B. I., Barts, D. B., Grinenko, A. A.
Keywords: theory, screening


220. Barut, A.O., Prediction of new tightly-bound states of H2+ (D2+) and 'cold fusion' experiments. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1990. 15: p. 907.

First Author: Barut, A. O.
All Authors: Barut, A. O.
Keywords: Theory, screening


221. Barwick, S.W., et al., Search for 0.8 MeV (3)He nuclei emitted from Pd and Ti exposed to high pressure D2. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 273.

First Author: Barwick, S. W.
All Authors: Barwick, S. W., Price, P. B., Williams, W. T., Porter, J. D.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, Pd, D2, alpha, particle emission, CR-39, helium, negative


222. Bashkirov, Y.A., et al., Observation of neutron emission from electrolysis of heavy water. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1990. 16(19): p. 51 (in Russian).

First Author: Bashkirov, Yu. A.
All Authors: Bashkirov, Yu. A., Baranova, R. Kh., Bazanin, B. G., Kazakova, V. M.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, Ti, D2O, H2O, electrolysis


223. Bashko, V.A., et al., Study of the nuclear fusion reaction in palladium by the emission of neutrons upon electrolysis". Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1996. 2(56): p. 54.

First Author: Bashko, V. A.
All Authors: Bashko, V. A., Vit'ko, V. I., Goncharov, I. G., Zelenskii, V. F., Kovalenko, G. D., Krivoruchko, S. M., Ranyuk, Yu. N., Tarasov, I. K.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, electrolysis, D2O


224. Bass, R.W. On Empirical System ID, Possible External Electromagnetic/Electronuclear Stimulation/Actuation and Automatic Feedback Control of Cold Fusion. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: theory ICCF-1

This paper reviews some basic results from modern systems theory, which may prove useful to experimenters researching the cold fusion phenomenon from the point of view of attempting to learn how to stimulate, initiate, regulate, control by command at will, and terminate excess enthalpy, rate of tritium production, neutron count, etc.

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225. Bass, R.W., QRT: Quantum Resonance Triggering Principle. 1991.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: theory, QRT


226. Bass, R.W. A Semi-Classical Quantized Theory of Lattice Induced Nuclear Transformations. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: theory


227. Bass, R.W. Is the Coulomb Fusion "Barrier" a Resonantly Transparent Mirror? Refutation of the Conventional Cold Fusion 'QM-Impossibility' "Proof". in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: theory


228. Bass, R.W., Experimental Evidence Favoring Brightsen's Nucleon Cluster Model. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(4): p. 59.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: theory Brightsen Cluster

Brightsen's Nucleon Cluster Model (NCM) predicts that a relatively low-energy photon can stimulate a nuclear transmutation under certain specified conditions. Examination of an experiment by Lin & Bockris demonstrates that the transmutation of mercury-201 to gold-197 induced by a mere exothermic chemical reaction (burning gunpowder) is an actual concrete example of a novel process predicted by the NCM.

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229. Bass, R.W., A High School Level Expose of the Mistake Upon Which the ERAB Report is Based. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(3/4): p. 22.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: ERAB, history


230. Bass, R.W., Parmenter's Fundamental Breakthrough Contributions. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(21): p. 45.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: theory

Noting Dr. Parmenter's acknowledgment to me at the end of his seminal  paper, Dr. Mallove has asked me for a prefatory critique.  Frankly I feel like a kindergarten finger-painting dauber asked to appraise a Rembrandt!  In fact, in 1994 I applied seriously for a humble programmer's job at the Univ. of Arizona in hopes that by moving to Tucson I might be able to audit some of Parmenter's courses: I am awed by his mastery of the three-dimensional details, not only of Quantum Mechanics (QM) [which I know only as a 1-D point-particle theory] but of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), Nuclear Physics, and Solid-State Physics.  I accepted this assignment only in hopes of nudging people like Dr. Barry Merriman of UCLA and Dr. Jim Peebles of Princeton to consider Parmenter's contributions with the serious care which they manifestly deserve.  I'd also hope that in the next issue of IE we receive comments on this milestone theoretical tour de force by all of the dozen other expert theoreticians mentioned below.

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231. Bass, R.W. and S.W. Gleeson. Recent Advances in LENT and Proposed CF via Deuterium Crystals. in INE/EEMF Conference on New Energy Conversion. 2000. INE/EEMF Conference on New Energy Conversion.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W., Gleeson, S. W.
Keywords: theory


232. Bass, R.W., Five Frozen Needles CF Protocol. J. New Energy, 2002. 6(2): p. 30.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: Helium

The following protocol is designed to be intuitively convincing to a layman who, if told that needles 2, 3 and 4 have been pulsed with constant-voltage DC-electricity for twice, thrice and quadruple the amount of time as needle 1, and then measured to contain twice, thrice and quadruple the amount of He4 as the first needle, will instantly reject any doubt that the electrical pulse was creating He4 from some form of nuclear-chemistry process whose action was directly proportional to the amount of DC electrical energy used. At the same time, the protocol is sufficiently statistically sophisticated in its rigorous application of Experiment Design theory as to satisfy the most skeptical and informed critic.

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233. Bass, R.W. Optimal laser wavelength for resonant transmission through the coulomb barrier. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: Theory

The 1993 point-particle, 1-D semi-classical quantum-mechanical theory of resonant transparency of the Coulomb barrier [1], though admittedly crude, has some plausibility as to relevance and adequacy because it predicts quantitatively different results for lattices of protons versus deuterons embedded in host lattices of palladium versus nickel. Specifically it predicts that cold fusion is likely with Ni cathodes and electrolysis with either ordinary or heavy water, whereas it is likely only for heavy-water electrolysis with Pd cathodes. The question of whether or not this 1993 theory has any predictive power regarding the 2003 Letts-Cravens effect is considered and answered as: "partially." That is, the "optimal" range of wavelengths includes that discovered by Letts and Cravens, but because of the possibility of multi-photon reactions it does not uniquely single out their 680 nm as best, which would require a more detailed model (including e.g. cathode temperature) than provided by the simplified 1993 theory.

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234. Bass, R.W. and M.C.H. McKubre. Generalized cause and effect demonstration protocol. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Theory

It is universally accepted, even by nonscientists, that if the measured output from a physical system is double, triple, or quadruple that obtained when the measured stimulus/input is doubled, tripled, or quadrupled then there is a "cause and effect relationship" between the input and output (e.g. total energy input versus excess energy [or nuclear ash] output in a cold fusion experiment). How does one quantify this scientifically, when random process disturbances and random measurement noises preclude perfect linearity? This question is answered under the assumption of Gaussian (or "normal") departures from ideal linearity regarding t hetwo mentioned statistical aspects. This is a generalization of the protocol propose dby Bass [1], which is more realistically flexible in several respects. An arbitrary number N >= 3 of similarly prepared samples is allowed, and neither the voltage nor the current is required to be constant. However, the previous protocol may be recovered as a special case when N = 5.

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235. Bass, R.W., Do Conjectures/Concepts of Schwinger, Turner, Chubb, R. Bush, Lamb & Parmenter, et al. Resolve the Chief Challenge to Cold Fusion Theory? (PowerPoint slides), in MIT Cold Fusion Colloquium. 2005.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: Theory

Cold Fusion: experimental "facts" assumed herein:

* Deuteronsin Palladium and Nickel lattices can fuse to create Helium nuclei and heat in the form of lattice vibrations * Protons in Nickel lattices can fuse to create Deuterium nuclei and heat in the form of lattice vibrations

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236. Bass, R.W., 3 Untried 'Optimal' Hot & Cold Fusion Reactors (PowerPoint slides), in 7th Symposium on Current Trends in International Fusion Research. 2007.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: Theory

TOPOLOTRON CHALLENGE # 1 * Bass published words "kidney-bean" & "bean-shaped cross-section" on page 1,239 of November, 1971, Bulletin of American Physical Society (APS) . . .

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237. Bass, R.W. and M.R. Swartz. Empirical System Identification (ESID) and Optimal Control of Lattice-Assisted Nuclear Reactors. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W., Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Theory


238. Bass, R.W., The only conventionally viable Cold Nuclear Fusion theory?, in Amercian Chemical Society. 2010.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: Theory

What is meant in this context by "conventionally viable"?

1. Every concept & technique used is found in standard works on Quantum Mechanics and Solid State Physics & Nuclear Physics. 2. A practitioner of accepted scientific usages will find nothing legitimately objectionable. 3. Straightforward calculations actually PREDICT that under appropriate conditions Cold Fusion must occur despite Huizenga's alleged requirement of ‘3 miracles' that are required.

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239. Basteev, A.V. and L.A. Nechiporenko, Activation of solid-phase deflagration of hydrogen-containing energy-storing substances. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1994. 19: p. 739.

First Author: Basteev, A. V.
All Authors: Basteev, A. V., Nechiporenko, L. A.
Keywords: review, fractofusion


240. Batalla, E., E.G. Zwartz, and B.A. Judd, In-situ X-ray diffraction of palladium cathodes in electrolytic cells. Solid State Commun., 1989. 71: p. 805.

First Author: Batalla, E.
All Authors: Batalla, E., Zwartz, E. G., Judd, B. A.
Keywords: tetrahedral structure, gamma phase lattice parameter


241. Battaglia, A., et al., Neutron emission in Ni-H systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1999. 112 A: p. 921.

First Author: Battaglia, A.
All Authors: Battaglia, A., Daddi, L., Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Sona, P. G., Veronesi, S.
Keywords: Ni, H2, neutron


242. Bauer, H., Science in the 21st Century: Knowledge Monopolies and Research Cartels. J. Sci. Expl., 2004. 18(4): p. 643â€â€"660.

First Author: Bauer, H.
All Authors: Bauer, H.
Keywords: review


243. Baurichter, A., et al., Search for cold fusion in palladium. Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter, 1989. 76: p. 1.

First Author: Baurichter, A.
All Authors: Baurichter, A., Eyrich, W., Frank, M., Goehr, H., Kreische, W., Ortner, H., Roeseler, B., Schiller, C. A., Weeske, G., Witthun, W.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission Pd D2O, electrolysis


244. Bazhutov, Y., B.A. Khrenov, and G.B. Khristiansen, About one opportunity of second shower spectrum interpretation observed at small depth underground. Isv. Akad. Nauk USSR, ser. phys., 1982. 46(9): p. 2425.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Khrenov, B. A., Khristiansen, G. B.
Keywords: theory new particle erzion


245. Bazhutov, Y., et al. Interpretation of cold nuclear fusion by means of erzion catalysis. in Fiz. Plazmy Nekotor. Vopr. Obshch. Fiz. M. 1990.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Vereshkov, G. M., Kuz'min, R. N., Frolov, A. M.
Keywords: theory, erzion new particle


246. Bazhutov, Y., et al. Study of the possibility of a cold nuclear fusion reaction by electrolysis of heavy water with a titanium electrode. in Teo. Eksp. Issled. Vopr. Obshch. Fiz., Min. Obshch. Mashin. SSSR. 1991.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Kuznetsov, A. B., Surova, T. D., Chertov, Yu. P.
Keywords: Ti, tritium, x-ray, electrolysis, D2O


247. Bazhutov, Y., et al. Excess Heat Observation During Electrolysis of Cs2CO3 Solution in Light Water. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Chertov, Yu. P., Krivoshein, A. A., Skuratnik, Ya. B., Khokhlov, N. I.
Keywords: Cs2CO3, Ni, H2O, heat+, tritium, ICCF-4


248. Bazhutov, Y. Erzion Model of Catalytic Nuclear Transmutation and Its Interpretation of Ball-Lightning and Other Anomalous Geophysical Phenomena. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: theory, Erzion, caviation, tritium, neutron, new particle, ICCF-6


249. Bazhutov, Y. and V.P. Koretsky. Possibility of Radioactive Waste Utilization in Terms of the Erzion Model. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Koretsky, V. P.
Keywords: theory, Erzion, caviation, tritium, neutron, new particle, ICCF-6


250. Bazhutov, Y., et al. Tritium, Neutron, and Radicarbon Registration with the Yusmar Hydrofacility Running. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Koretsky, V. P., Kuznetsov, A. B., Potapov, Yu. S., Nikitsky, V. P., Nevezhin, N. Ya., Saunin, E. I., Kordukevich, V. O., Titenkov, A. F.
Keywords: theory, Erzion, caviation, tritium, neutron, particle emission, ICCF-6


251. Bazhutov, Y. Influence of Spin and Parity Preservation Lows on Erzion Model Predictions in Cold Fusion Experiments. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: theory, Ezrion, ICCF-7


252. Bazhutov, Y. and V.P. Koretsky. Neutron Generation at Ultrasonic Cavitation of Some Liquids. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Koretsky, V. P.
Keywords: neutron, cavitation, Ti, ultrasound ICCF-7


253. Bazhutov, Y. Erzion Discovery in Cosmic Rays and its Possible Great Role in Nature in Framework of Erzion Model of Cold Nuclear Transmutation. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: erzion, transmutation cosmic ray, theory new particle, ICCF-8


254. Bazhutov, Y., et al. Calorimetric And Neutron Diagnostics Of Liquids During Laser Irradiation. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Bazhutova, S., Dyadkin, A., Nekrasov, V., Sharkov, V.
Keywords:


255. Bazhutov, Y. and E. Pletnikov. Search For Erzion Nuclear Catalysis Chains From Cosmic Ray Erzions Stopping In Organic Scintillator. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Pletnikov, E.
Keywords: theory


256. Bazhutov, Y. Erzion Model Features In Cold Nuclear Transmutation Experiments. in 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: theory,


257. Bazhutov, Y. Role of Russian Scientists in CMNS - Conference Proceedings 1991-2007. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: Theory,


258. Bazhutov, Y., Erzion model interpretation of the experiments with hydrogen loading of various metals. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: Theory

The short review of Cold Nuclear Transmutation investigation for 22 years after its discovery is presented. It is shown the main physical results of Rossi-Focardi and our experiment with the hydrogen loading of various metals. It is proposed the Erzion Model of Catalytic Nuclear Transmutation for theoretical explanation of the generation of excess heat, new chemical elements and isotopes, X-ray and neutron bursts radiation in these experiments.

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259. Bazhutov, Y., et al., Investigation of Radiation Effects at Loading Ni, Be and LaNi5 by Hydrogen. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Belousova, E., Koretsky, V. P., Parkhomov, A.
Keywords: gamma radiation.

The installation permitting to investigate gamma, x-ray and neutron radiations emitted by metals loaded with protium-deuterium mixture at temperature up to 750ÂÂC and pressure up to 100 bars is created. It was discovered that LaNi5 powder, nickel and beryllium are radiated presumably X-rays and neutrons. Radiation emission occurs in the form of short bursts or series of bursts lasting up to several tens minutes.

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260. Bazhutov, Y., et al., Calorimetric and Radiation Diagnostics ofWater Solutions Under Intense Light Irradiation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Gerasimove, A., Evmenenko, V., Koretskiy, V., Parkhomov, A., Sapozhnikov, Y.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Erzion model, Gamma-ray, Neutrons, Red light irradiation, Tritium,Water solutions, X-ray

A series of experiments with light irradiation of saltwater solutions and alkalis in special vessels was performed. The sources of irradiation were: a Light Emitting Diode (LED) lamp, a matrix of LEDs, and a laser. All of them were in the red wavelength. Possible calorimetric diagnostics and nuclear radiation (gamma rays, X-rays, and neutrons) were monitored. Liquid scintillation diagnostics of tritium were used. Gamma-ray radiation detection with an NaI scintillation detector, and X-ray radiation detection with Geiger counters was performed. No such radiation was observed. Excess heat was not detected in any experiment. Neutrons were measured with help of 3He counters placed in a paraffin barrel. Small neutron emissions (up to 100 neutrons) was observed in the form of a series of short bursts (lasting a few milliseconds) during some minutes at the background level. The generation of tritium after LED lamp and matrix of LEDs irradiation of water solutions LiOH and Na2CO3has been demonstrated in some experiments.

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261. Bearden, T.E., Use of Asymmetrical Regauging and Multivalued Potentials to Achieve Over-Unity Electromagnetic Engines. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 60.

First Author: Bearden, T. E.
All Authors: Bearden, T. E.
Keywords: ZPE,, theory


262. Bearden, T.E., Purported Over-Unity Results by Hewlett Packard. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(1): p. 98.

First Author: Bearden, T. E.
All Authors: Bearden, T. E.
Keywords: ZPE,, history


263. Bearden, T.E., EM Corrections Enabling a Practical Unified Field Theory with Emphasis on Time-Charging Interactions of Longitudinal EM Waves. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(2/3): p. 12.

First Author: Bearden, T. E.
All Authors: Bearden, T. E.
Keywords: ZPE,, theory


264. Beaudette, C.G., Excess Heat: Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed. 2002, Concord, NH: Oak Grove Press.

First Author: Beaudette, C. G.
All Authors: Beaudette, C. G.
Keywords: history book

This document contains extracts from the book, and the autho-s description of the book: This book tells the history of the strangest event in modern science. In 1989 the University of Utah announced a new experiment by electrochemists Professors Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons that demonstrates table top nuclear fusion at extremely low levels, and substantial anomalous (unexplained, excess) heat energy (power) with no dangerous radiation. This story, written for the college reader without scientific training, presents the abundant replication of excess heat results by many laboratories in several countries. Excess heat research, referred to as cold fusion research, is presently an empirical science known as low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). While the book illustrates much progress, the specific reactions that produce the heat energy still await discovery. . .

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265. Beaudette, C.G., Response to the DOE/2004 Review of Cold-Fusion Research. 2005, Oak Grove Press: South Bristol, ME.

First Author: Beaudette, C. G.
All Authors: Beaudette, C. G.
Keywords: Review

During 2004, the Office of Science of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE/OS) initiated and completed a peer-review of the field in science known as cold-fusion research (CFR). The DOE/OS selected eighteen Reviewers for their expertise in the relevant scientific specialties. Remaining largely anonymous, they studied a collection of papers about the field selected and prepared by several of the scientists who have been active in CFR for the past sixteen y ears. Those scientists also presented selected accomplishments to some of the Reviewers during a one day meeting. The following three questions (paraphrased) were asked of the Reviewers: (1) Is there evidence of low-energy-nuclear-reactions (LENR), (2) do such reactions really occur, and (3) should research efforts be continued?

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266. Becker, E.W., Triple collision reaction of deuterons as a possible explanation of cold nuclear fusion. Naturwiss., 1989. 76: p. 214.

First Author: Becker, E. W.
All Authors: Becker, E. W.
Keywords: nuclear reaction Li D2 Helium


267. Beddingfield, D.H., et al. Characterization of Charged Particle Bursts from Deuterium Loaded Thin Titanium Foils. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Beddingfield, D. H.
All Authors: Beddingfield, D. H., Cecil, F. E., Galovich, C. S., Liu, H., Asher, S.
Keywords: Ti, D2, particle emission, lattice parameter, metallurgy, loading, ICCF-2


268. Beene, J., Critique of "Cold Fusion from a Chemist's Point of View". Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Beene, J.
All Authors: Beene, J.
Keywords: theory, critique

The following critique of Dr. Edmund Storms' recent observations and theory, "Cold Fusion from a Chemist's Point of View," can be called un-critical, in the sense that his arguments appear to be fully defensible, at least within a narrow focus. There is little to dispute within what Storms presents -- but the problem, if there is one, goes to the validity of any underlying premise of simplification, which can be called "parsimony" or "Ockham's razor."

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269. Begley, S., et al., The Race for Fusion, and The Follies of Science, in Newsweek. 1989. p. 49.

First Author: Begley, S.
All Authors: Begley, S., Hurt, H., Murr, A., Rogers, M.
Keywords: history, newspaper


270. Begley, S., E. Jones, and T. Waldorf, A Sun in a Test Tube?, in Newsweek. 1989. p. 58.

First Author: Begley, S.
All Authors: Begley, S., Jones, E., Waldorf, T.
Keywords: history


271. Begley, S., Cold Fusion Isn't Dead, It's Just Withering From Scientific Neglect, in Wall Street Journal. 2003. p. B1.

First Author: Begley, S.
All Authors: Begley, S.
Keywords: Review


272. Behrisch, R., et al., Search for fusion reactions between deuterium atoms implanted into titanium. Nucl. Fusion, 1989. 29(7): p. 1187.

First Author: Behrisch, R.
All Authors: Behrisch, R., Moeller, W., Roth, J., Scherzer, B. M. U.
Keywords: Ti, ion implantation, D2, particle emission


273. Behrisch, R., Comment on: H. Gentsch, DD-fusion reactions at a PdAg(D) target in a minireactor, Ber. Bunsenges, Phys. Chem. 95, 1283 [1991]. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 1992. 96: p. 733 (in German).

First Author: Behrisch, R.
All Authors: Behrisch, R.
Keywords: neutron, D+, Pd.


274. Bellanger, G., Embrittlement of Palladium and Palladium-Silver Alloy Cathode Membranes by Tritium. Fusion Technol., 1995. 27: p. 36.

First Author: Bellanger, G.
All Authors: Bellanger, G.
Keywords: Pd, Pd-Ag, embrittlement, tritium


275. Bellanger, G. and J.J. Rameau, Determination of tritium adsorption and diffusion parameters in a palladium-silver alloy by electrochemical impedance analysis. Fusion Technol., 1997. 32: p. 94.

First Author: Bellanger, G.
All Authors: Bellanger, G., Rameau, J. J.
Keywords: tritium, diffusion, Pd-Ag


276. Bellini, M., L. Casetti, and M. Rosa-Clot, Nuclear Fusion in Excited Hydrogen Molecules. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1990. 337: p. 207.

First Author: Bellini, M.
All Authors: Bellini, M., Casetti, L., Rosa-Clot, M.
Keywords: Theory


277. Belov, A.S., V.E. Kusik, and Y.V. Ryabov, The nuclear fusion for the reactions (2)H(d,n)(3)He,(2)H(d,gamma)(4)He at low deuterons energy and 'cold' nuclear fusion. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1990. A103: p. 1647.

First Author: Belov, A. S.
All Authors: Belov, A. S., Kusik, V. E., Ryabov, Yu. V.
Keywords: ion beam, Pd, neutron, D+


278. Beltyukov, I.L., et al., Laser-induced cold nuclear fusion in Ti-H2-D2-T2 compositions. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 234.

First Author: Beltyukov, I. L.
All Authors: Beltyukov, I. L., Bondarenko, N. B., Janelidze, A. A., Gapanov, M. Yu, Gribanov, K. G., Kondratov, S. V., Maltsev, A. G., Novikov, P. I., Tsvetkov, S. A., Zakharov, V. I.
Keywords: laser, titanium, fractofusion neutron, gamma emission


279. Belzner, A., et al., Two fast mixed-conductor systems: deuterium and hydrogen in palladium - thermal measurements and experimental considerations. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 219.

First Author: Belzner, A.
All Authors: Belzner, A., Bischler, U., Crouch-Baker, S., Gur, T. M., Lucier, G., Schreiber, M., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+, method, Pd, D2O effect of H2O


280. Belzner, A., et al., Recent results on mixed conductors containing hydrogen or deuterium. Solid State Ionics, 1990. 40/41: p. 519.

First Author: Belzner, A.
All Authors: Belzner, A., Bischler, U., Crouch-Baker, S., Gur, T. M., Lucier, G., Schreiber, M., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat+


281. Bemporad, E., et al. Integrated Approach for High Resolution Surface Characterisation: Coupling Focused Ion Beam with Micro and Nano Mechanical Tests (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Bemporad, E.
All Authors: Bemporad, E., Sebastiani, M., Palmieri, V., Deambrosis, S.
Keywords: materials

At present, mechanical characterisation of engineered surfaces is gaining more and more interest for the growing industrial application of surface modification and coating techniques, which are usually applied to improve either surface mechanical or functional performances (i.e hardness, load bearing capacity, wear resistance, surface free energy and chemical reactivity, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, . . .).

Furthermore, it has to be considered that the development of nanostructured materials and the growing use and application of nano-systems and nano-structures make the use of advanced procedures for nano-scale mechanical characterisation strictly necessary; in other cases, mechanical behaviour can be strongly influenced by microstructural and size effects (grain size, defects, interfaces, porosity,…), so multi-scale characterisation procedures are strongly needed for a determination of the correct correlation function among process parameters, surface properties and in-service performances.

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282. Bemporad, E., et al. Integrated approach for high resolution surface characterization: coupling focused ion beam with micro and nano mechanical tests. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Bemporad, E.
All Authors: Bemporad, E., Sebastiani, M., Palmieri, V., Deambrosis, S.
Keywords:

In the present paper, we will give a brief overview about the synergic use of two high resolution techniques with focus on applications on thin coatings: Focused Ion Beam (coupled with electron beam) imaging, milling and deposition technique (briefly called FIB) and Nanoindentation. After a basic description of both techniques (architecture, probe-sample interaction basics and operation modes), we will demonstrate effectiveness of this approach for microstructural investigation on very small samples without any sample preparation or preprocessing by presenting two case studies:

(i) Analysis of residual stresses of engineered surfaces by coupling focused ion beam controlled material removal and nanoindentation testing, and

(ii) Nano-mechanical characterization of sputtered niobium thin films for application in accelerating cavities.

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283. Benedek, G. and P.F. Bortignon, Cold nuclear fusion: viewpoints of solid-state physics. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D, 1989. 11(8): p. 1227.

First Author: Benedek, G.
All Authors: Benedek, G., Bortignon, P. F.
Keywords: theory, screening


284. Benesh, C.J. and J.P. Vary, Fusion rates of squeezed and screened hydrogenic nuclei. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1989. 40(2): p. R495.

First Author: Benesh, C. J.
All Authors: Benesh, C. J., Vary, J. P.
Keywords: theory, screening distance


285. Benetskii, B.A., A.V. Klyachko, and A.I. Rozantsev, An attempt to observe cold thermonuclear fusion in a condensed medium. Ratk. Soobshch. Fiz., 1989(6): p. 58 (In Russian).

First Author: Benetskii, B. A.
All Authors: Benetskii, B. A., Klyachko, A. V., Rozantsev, A. I.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron


286. Benford, M.S., Biological Nuclear Reactions: Empirical Data Describes Unexplained SHC Phenomenon. J. New Energy, 1999. 3(4): p. 19.

First Author: Benford, M. S.
All Authors: Benford, M. S.
Keywords: transmutation,, biological


287. Bennington, S.M., et al., A search for the emission of x-rays from electrolytically charged palladium-deuterium. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34: p. 1323.

First Author: Bennington, S. M.
All Authors: Bennington, S. M., Sokhi, R. S., Stonadge, P. R., Ross, D. K., Benham, M. J., Beynon, T. D., Whithey, P., Harris, I. R., Farr, J. P. G.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, D2O, Pd-Li, negative


288. Bennington, S.M., et al., In-situ measurements of deuterium uptake into a palladium electrode using time-of-flight neutron diffractometry. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 281: p. 323.

First Author: Bennington, S. M.
All Authors: Bennington, S. M., Benham, M. J., Stonadge, P. R., Fairclough, J. P. A., Ross, D. K.
Keywords: neutron diffraction, loading, PdD, composition, method, structure


289. Benson, T., A "Micro-fusion" reactor: Nuclear reactions in "the cold" by ultrasonic cavitation. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(1): p. 33.

First Author: Benson, T.
All Authors: Benson, T.
Keywords: ultrasonic, heat+, He


290. Benson, T. and T.O. Passell. Calorimetry of Energy-Efficient Glow Discharge - Apparatus Design and Calibration. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Benson, T.
All Authors: Benson, T., Passell, T. O.
Keywords: glow discharge, calorimetry

Introduction

This work aims to develop a "family" of low-powered calorimetrically-accurate glow discharge units, similar to that reported by Dardik, et al. at ICCF-10, and to use these to test a wide range of cathode materials, electrode coatings, gas types, gas pressures, and power input levels.  We will describe the design and calibration of these units.

The strategy is to use a large number of very similar units so that the calorimetric response does not vary significantly for a given power level.  The design is metal or sealed glass cylindrical tubes, charged with 0.4 to 50 torr mixtures of deuterium, hydrogen, argon, or helium gases.  Units operate from 0.2 watt to >2 watt power input.  The units have low mass (<400 grams) to enhance their sensitivity to excess heat, and they are designed to allow visual observation of the discharge, on-line spectroscopic analysis of the gas to follow any changes in composition, and replication of the geometry and thermal mass during numerous changes in electrode composition. . . .

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291. Berkem, A.R., Nuclear fusion. Hot fusion - cold fusion. Kim. Sanayi, 1989. 31: p. 7 (in Turkish).

First Author: Berkem, A. R.
All Authors: Berkem, A. R.
Keywords: Review


292. Berkheimer, G.D. and R.E. Buxbaum., Hydrogen Pumping with Palladium Membranes. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 1985. 3: p. 413.

First Author: Berkheimer, G. D.
All Authors: Berkheimer, G. D., Buxbaum., R. E.
Keywords: diffusion, PdH, Pd-Ag, H2, Ag


293. Berlouis, L.E.A., et al., The decomposition of electrochemically loaded palladium hydride: a thermal analysis study. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 207.

First Author: Berlouis, L. E. A.
All Authors: Berlouis, L. E. A., Hall, P. J., MacKinnon, A. J., Wark, A. W., Manuelli, D., Gervais, V., Robertson, J. E.
Keywords: PdH, loading, thermodynamic


294. Bernabei, R., et al., Neutron monitoring during evolution of deuteride precipitation in Nb, Ta and Ti. Solid State Commun., 1990. 76: p. 815.

First Author: Bernabei, R.
All Authors: Bernabei, R., Gannelli, G., Cantelli, R., Cordero, d'Angelo, S., Iucci, N., Picozza, P. G., Villoresi, G.
Keywords: neutron, cracks, fractofusion, loading, Pd, PdD, D2


295. Bernardini, M., et al. Anomalous Effects Induced by D2O Electrolysis of Titanium. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bernardini, M.
All Authors: Bernardini, M., Manduchi, C., Mengoli, G., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: Ti, D2O, electrolysis, heat, transmutation, ICCF-8

This investigation emphasizes the heat output (~1 W) measured at open circuit after the electrolysis of 0.6 M K2CO3 in D2O on titanium. This thermal phenomenon decayed slowly over the course of several days. "Post-mortem" γ-spectroscopy analysis of the Ti samples cathodized in D2O evidenced transient γ-emissions which cannot be attributed to impurities of the electrolytic system.

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296. Bernstein, L.A., Destruction of Radioactivity by Stimulation of Nuclear Transmutation Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 8-14.

First Author: Bernstein, L. A.
All Authors: Bernstein, L. A.
Keywords: Destruction of radioactivity, Nuclear transmutation reactions, Radioactive waste disposal, Thermal desorption, Tritium

Modern science considers properties of radioactive decay as intrinsic characteristics of each isotope that cannot be affected by changes in the surroundings. Here, we present an approach for stimulation of nuclear transmutation reactions leading to accelerated destruction of radioactive isotopes that allows expedited disposal of radioactive materials.

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297. Berrondo, M. Computer Simulation of D Atoms in a Pd Lattice. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Berrondo, M.
All Authors: Berrondo, M.
Keywords: theory distance Lattice Parameter PdD2


298. Bertalot, L., et al. Analysis of Tritium and Heat Excess in Electrochemical Cells With Pd Cathodes. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bertalot, L.
All Authors: Bertalot, L., Bettinali, L., De Marco, F., Violante, V., De Logu, P., Dikonimos, T., La Barbera, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, tritium-, neutron-, electrolysis, pulse loading, ICCF-2, negative

INTRODUCTION The origin of the excess heat [1,2] developed during the electrolysis of heavy water in "Cold Fusion" cells is up to now open to question. The necessary presence of deuterium suggests that fusion reactions can be partially or totally responsible for the generation of excess heat. Experience has shown neutron emission to be sporadic and very weak; on the other hand tritium was found in small but detectable amounts [3,4]. Moreover if tritium accumulates in the solution it can be comfortably measured postmortem.

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299. Bertalot, L., et al. Study of Deuterium Charging in Palladium by the Electrolysis of Heavy Water: Search for Heat Excess and Nuclear Ashes. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bertalot, L.
All Authors: Bertalot, L., De Marco, F., De Ninno, A., La Barbera, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Violante, V., Zeppa, P.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+., electrolysis, oneside electrolysis, ICCF-3, D2

The production of heat excess (HE) in electrolytic cells with heavy water and palladium cathodes is, in cold fusion, the experiment that has had more confirmations, even though still doubts are cast on its nuclear origin. Furthermore, the correlation of HE with some features of the experiment seemed to be well established, the most convincing of which is the threshold of the D/Pd ratio. What is yet not quite clear is how to obtain a high D/Pd ratio, since this feature seems to depend both on the material and on the procedures adopted for the electrolysis. In this paper we will propose a novel approach to this problem, which permits us to correlate HE with other features of the experiment. In particular, we try to study the transport of matter across the palladium lattice during the electrolysis. A model proposed by two of us (ADN and VV), and presented at this Conference, helps to interpret the experimental results, and gives interesting hints for future research.

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300. Bertalot, L., et al. Deuterium Charging in Palladium by Electrolysis of Heavy Water: Measurement of Lattice Parameter. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Bertalot, L.
All Authors: Bertalot, L., De Marco, F., De Ninno, A., Felici, R., La Barbera, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, lattice parameter, loading, electrolysis, ICCF-4, PdD


301. Bertalot, L., et al., Study of deuterium charging in palladium by the electrolysis of heavy water: heat excess production. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1993. 15 D: p. 1435.

First Author: Bertalot, L.
All Authors: Bertalot, L., De Marco, F., De Ninno, A., La Barbera, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Violante, V., Zeppa, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, loading, heat+, Pd, D2O, OCV, diffusion


302. Bertalot, L., et al. Power Excess Production in Electrolysis Experiments at ENEA Frascati. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Bertalot, L.
All Authors: Bertalot, L., De Ninno, A., De Marco, F., La Barbera, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, electrolysis, heat+ surface effect gamma phase ICCF-5 phase diagram

Continuing the research activity on heat excess detection during the electrolysis of heavy water with palladium (Pd) cathodes, previously reported at ICCF3 and ICCF4, new experiments have been performed with success. In one of them it was also possible to correlate the power excess production with other parameters of the experiment: its description will be the subject of this communication.

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303. Bertin, A., et al., Experimental evidence of cold nuclear fusion in a measurement under the Gran Sasso Massif. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 101A: p. 997.

First Author: Bertin, A.
All Authors: Bertin, A., Bruschi, M., Capponi, M., De Castro, S., Marconi, U., Moroni, C., Piccinini, M., Semprini-Cesari, N., Trombini, A., Vitale, A., Zoccoli, A., Jones, S. E., Czirr, J. B., Jensen, G. L., Palmer, E. P.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, D2O, electrolysis


304. Bertin, A., et al., First experimental results at the Gran Sasso Laboratory on cold nuclear fusion in titanium electrodes. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 209.

First Author: Bertin, A.
All Authors: Bertin, A., Bruschi, M., Capponi, M., De Castro, S., Marconi, U., Moroni, C., Piccinini, M., Semprini-Cesari, N., Trombini, A., Vitale, A., Zoccoli, A., Czirr, J. B., Jensen, G. L., Jones, S. E., Palmer, E. P.
Keywords: Ti, electrolysis, neutron, D2O


305. Bertin, A., et al., Negative result of an experiment aimed at verifying the hypothesis that cold and hot nuclear fusion occurs in Ti/(D-T) and ZrNbV/(D-T) systems. Phys. At. Nucl., 1996. 59: p. 744.

First Author: Bertin, A.
All Authors: Bertin, A., Bruschi, M., Bystritsky, V. M., Capponi, M., De Castro, S., Cereda, B., Dugar-Zhabon, V. D., Ferretti, A., Galli, D., Giacobbe, B., Kirpal, V. I., Knyazev, A. I., Kravchenko, I. M., Marconi, U., Massa, I., Merzlyakov, S. I., Moroni, C., Piccinini, M., Poly, M., Rivkis, L. A., Samsonenko, N. V., Semprini-Cesari, N., Shvetsov, V. N., Sidorov, V. T., Smirnov, V. N., Sorokin, S. I., Spighi, R., Starshin, E. P., Stolupin, V. A., Strelkov, A. V., Vecchi, S., Vezzani, A., Villa, M., Vitale, A., Wozniak, J., Zavattini, G., Zhuravlev, N. I., Zoccoli, A.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, Zr-Nb-V, tritium, fractofusion


306. Bertin, A., et al., Absence of tritium yield in metal-deuterium systems". Phys. At. Nucl., 1996. 59: p. 934 (orig. Yad. Fiz. 59 [1996] 976).

First Author: Bertin, A.
All Authors: Bertin, A., Bruschi, M., Bystritsky, V. M., Capponi, M., De Castro, S., Cereda, B., Ferretti, A., Florkowski, T., Galli, D., Giacobbe, B., Gushchin, V. V., Marconi, U., Massa, I., Moroni, C., Piccinini, M., Poly, M., Rivkis, L. A., Sakharov, V. I., Semprini-Cesari, N., Spighi, R., Stolupin, V. A., Tebus, V. N., Vecchi, S., Vezzani, A., Villa, M., Vitale, A., Wozniak, J., Zavattini, G., Zoccoli, A.
Keywords: Ti, D2, tritium, Zr, Nb, La, Ni, Al


307. Bertolotti, M., et al. Nondestructive Evaluation of the Thermal Properties of Palladium-Hydrogen Compounds by Photothermal Techniques. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Bertolotti, M.
All Authors: Bertolotti, M., Liakhou, G. L., Li Voti, R., Paoloni, S., Sibilia, C., Violante, V.
Keywords: thermal conductivity, PdH, resistivity ICCF-7


308. Bertulani, C.A. and L.F. Canto, Semiclassical calculation of Coulomb break-up of weakly bound nuclei. Nucl. Phys. A, 1992. 539: p. 163.

First Author: Bertulani, C. A.
All Authors: Bertulani, C. A., Canto, L. F.
Keywords: theory


309. Besenbacher, F., et al., Search for cold fusion in plasma-charged Pd-D and Ti-D systems. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 315.

First Author: Besenbacher, F.
All Authors: Besenbacher, F., Bech, N. B., Hornshoej, P., Laesgaard, E., Rud, N.
Keywords: gas discharge, neutron, Pd, Ti, layer, Cu, ion implantation


310. Besenbacher, F., et al., Interaction of hydrogen isotopes with metals: deuterium trapped at lattice defects in palladium. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 257.

First Author: Besenbacher, F.
All Authors: Besenbacher, F., Bech, N. B., Noerskov, J. K., Myers, S. M., Nordlander, P.
Keywords: Theory, implantation, H2 defect


311. Betteridge, W. and J. Hope, The separation of hydrogen from gas mixtures:a process of absorption and desorption by palladium. Pt. Met. Rev., 1974. 18-19: p. 50.

First Author: Betteridge, W.
All Authors: Betteridge, W., Hope, J.
Keywords: Pd, H, loading, absorption


312. Beuhler, R.J., G. Friedlander, and L. Friedman, Cluster-Impact Fusion. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1990. 63: p. 1292.

First Author: Beuhler, R. J.
All Authors: Beuhler, R. J., Friedlander, G., Friedman, L.
Keywords: cluster Impact, ion bombardment, Ti,


313. Beuhler, R.J., et al., Deuteron-Deuteron Fusion by Impact of Heavy-Water Clusters on Deuterated Surfaces. J. Phys. Chem., 1991. 94: p. 7665.

First Author: Beuhler, R. J.
All Authors: Beuhler, R. J., Chu, Y. Y., Friedlander, G., Friedman, L., Kunnmann, W.
Keywords: cluster Impact, ion bombardment, Ti Zr,


314. Beuhler, R.J., G. Friedlander, and L. Friedman, Cluster-impact Fusion [Erratum]. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1992. 88: p. 2108.

First Author: Beuhler, R. J.
All Authors: Beuhler, R. J., Friedlander, G., Friedman, L.
Keywords: Cluster Impact


315. Bhadkamkar, A. and H. Fox, Electron Charge Cluster Sparking in Aqueous Solutions. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(4): p. 62.

First Author: Bhadkamkar, A.
All Authors: Bhadkamkar, A., Fox, H.
Keywords: charge cluster, discharge


316. Bharadwaj, S.R., et al., The Palladium-Platinum Phase Diagram. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 169: p. 167.

First Author: Bharadwaj, S. R.
All Authors: Bharadwaj, S. R., Kerkar, A. S., Tripathi, S. N., Dharwadkar, S. R.
Keywords: Pd, Pt, phase diagram


317. Bhattacharjee, J.K., L. Satpathy, and Y.R. Waghmare, A possible mechanism of cold fusion. Pramana, 1989. 32: p. L841.

First Author: Bhattacharjee, J. K.
All Authors: Bhattacharjee, J. K., Satpathy, L., Waghmare, Y. R.
Keywords: Theory, screening


318. Biberian, J.P. Excess Heat Measurements in AlLaO3 Doped with Deuterium. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: heat+, AlLaO3, D2, solid state, proton conductor, neutron, ICCF-5

We show evidence that solid state electrolytes can be used successfully in "cold fusion" experiments. We describe in this work that LaAI03 single crystals loaded with deuterium produce excess heat up to 1 0 times the amount of electrical power applied. No significant amount of neutrons has been detected.

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319. Biberian, J.P., et al. Electrolysis of LaAlO3 Single Crystals and Ceramics in a Deuteriated Atmosphere. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Lonchampt, G., Bonnetain, L., Delepine, J.
Keywords: LaAlO3, proton conductor heat+ single crystal, ICCF-7

We have measured excess heat in solid state electrolytes, namely La0.95AlO3, in deuterium gas atmospheres. We have shown that an excess heat of 50 mW is observed at 550 C, with an input power of 2 mW. However, at 620 C, a temperature decrease has been observed. Those results have been obtained with ceramics, and attempts to do the same with single crystals have failed so far. We believe that both positive and negative temperature changes cannot be explained by a chemical reaction within the crystal.

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320. Biberian, J.P., Rapport sur L'International Conference on Cold Fusion ICCF9 Pekin, Chine, 20-24 mai 2002. 2002, CRMC2-CNRS.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Trip Report, ICCF9, history

1 - Introduction

La neuvieme conference internationale sur la fusion froide ICCF9 s'est tenue a Pekin en Chine, du 20 au 24 mai. Une centaine de personnes de 15 nationalites differentes y ont participe. Elle etait organisee par le Professeur Xing Z. Li, de l'Universite de Tsinghua. Ce fut l'occasion de prendre connaissance des derniers developpements sur le sujet. . . .

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321. Biberian, J.P. and G. Lonchampt. Deuterium Gas Loading of Palladium Using a Solid State Electrolyte. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Lonchampt, G.
Keywords: Pd, D2, heat loading, ICCF-9

ABSTRACT A palladium foil cathode, 50 mm in diameter, 100 µm thick is placed between two anodic palladium foils of same dimensions. A proton conductor layer (poly-ethyleneoxide) (PEO) and phosphoric acid) is deposited between the cathode and the two anodes. The system is placed in a chamber filled with deuterium gas, at a temperature of 75C. At first, deuterium fills the two anodes up to D/Pd = 0.48 measured by pressure decrease. Then a voltage is applied between cathode and anodes, and the cathode gets loaded by D+ electrochemical migration through the solid state electrolyte. Correspondingly, the pressure decreases. Loadings of up to 0.73 have been obtained. When voltages are reversed, the cathode deloads, and the pressure in the chamber increases. This method is well suited to measure over-potentials and absolute loadings. The input power is very low, since the production of D+ ions entering the cathode is close to 100% whereas in liquid electrolyte cells, a small fraction of the ions produced is absorbed by the cathode. Therefore excess heat measurement is easily detected.

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322. Biberian, J.P., Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Cold Fusion. Ann. Fond. Louis de Broglie, 2004. 29(3): p. 1095.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: review

The discovery of "Cold Fusion" has been announced officially by a press conference on March 23rd 1989 at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. The shock wave produced by the Pons and Fleischmann announcement is probably unique in history, due to the fact that emails and fax machines helped propagate the good and the bad news altogether at light speed. Hundreds laboratories around the world immediately tried to replicate the experiment. However, details of it were not well known and doing electrochemistry and calorimetry altogether is a difficult art and takes time to master. Therefore most nuclear scientists tried to detect the assumed accompanying radiations produced by the well known reaction D+D producing either He-3 and a neutron or tritium and a proton with equal probability.

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323. Biberian, J.P. and G. Lonchampt. Excess heat observed during electrolysis of deuterated phosphoric acid with palladium electrodes and a solid state electrolyte in deuterium gas. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Lonchampt, G.
Keywords: proton conductor, heat


324. Biberian, J.P. and G. Lonchampt. Excess heat observed during electrolysis of deuterated phosphoric acid with palladium electrodes and a solid state electrolyte in deuterium gas (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Lonchampt, G.
Keywords: proton conductor, heat


325. Biberian, J.P. and N. Armanet. Excess Heat Production During Diffusion Of Deuterium Through Palladium Tubes. in 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Armanet, N.
Keywords: gas loading, excess heat

Abstract: We have developed a mass flow calorimeter enabling us to measure accurately excess heat production during deuterium diffusion through the walls of palladium tubes. The experiment consists usually of a palladium tube 10 cm long, 2mm outer diameter with 200 μm thick walls, and closed at one end. Deuterium gas is introduced in the tube at various pressures, and temperatures and diffuses out through the walls of the tube. The tube, heated by a resistor, is positioned inside a reactor cell which is a small vacuum chamber. The reactor cell is positioned inside a second vacuum chamber. The outer walls of the vacuum chamber are water cooled. Thermal energy is determined by measuring inlet and outlet temperatures and water mass flow. The energy yield of this calorimeter is 95-98 % depending on input power.

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326. Biberian, J.P. and N. Armanet. Excess Heat During Diffusion of Deuterium Through Palladium. in The 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2007. Sochi, Russia.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Armanet, N.
Keywords: gas loading, excess heat

Following the work by several researchers we have undertaken experiments with deuterium gas flowing through the walls of a palladium tube. Tubes were heated at various temperatures and either filled with palladium powder or palladium compounds or empty. Our mass flow calorimeter enables us to accurately measure excess heat production. We usually used palladium tubes 10 cm long, 2 mm outer diameter with 200 µm thick walls, and closed at one end. Deuterium gas is introduced in the tube at various pressures, and temperatures and diffuses out through the walls of the tube. Thermal energy is determined by measuring inlet and outlet temperatures of cooling water and its mass flow. The energy yield of this calorimeter is 95-98% depending on input power. Our best result so far is an excess heat of 3 W with an input power of 47 W using an oxidized palladium tube filled with palladium powder. In addition to these results we describe an experiment where temperature oscillations have been measured, indicating the importance of temperature in excess heat production.

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327. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 1. 2007.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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328. Biberian, J.P., Condensed matter nuclear science (cold fusion): an update. Int. J. Nucl. Energy Sci. Technol., 2007. 3(1): p. 31.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: cold fusion, condensed matter nuclear science, low-energy nuclear reaction, excess heat, transmutations

Seventeen years after the announcement by Professors Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann of the discovery of cold fusion in March 1989, the scientific community does not acknowledge this field as a genuine scientific research theme. However, the scientific demonstration of cold fusion was made long ago by showing the evidence of excess heat production in electrolytic cells and other devices. Also, nuclear ashes have been observed, mainly the formation of helium-4 along with the production of excess heat. What makes this field difficult to accept is the lack of the usual particle emission observed in nuclear science or high-energy physics. In some instances low-level neutron production, X-ray emission and transmutation of elements have been measured. At this point there is no satisfactory theory explaining the unique characteristics of condensed matter nuclear science. Many models have been proposed, several of them using textbook physics.

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329. Biberian, J.P. Cold Fusion by Gas Loading: A Review. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: gas loading,


330. Biberian, J.P. and N. Armanet, An update on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (cold fusion). Ann. Fond. Louis de Broglie, 2008. 33(1).

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Armanet, N.
Keywords: review

ABSTRACT. The discovery of Cold Fusion was announced on March 23, 1989 at a press conference at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. The two discoverers: Stan Pons and Martin Fleischmann described their electrochemical device that produces more heat than the electric energy used to run it. Since then lot of progress has been made, and it is more and more obvious that this phenomenon now named Condensed Matter Nuclear Science is a genuine scientific research field with many important potential applications. It is the purpose of this paper to present an update of the worldwide research.

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331. Biberian, J.P., Low Energy Nuclear Reactions in Gas Phase: A Comprehensive Review, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 9-34.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:


332. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 2. 2009.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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333. Biberian, J.P., Unexplained Explosion During an Electrolysis Experiment in an Open Cell Mass Flow Calorimeter. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2009. 2.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: explosion, Pd, D2O

While running an electrochemical cell designed to measure excess heat with a hollow palladium cathode and a platinum wire anode in heavy water, an explosion occurred. The Dewar that contained the experiment shattered. It is unlikely that the explosion was due to a deuterium oxygen recombination explosive reaction, since the cell was open, the amount of deuterium and oxygen gas was very limited in the cell and any pressure created by recombination should have escaped through the unsealed open end of the cell. It is very likely that under some not yet understood conditions, chain reactions occur in highly loaded palladium samples giving rise to an explosion. Several experimentalists before have already observed this same phenomenon.

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334. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 3. 2010.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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335. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 4. 2011.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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336. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 5. 2011.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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337. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 6. 2012.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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338. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 7. 2012.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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339. Biberian, J.P., Biological Transmutations: Historical Perspective. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 7.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Biological transmutations, Cold fusion, History, LENR

In this review paper, it is shown that in biological systems, chemical elements can be transmuted into other elements. These facts have been established since the early 19th century, but they have been ignored by established science ever since. The purpose of this work is to show how during the past two centuries, a number of experimentalists have questioned the mass conservation law established by Antoine Lavoisier [1] for chemical reactions. They have proved experimentally in plants, bacteria and other living organisms, some elements are transmuted into other elements.

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340. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 8. 2012.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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341. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 9. 2012.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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342. Biberian, J.P., Comments Regarding the Storms Paper. Infinite Energy, 2013(108): p. 36.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: theory, critique

The paper, "Cold Fusion from a Chemist's Point of View," is divided in two parts. In the first part, Storms explains the difference between hot fusion and cold fusion. The mechanisms of hot fusion and cold fusion cannot be the same. For example, in fractofusion the mechanism is identical to hot fusion (it is not LENR), and the reaction products are the same as those of hot fusion. Cold fusion operates under a different mechanism. Storms assumes that hot fusion operates under the basic laws of thermodynamics which explain the data observed. On the other hand, cold fusion operates under the laws of statistics. This is the explanation of the different behaviors between hot and cold fusion. . . .

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343. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 10. 2013.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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344. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 11. 2013.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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345. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 12. 2013.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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346. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 13. 2014.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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347. Biberian, J.P., Cold Fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Solid-State, electrochemistry, deuterium diffusion, plasma electrolysis.

This paper is a review of the work I have performed on the subject of Cold Fusion alone or in cooperation with other scientists. It covers a number of fields like solid-state electrolytes, electrolysis, gas diffusion. The experiments described below are the one having given positive results. However, many other attempts have failed.

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348. Biberian, J.P., I. Parchamazad, and M. Miles, Possible Role of Oxides in the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Parchamazad, I., Miles, M.
Keywords: excess heat

The mechanism of the Fleischmann-Pons effect is not yet fully understood. It appears that in many occasions an oxide layer, or an insulating one covers the surface of the active material. In this paper we list a number of experiments displaying such a situation, and suggest possible role of these layers.

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349. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 14. 2014.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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350. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15. 2015.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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351. Biberian, J.P., et al., Pressurized Plasma Electrolysis Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Valat, M., Sigaut, W., Clauzon, P., Fauvarque, J.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Electrolysis, High pressure, Plasma

We have performed a plasma electrolysis experiment for the first time at a pressure of 5 x 10^5 Pa in a specially designed calorimeter. The cathode was a 2 mm tungsten rod, and the anode was a stainless-steel foil. The electrolyte was 0.6 mol K2CO3 in light water. In one instance, we observed excess heat of 20 W for 90 min.

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352. Biberian, J.P., Preface. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

I met John Bockris only once, in 2003, during the ICCF 10 conference in Boston. . . .

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353. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 16. 2015.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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354. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 17. 2015.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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355. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 18. 2015.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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356. Biberian, J.P., Biological transmutations. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Biological transmutations, cold fusion, low energy nuclear reactions


357. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 19. 2016.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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358. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 20. 2016.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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359. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 21. 2016.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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360. Biberian, J.P., A Tribute to Georges Lonchampt. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 1-6.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Boil-off, Cold fusion, Electrolysis, Lonchampt, Solid state electrolyte

Georges Lonchampt was one of the few French researchers who, from day one, worked on Cold Fusion. He started performing his own experiments, and later worked with Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons. He successfully reproduced the two scientists' original experiment, and was the only one able to successfully replicate the boil-off experiment.

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361. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 22. 2017.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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362. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 23. 2017.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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363. Bigeleisen, J. and E.C. Kerr, Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Dilute Solutions of HT in e-H2 and DT in e-D2 from the Triple Points to the Critical Temperatures of the Solutions. J. Chem. Phys., 1963. 39: p. 763.

First Author: Bigeleisen, J.
All Authors: Bigeleisen, J., Kerr, E. C.
Keywords: H, tritium D, fractionation, separation


364. Bihl, V., O. Reifenschweiler, and G. van de Ligt, Experimente Zur Darstellung Von Temperaturfesten Metall-Tritium Systemen. 1965, Philips Corporation.

First Author: Bihl, V.
All Authors: Bihl, V., Reifenschweiler, O., van de Ligt, G.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity

This paper is from the Philips Corporation Repository hosted by TU Delft Library:

http://repository.tudelft.nl/assets/uuid:7d20843d-41d4-424b-a52a-a5f312168d94/tn2014-00268.pdf

The paper is in German. It includes a Summary in English:

The following experiments deal with the preparation of titanium-tritium and zirkonium-tritium systems, which are stable against heating. It could be shown that such systems suitable as priming agent in gas discharge tubes can be prepared by heating the fine dispersed metals in a tritium atmosphere.

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365. Birgul, O., et al., Electrochemically induced fusion of deuterium using surface modified palladium electrodes. J. Eng. Env. Sci., 1990. 14(3): p. 373.

First Author: Birgul, O.
All Authors: Birgul, O., Celebi, S., Ozdural, A., Pekmez, K., Yildiz, A., Yurum, Y., Doga-Turk
Keywords: gamma emission electrolysis, Pd, D2O, H2O heat


366. Biris, A., et al., Solubility of Deuterium in LaNi5. J. Less-Common Met., 1997. 49: p. 477.

First Author: Biris, A.
All Authors: Biris, A., Bucur, R. V., Ghete, P., Indrea, E., Lupu, D.
Keywords: D2, LaNi5, phase diagram, solubility, pressure


367. Birnbaum, H.K., et al., Hydrogen in aluminum. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 260.

First Author: Birnbaum, H. K.
All Authors: Birnbaum, H. K., Buckley, C., Zeides, F., Sirois, E., Rozenak, P., Spooner, S., Lin, J. S.
Keywords: H, Al, lattice parameter, AlH, loading


368. Bishop, J.E., Cold Fusion Generating Lots of Heat, Little Light, in The Wall Street Journal. 1989: New YorkEditor.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper


369. Bishop, J.E., Cold Comfort on Cold Fusion Front, in The Wall Street Journal. 1989: NYEditor. p. 1.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper


370. Bishop, J.E., Heat Source in Fusion Find May Be Mystery Reaction and Brigham Young Physicists Reveal Details of Second H-Fusion Discovery and Will New Energy Sources Soon Power U.S.?, in Wall Street Journal. 1989.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: newspaper, history


371. Bishop, J.E. and J.M. Schlesinger, Japan's Cold Fusion Effort Produces Startling Claims of Bursts of Neutrons, in The Wall Street Journal. 1989: NYEditor. p. 3.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E., Schlesinger, J. M.
Keywords: history, newspaper


372. Bishop, J.E. and K. Wells, Taming H-Bombs? : Utah Scientists Claim Breakthrough in Quest for Fusion Energy, in The Wall Street Journal. 1989: NYEditor.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E., Wells, K.
Keywords: history, newspaper


373. Bishop, J.E., Cold Fusion' Chemists Reiterate Claim; Other Scientists Report Similar Results, in Wall Street Journal. 1990: New YorkEditor. p. B4.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper


374. Bishop, J.E., 'Cold Fusion' Gets Cold Shoulder From Many a Year After Findings, in The Wall Street Journal. 1990: NYEditor.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper


375. Bishop, J.E., Cold Fusion' May Keep Earth's Core Molten, in Wall Street Journal. 1990: New YorkEditor. p. B1.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper


376. Bishop, J.E., Future of Hot Fusion is Boiling Down to the Behavior of a Few Helium Atoms, in Wall Street Journal. 1990: New YorkEditor. p. B1.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper


377. Bishop, J.E., Scientist Says `Cold Fusion' Tests May Have Had Some Impure Rods, in Wall Street Journal. 1990: New YorkEditor.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper


378. Bishop, J.E., Cold Fusion Research Dispels Some Doubts, in The Wall Street Journal. 1990.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper


379. Bishop, J.E., Utah Funds for Cold Fusion Run Low Just as Concept Gets Boost From Navy, in Wall Street Journal. 1991: New YorkEditor. p. B4.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper


380. Bishop, J.E., 'Cold Fusion' Researcher Asserts Dozens of Tests Can't be 'Ignored", in The Wall Street Journal. 1991: NYEditor. p. 6.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper


381. Bishop, J.E., Cold Fusion Verdict May Be Delivered Soon, in Wall Street Journal. 1991: NYEditor.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper


382. Bishop, J.E., Predictable Heat Source Reported from `Heavy' Water Electrolysis, in Wall Street Journal. 1992: New YorkEditor. p. B12.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper


383. Bishop, J.E. and J.M. Schlesinger, Researcher Claims to Replicate Japanese Experiments in `Cold Fusion', in Wall Street Journal. 1992: New YorkEditor. p. B3.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E., Schlesinger, J. M.
Keywords: history, newspaper


384. Bishop, J.E., A Bottle Rekindles Scientific Debate About the Possibility of Cold Fusion, in Wall Street Journal. 1996: New YorkEditor.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history


385. Bittner, M., et al., Method for investigation of fusion reactions in condensed matter. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 120.

First Author: Bittner, M.
All Authors: Bittner, M., Meister, A., Ohms, D., Paffrath, E., Rahner, D., Schwierz, R., Seeliger, D., Wiesener, K., Wuestner, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, H2O, neutron


386. Bittner, M., et al. Observation of D-D Fusion Neutrons During Degassing of Deuterium Loaded Palladium. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bittner, M.
All Authors: Bittner, M., Meister, A., Seeliger, D., Schwierz, R., Westner, P.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron, fractofusion, ICCF-2


387. Bittner, M., et al., Evidence for the production of d-d fusion neutrons during electrolytic infusion of deuterons into a palladium cylinder. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 2119.

First Author: Bittner, M.
All Authors: Bittner, M., Ludwig, G., Meister, A., Muller, J., Ohms, D., Paffrath, E., Rahner, D., Schwierz, R., Seeliger, D., Stiehl, P., Wiesener, K., Wustner, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, large current, neutron, D2O


388. Bittner, M., et al., Indication for the temporary production of deuteron-deuteron fusion neutrons during electrolytic infusion of deuterons into a massive palladium slab. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 334.

First Author: Bittner, M.
All Authors: Bittner, M., Meister, A., Ohms, D., Paffrath, E., Rahner, D., Schwierz, R., Seeliger, D., Wiesener, K., Wuestner, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, electrolysis, theory, plasma screening PdD


389. Bittner, M., et al., Emission of DD-fusion neutrons from a massive palladium cyclinder during electrolytic infusion of deuterons into the metal". Isotopenpraxis, 1991. 27: p. 274.

First Author: Bittner, M.
All Authors: Bittner, M., Meister, A., Ohms, D., Paffrath, E., Rahner, D., Schwierz, R., Seeliger, D., Wiesener, K., Wuestner, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, large current, neutron


390. Bittner, M., et al., Observation of d-d fusion neutrons during degassing of deuterium-loaded palladium. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 346.

First Author: Bittner, M.
All Authors: Bittner, M., Meister, A., Seeliger, D., Schwierz, R., Wuestner, P.
Keywords: Pd, neutron, deloading, energy


391. Bjerklie, D., J.M. Nash, and D.T. Thompson, Fusion Illusion?, in Time. 1989. p. 72.

First Author: Bjerklie, D.
All Authors: Bjerklie, D., Nash, J. M., Thompson, D. T.
Keywords: history


392. Blagus, S., et al., Search for neutron production during heavy water electrolysis on palladium electrodes. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1989. 333: p. 321.

First Author: Blagus, S.
All Authors: Blagus, S., Bogovac, M., Hodko, D., Krcmar, M., Miljanic, D., Tomas, P., Vajic, M., Vukovic, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, Pd, D2O, layer, surface


393. Blagus, S., et al., Evidence for neutron production during heavy water electrolysis on palladium electrode. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 105.

First Author: Blagus, S.
All Authors: Blagus, S., Bogovac, M., Drasner, A., Vukovic, M.
Keywords: sintered Pd, electrolysis, neutron, D2O


394. Blanchard, R., Fizzion a new process for low energy nuclear transformation and energy production. 1998.

First Author: Blanchard, R.
All Authors: Blanchard, R.
Keywords: theory, dineutron


395. Blaschko, O., P. Fratzl, and R. Klemencic, Model for the Structural Changes at Low Temperatures in PdDx. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1981. 24: p. 277.

First Author: Blaschko, O.
All Authors: Blaschko, O., Fratzl, P., Klemencic, R.
Keywords: PdD, structure, bonding


396. Blaser, J.P., et al., Experimental investigation of cold fusion phenomena in palladium. Chimia, 1989. 43: p. 262.

First Author: Blaser, J. P.
All Authors: Blaser, J. P., Haas, O., Ptitjean, C., Barbero, C., Bertl, W., Lou, K., Mathias, M., Baumann, P., Daniel, H., Hartmann, J., Hechtl, E., Ackerbauer, P., Kammel, P., Scrinzi, A., Zmeskal, H., Kozlowski, T., Kipfer, R., Baur, H., Signr, P., Wieler, R.
Keywords: electrolysis heat-, neutron-, gamma emission, tritium, Helium, D2O, Pd, layer, surface, negative


397. Blencoe, J.G., et al., Tests for 'cold fusion' in the Pd-D2 and Ti-D2 systems at 40-380 MPa and -196-27 degC. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 149.

First Author: Blencoe, J. G.
All Authors: Blencoe, J. G., Naney, M. T., Wesolowski, D. J., Perey, F. G.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, heat-, neutron, D2


398. Bochler, S., et al., 3d Photoemission from Mixed Valent YbH2.6. J. de Physique, Colloque C9, Supp., 1987. 48(12): p. 947.

First Author: Bochler, S.
All Authors: Bochler, S., Schlapbach, L., Monnier, R., Degiorgi, L.
Keywords: photoemission, YbH


399. Bockris, J., J. McBreen, and L. Lewis, The Hydrogen Evolution Kinetics and Hydrogen Entry into a-Iron. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1965. 112: p. 1025.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., McBreen, J., Lewis, L.
Keywords: Fe, hydrogen, reaction, FeH


400. Bockris, J. and A.K.N. Reddy, Modern electrochemistry; an introduction to an interdisciplinary area. 1970, New York: Plenum Press.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Reddy, A. K. N.
Keywords:


401. Bockris, J. and P.K. Subramanyan, The equivalent pressure of molecular hydrogen in cavities within metals in terms of the overpotential developed during the evolution of hydrogen. Electrochim. Acta, 1971. 16: p. 2169.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Subramanyan, P. K.
Keywords: pressure, cracks, Pd, H2O, overvoltage


402. Bockris, J., About the alleged presence of tritium in some palladium electrodes and journalist Gary Taubes article in Science. 1990.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history


403. Bockris, J., The Answer to the Conundrum at Texas A & M: Accusations of Fraud in an Article Published by "Science. 1990.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history


404. Bockris, J. and D. Hodko. Is There Evidence for Fusion Under Solid State Confinement. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Hodko, D.
Keywords: review, history


405. Bockris, J., et al. Does Tritium Form at Electrodes by Nuclear Reactions? in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Lin, G. H., Kainthla, R. C., Packham, N. J. C., Velev, O. A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, tritium ICCF-1

This paper reports tritium formed in LiOD D2O solutions in which Pd cathodes are used to evolve D2 . Electrolysis was carried out for up to 4½ months. Excess heat has been observed from 5 electrodes out of 28, tritium in 15 out of 53 but 9 out of 13 if the electrodes are limited to 1 mm diameter. Steady state tritium concentrations were 10^4-10^7 disintegrations min^-1 ml^-1. A weak correlation may exist between heat observed and tritium produced. The rate of production of tritium was c. 10^10 atoms cm^-2 sec-1. The branching ratio of tritium to neutrons was ~ 10^8.

A theoretical dendrite enhanced fusion model is suggested. Growing gas layer breakdown occurs at sufficiently high surface potential dendrite tips and correspondingly fusion reactions occur. The model gives quantitative consistence with experiment, especially the sporadic nature and the observed branching ratio.

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406. Bockris, J., Addition to 'A review of the investigations of the Fleischmann-Pons phenomena'. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 523.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: review, tritium


407. Bockris, J., G.H. Lin, and N.J.C. Packham, A review of the investigations of the Fleischmann-Pons phenomena. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 11.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Lin, G. H., Packham, N. J. C.
Keywords: Review


408. Bockris, J. and D. Hodko, Is there evidence for cold fusion? Chem. & Ind., 1990. 22: p. 688.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Hodko, D.
Keywords: review


409. Bockris, J., D. Hodko, and Z. Minevski. Fugacity of hydrogen isotopes in metals: degradation, cracking and cold fusion. in Symp. Hydrogen Storage Materials, Batteries, Electrochemistry 1991. 1991.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Hodko, D., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: Hydrogen, cracking, pressure


410. Bockris, J., D. Hodko, and Z. Minevski. The Mechanism of Deuterium Evolution on Palladium: Relation to Heat Bursts Provoked By Fluxing Deuterium Across the Interface. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Hodko, D., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, surface analysis, loading, pulse, overvoltage ICCF-2


411. Bockris, J., How Physicists and Chemists Differ. 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 1991. 4(4): p. 65-66.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history


412. Bockris, J., Cold fusion II: The Story Continues. New Scientist, 1991. 19: p. 50.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history


413. Bockris, J., et al. Tritium and Helium Production in Palladium Electrodes and the Fugacity of Deuterium Therein. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Chien, C. C., Hodko, D., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, tritium, helium, electrolysis, ICCF-3

An account is given of the massive production of tritium at a Pd electrode. Production continued for ~ 750 hours after which time it was arbitrarily curtailed. Production of T was found to cease every few days but could be resuscitated by increasing the overpotential of the electrode reaction. A logarithmic relation between the rate of tritium production and the overpotential of the electrode reaction was established. The Will-Cedzynska method of examining T contamination in specimens has shown that nothing above the background of T was detected if no D2O had been electrolytically evolved on the Pd specimens concerned.

Helium production was found to accompany that of T. The He was analyzed by thermal expulsion and mass spectroscopy. No He3 was found but He4 was measured in nine specimens out of ten examined. Voids were also detected - 1 micron within the electrode. The excess tritium production on Pd co-deposited with deuterium was found.

Cracking and spreading of cracks is shown. An attempt was made to calculate the amount of hydrogen trapped in cracks and to calculate the standard free energy of trapping.

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414. Bockris, J., et al., Cold fusion as a consequence of high fugacity among hydrogen isotopes. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1992. 17: p. 445.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Chien, C. C., Hodko, D., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: theory, fugacity, pressure, OCV


415. Bockris, J., Were the Seeds of the Decay of the West Sown in 1650? 1994.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history, review


416. Bockris, J. and R. Sundaresan, Electrochemistry, Tritium, and Transmutation. 1994.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Sundaresan, R.
Keywords: tritium, electrolysis, transmutation, Fe, review


417. Bockris, J. and R. Sundaresan. Electrochemistry, Tritium and Transmutation. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Sundaresan, R.
Keywords: review


418. Bockris, J., et al. Triggering of Heat and Sub-Surface Changes in Pd-D Systems. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1994. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Sundaresan, R., Letts, D., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, RF, magnet, overvoltage, theory, OCV, high frequency, theory, ICCF-4

I. INTRODUCTION
More than four years after the first reports of chemically stimulated nuclear reactions, the triggering of heat evolution and the production of associated nuclear debris remains a highly uncertain matter. Both the duration of the switch-on time and, indeed, whether a given electrode will commence to show nuclear activity within 500 hours of the beginning of electrolysis, remain unclear.
In the present study, three methods of triggering anomalous heat are described. The changes in the sub-surface of palladium during the evolution of D2 or H2 are described as a function of potential, temperature and time.
Finally, these results are evaluated against the present theories of heat production in metals. 

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419. Bockris, J., et al., Lattice assisted nuclear transformation (LANT). 1995.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Bush, R. T., Lin, G. H., Monti, R. A.
Keywords: review, transmutation


420. Bockris, J., The complex conditions needed to obtain nuclear heat from D-Pd systems. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 210.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: theory, Pd, Deuterium, electrolysis, D2O, crack


421. Bockris, J. and Z. Minevski, Two zones of "Impurities" observed after prolonged electrolysis of deuterium on palladium. Infinite Energy, 1996. 1(5/6): p. 67.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: transmutation, electrolysis, surface analysis, Pd, D2O

In experiments carried out recently in which hydrogen was electrolyzed from water in contact with a palladium electrode, the concentration and depth of impurities were measured as a function of electrolysis time. It was found that after 3 weeks, two different sets of impurities could be observed, one set within 50Å of the surface and another set different chemical spaces, about 1μ inside the metal.

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422. Bockris, J., G.H. Lin, and R.T. Bush, Do nuclear reactions take place under chemical stimulation? J. Sci. Expl., 1996. 10: p. 245.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Lin, G. H., Bush, R. T.
Keywords: cold fusion, transmutation, theory


423. Bockris, J., Speculative interpretation of overunity experiments involving water electrolysis. 1998.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: review


424. Bockris, J. and Z. Minevski, First experimental establishment of high internal pressure of molecular hydrogen developed in palladium during water electrolysis. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1998. 23(12): p. 1079.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: PdH pressure H2 overvoltage electrolysis


425. Bockris, J., Some happenings at Texas A&M University when unexpected new results in research are obtained. 1999.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history


426. Bockris, J., Early Contributions from Workers at Texas A&M University to (So-called) Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. J. New Energy, 1999. 4(2).

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history

INTRODUCTION: THE SITUATION IN MARCH, 1989

The firm opinion in respect to basic knowledge of the nucleus common among chemists and physicists in March, 1989, was that chemical effects (involving frequencies of ~ 10^14, could not affect the nucleus of atoms with frequencies ~ 10^6 times higher.  It was also believed in March, 1989, that high energy neutrons were the path towards atomic fission, as in nuclear reactors; and that collisions of H isotopes at extremely high temperatures similar to those in the sun, constituted the main path towards the fusion of nuclei. . . .

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427. Bockris, J. and E. Mallove, Is the Occurrence of Cold Nuclear Reactions Widespread Throughout Nature? Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(27): p. 29.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Mallove, E.
Keywords: transmutation

The generally accepted idea is that the paper of Fleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins of 1989 gave the first evidence that nuclear reactions occur in the cold in a palladium-deuterium (Pd-D) electrolysis system. However, published accounts on elemental change in solids have been around since before the discovery of the nucleus. Thus, the earliest evidence for creation of new elements was that reported for reactions in biological systems. In view of the wave of negative opinion against the 1989 and thereafter work, it is interesting to note a U.S. Army report of 1978 which concluded that the evidence for nuclear reactions in biology was strongly positive. Even less well-known is that U.S. government labs in the 1970s experimented with neutron emission arising from the passage of very high currents through wires, conditions under which thermonuclear reactions should not have been occurring.

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428. Bockris, J., Nuclear Transmutation: The reality of cold fusion (Book Review). Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society, 1999. 19(5): p. 439.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history


429. Bockris, J., Accountability and academic freedom: The battle concerning research on cold fusion at Texas A&M University. Accountability Res., 2000. 8: p. 103.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD OF LOW TEMPERATURE NUCLEAR REACTIONS FROM GROUPS AT TEXAS A&M
Directly after the March 1989 TV announcement by Fleischmann and Pons that they had achieved a nuclear reaction at electrodes in the cold, research began on the phenomenon at Texas A&M. The University was picked by EPRI as a recipient of funds to investigate the field. Thus, it possessed a Thermodynamic Research Center, a Cyclotron group, and three groups in Electrochemistry (Chemistry Department). In addition, there was the Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research in the Texas Engineering Experiment Center, housed in the university. All these groups received funds to explore "cold fusion."

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430. Bockris, J. and Z. Minevski, The mechansim of the evolution of hydrogen on palladium and associated internal damage phenomena. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2000. 25: p. 747.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: Pd, H, PdH, overvoltage surface cracking damage


431. Bockris, J. The History Of The Discovery Of Transmutation At Texas A&M University. in The Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: transmutation, history

Until 1989 I had been a publisher of high temperature physical chemistry, electrochemical and environmental research papers.   I was a physical chemist and my contact with nuclear chemistry was only in using it in some tracer techniques. The Fleischmann and Pons announcement of March 1989 was of interest partly because of its radical nature, but also because I had known Martin Fleischmann since his days as a student at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London. I had easy access to Fleischmann and I therefore could instruct my co-workers (about 20 at the time) about the technique used in the Fleischmann and Pons work.

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432. Bockris, J., Evidence Concerning the Mechanism of the Nuclear Reaction between Deuterium and Tritium. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 7.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: Deuterium, Mechanism, Neutron, Nuclear, Tritium

Both hydrogen and deuterium in their electrolysis on palladium gave linear Tafel lines but each had a kink in it at about 0.35 V overpotential (η). At this value damage begins to be seen in the SEM photographs of the interior of the electrodes. Tritium formation became detectable at an overpotential (η) of about 0.4 V. The reaction occurs in two consecutive steps: the first is a Volmer-Tafel reaction which occurs when the overpotential is less than 0.3 V. But as the measured coverage θD approaches unity, the deuterons begin to discharge onto the adsorbed deuterium (Heyrovsky mechanism). The second (consecutive) step leads to the tritium formation via a neutron transfer from the electrode to the Pd-D bond which at this stage (near to full occupancy by D) is relatively weak. The ready availability of neutrons in the surface region of the metal catalyst is rationalized in terms of the high electron concentration associated with the surface and he presence of D arriving from D2O in the solution: e- + D+ = 2 neutrons + a neutrino. The model is applied to two anomalies which have troubled this reaction. One is irreproducibility and also the long time (100 h or more) before any nuclear activity is seen.

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433. Bockris, J., Priority in Nuclear Reactions in the Cold. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 7.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: Fieischmann, Nuclear reactions, Priority, Speri and Zorzi

Fleischman, Pons and Hawkins [1] have been thought to have published the first invitro (but unknown) nuclear reaction in the cold in March 23, 1989. Bockris and Mallove [2] published in 1999 a survey of earlier nuclear reactions in the cold (later condensed matter nuclear reactions). Included in their list was a publication by two Italian engineers Speri and Zorzi [3] which came out in 1989. Drawn by this latter fact, in 2011, I investigated further the Speri and Zorzi paper which Mallove and I had mentioned with only a publication date. I found the paper in an obscure medium and discovered upon being able to read it that Speri and Zorzi had been awarded an Italian patent in 1978. The patent was awarded for the discovery of the fusion of hydrogen isotopes to form helium. The original work was carried out in 1974.

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434. Bockris, J., Instrumentation Relevant to Electrochemical Measurements in Condensed Matter Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 10-20.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: Anode, Cells, Cathode, IR Drop, Potentiostat,

The typical electrochemical cell consists of four potentials. One of these is spurious: it should be eliminated from the measurement. A method of doing this is described. The major recommendation is that a third or, so called reference electrode, should be involved in all measurements from which structural information is to be taken from the working electrode. This is then attached to the reference electrode and a high resistance volt meter measures the potential of the working electrode with respect to the reference electrode. Alternative reference electrodes are described.

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435. Bockris, J., On Martin Fleischmann: An Obituary and More. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 1-7.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: Fleischmann, Eagerness, Ideas, Imperial College, Quantum electrodynamics, Royal Society

After receiving a Ph.D. Degree from Imperial College, Fleischmann (F) went to work in the University of Newcastle in the U.K. and spent productive years there (metal deposition, micro-electrodes, and electrochemical extraction from mixtures metals). His reputation grew at a time (1950-1960) when electrochemistry was a popular subject for university research. British Electricity saw their chance to get a star performer down to Southampton University as professor, so they paid for a chair for a person who could attract research support and found that F could fill the job, although it was open to other candidates. Fleischmann occupied the chair for only a few years, less than had been foreseen, and retired from university life some years before it is usual. By this time he already was a Fellow of the Royal Society and also a director of the Max Planck Institute in Berlin. Fleischmann made a colleague of Stanley Pons, head of the Chemistry Department in the University in Utah. Pons (P) was of independent means and could fund research which the two of them might think out together. Fusion means coming together and F saw in electrochemistry a high performance way whereby this might be done. What they found was that the heat evolved in a particular deuterium solution when they passed current through it was larger than it should have been according to known chemical theory. In addition to this they observed some neutrons. They suggested that the extra heat was due to an unknown nuclear reaction. What was unusual about the next step was that F&P got on the McNeil-Lehrer Hour and announced that they had been the first to carry out a nuclear reaction in the cold. After a short time, the nuclear chemists of the world turned against F&P and said that their claims must be all nonsense. The anti-Fleischmann opinion expressed at meetings was so great that they decided that it would be a good thing to escape to some other country. They had a friendship with a very wealthy man, Mr. Toyota, and he had already founded some laboratories in the South of France. He offered F and P laboratory space there and they could move their operation to it free of the negative atmosphere which reigned in America. At first the news which came from the laboratory in France was good. Alas, this was not maintained and after two years they split up and P retired to live in France whilst F retired to Tisbury in the U.K. But F's creativity would not lie down and he was soon to apply something new, Quantum Electrodynamics. He made a colleagueship with a well-known Italian physicist Preparata. However, fate was not kind to F and he discovered that he was suffering from Parkinson's disease. This is a slow disease but it's incurable. However, for a couple of years F continued to attend meetings and make intelligent remarks at them. He died on 3 August 2012. Was F a brilliant theorist who did not have time to realize his true vision or had Jack the Flash, his nickname, flashed too much? The field that could have been his greatest is now called condensed matter nuclear reactions.

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436. Boes, N. and H. Zuchner, Electrochemical methods for studying diffusion, permeation and solubility of hydrogen in metals. J. Less-Common Met., 1976. 49: p. 223.

First Author: Boes, N.
All Authors: Boes, N., Zuchner, H.
Keywords: Pd, PdH, diffusion


437. Bonazzola, G.C., et al., A large-area neutron detector based on double scattering. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1990. A299: p. 25.

First Author: Bonazzola, G. C.
All Authors: Bonazzola, G. C., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Feliciello, A., Gianotti, P., Marcello, S., Agnello, M., Iazzi, F.
Keywords: neutron, method


438. Bond, R.A. and D.K. Ross, The Use of Monte Carlo Simulations in the Study of a Real Lattice Gas and its Application to the a' Pd-D System. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1982. 12: p. 597.

First Author: Bond, R. A.
All Authors: Bond, R. A., Ross, D. K.
Keywords: PdD, Lattice Parameter, Phase Diagram


439. Boniszewski, T. and G.C. Smith, The influence of hydrogen on the plastic deformation ductility, and fracture of nickel in tension. Acta Metall., 1963. 11: p. 165.

First Author: Boniszewski, T.
All Authors: Boniszewski, T., Smith, G. C.
Keywords: H, Ni, diffusion, strength, dislocation


440. Borbely, L. and P. Doleschall, Nucleon Exchange Effects at Low Bombarding Energies for Deuteron-Neutron Scattering. Phys. Lett. B, 1992. 283: p. 10.

First Author: Borbely, L.
All Authors: Borbely, L., Doleschall, P.
Keywords: theory, d-n


441. Bosch, H.S., et al., Electrochemical Cold Fusion Trials at IPP Garching. 1989.

First Author: Bosch, H. S.
All Authors: Bosch, H. S., Wurden, G. A., Gernhardt, J., Karger, F., Perchermeier, J.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma, heat-, tritium, electrolysis, negative


442. Bosch, H.S., et al., Electrochemical cold fusion trials at IPP Garching. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 165.

First Author: Bosch, H. S.
All Authors: Bosch, H. S., Wurden, G. A., Gernhardt, J., Karger, F., Perchermeier, J.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat- neutron-, tritium-, gamma emission, D2O, negative


443. Boscoli, R., Method and machine for producing energy by nuclear fusion reactions. 1998.

First Author: Boscoli, R.
All Authors: Boscoli, R.
Keywords: heat, method, patent,


444. Bose, H., et al., Verification Studies in Electrochemically Induced Fusion of Deuterons in Palladium Cathodes, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 8.

First Author: Bose, H.
All Authors: Bose, H., Prabhu, L. H., Sankaranarayanan, M., Shetiya, R. S., Veeraraghavan, N., Joshi, P. V., Murthy, T. S., Sen, B. K., Sharma, K. G. B.
Keywords: heat, tritium, neutron,


445. Botta, E., et al., Measurement of 2.5 MeV neutron emission from Ti/D and Pd/D systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1992. 105A: p. 1663.

First Author: Botta, E.
All Authors: Botta, E., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Feliciello, A., Gianotti, P., Lamberti, C., Agnello, M., Iazzi, F., Minetti, B., Zecchina, A.
Keywords: Ti, Pd, neutron, D2


446. Botta, E., et al. Search for 4He Production from Pd/D2 Systems in Gas Phase. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Botta, E.
All Authors: Botta, E., Bracco, R., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Cela, V., Fanara, C., Ferracin, U., Iazzi, F.
Keywords: helium Pd, electromigration, D2, neutron, loading ICCF-5

We describe the performance of an apparatus consisting of a cell containing a Pd sheet loaded with D2 in gas phase coupled to a high resolution Q-mass spectrometer. The loading ratio α = D/Pd is increased by applying a constant electric field along the Pd sheet, α is carefully measured by means of the electric resistance variation and of the thermodynamic parameters. In one experiment a signal corresponding to 4He production was observed.

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447. Botta, E., et al. Measurement of 4He Production from D2 Gas-Loaded Pd Samples. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Botta, E.
All Authors: Botta, E., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Fanara, C., Iazzi, F.
Keywords: helium Pd, D2, layer, Au Coehn ICCF-6 electrolysis

A Pd sheet gold plated at both ends was loaded with D2 in a Cold Fusion cell operating on the basis of the Coehn effect. The procedure was the same followed in a previous experiment. The gas has been analyzed by means of a high resolution mass spectrometer before the absorption into Pd and after desorption: a significant presence of 4He after desorption has been measured, in agreement with the previous results.

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448. Botta, E., et al., On the neutron emission from the Ti/D system. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1999. 112: p. 607.

First Author: Botta, E.
All Authors: Botta, E., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Fanara, C., Iazzi, F.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2


449. Botter, F., et al., Search for emission of neutrons from a palladium-deuterium system. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 232: p. 536.

First Author: Botter, F.
All Authors: Botter, F., Bouchez, J., Collot, J., Kajfasz, E., Lefievre, B., Lesquoy, E., Stutz, A., Tistchenko, S., Zylberajch, S.
Keywords: Pd-black, heat-, neutron, D2


450. Bottollier-Curtet, H., et al., Search for Isotopic Anomalies in Alchemical Silver Coins from the Germanischen National Museum in Nuremberg. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 148-154.

First Author: Bottollier-Curtet, H.
All Authors: Bottollier-Curtet, H., Koberl, O., Combarieu, R., Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Alchemy, Cold fusion, Isotopic anomalies, Museum, Silver, Transmutation

We analyzed six silver coins of supposedly alchemical origin. They were manufactured during the 17th and 18th centuries, and kept in the Germanischen National Museum in Nuremberg in Germany. We did both nondestructive chemical and isotopic analysis. Silver has two stable isotopes, and our measurements indicate that the silver of all the coins have natural isotopic composition. We conclude that the silver contained in these coins is not of artificial origin. This does not prove that alchemists did not succeed in transmuting metals, but we have shown that the silver of these six coins is most likely of natural origin.

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451. Boucher, G.R., F.E. Collins, and R.L. Matlock, Separation factors for hydrogen isotopes on palladium. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 200.

First Author: Boucher, G. R.
All Authors: Boucher, G. R., Collins, F. E., Matlock, R. L.
Keywords: electrolysis, tritium, separation factor, Pd, H2O, D2O


452. Boudard, A., M. Garcon, and S. Platchkov, What shape has the deuteron? Recherche, 1991. 22(235): p. 1094.

First Author: Boudard, A.
All Authors: Boudard, A., Garcon, M., Platchkov, S.
Keywords: theory


453. Bower, B., Peer Review Under Fire. Science News, 1991. 139: p. 394.

First Author: Bower, B.
All Authors: Bower, B.
Keywords: history


454. Bowker, J. and G.R. Piercy, The use of palladium to obtain reproducible boundary conditions for permeability measurements using galvanostatic charging. Metal. Trans. A, 1985. 16: p. 715.

First Author: Bowker, J.
All Authors: Bowker, J., Piercy, G. R.
Keywords: loading, thin films, electroplating, diffusion, Pd


455. Bowman, M.G., A Proposed Pathway for Cold Fusion Reactions. 1990: Letter.

First Author: Bowman, M. G.
All Authors: Bowman, M. G.
Keywords: theory, dineutron,


456. Boya, L.J., Possible mechanisms for cold fusion in deuterated palladium. An. Fis., Ser. B, 1990. 86(2): p. 221.

First Author: Boya, L. J.
All Authors: Boya, L. J.
Keywords: theory


457. Bracci, L., G. Fiorentini, and G. Mezzorani, Nuclear fusion in molecular systems. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 1990. 16: p. 83.

First Author: Bracci, L.
All Authors: Bracci, L., Fiorentini, G., Mezzorani, G.
Keywords: Theory, fusion, screening, effective mass


458. Bracci, L., G. Fiorentini, and G. Mezzorani, A Dynamical Calculation of the Electron Shielding for d-d Fusion. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 146(3): p. 128.

First Author: Bracci, L.
All Authors: Bracci, L., Fiorentini, G., Mezzorani, G.
Keywords: theory


459. Braun, T., A Selective, Annotated Bibliography. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1989. 136(3).

First Author: Braun, T.
All Authors: Braun, T.
Keywords: review, history


460. Braun, T., World Flash on Cold Fusion No. 10. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1991. 154(1): p. 1.

First Author: Braun, T.
All Authors: Braun, T.
Keywords: history


461. Breed, B. Can Established Physical Principles Explain Solid-State Fusion? in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Breed, B.
All Authors: Breed, B.
Keywords: Review, theory,


462. Bressani, T., E. Del Giudice, and G. Preparata, First steps toward an understanding of 'cold' nuclear fusion. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 101: p. 845.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T., Del Giudice, E., Preparata, G.
Keywords: Theory, collective effects, p-d fusion, He


463. Bressani, T., et al. A Study of the Neutron Emission from Ti Loaded With D in Gas Phase by Means of a Time-of-Flight Spectrometer. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Feliciello, A., Lamberti, C., Iazzi, F., Minetti, B., Cherubini, R., Haque, A. M. I., Ricci, R. A.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, energy, ICCF-2


464. Bressani, T., et al., Observation of 2.5 MeV neutrons emitted from a titanium-deuterium system. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1991. 104(9): p. 1413.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Feliciello, A., Lamberti, C., Iazzi, F., Minetti, B., Cherubini, R., Haque, A. M. I., Ricci, R. A.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2


465. Bressani, T. and G. Preparata, What Makes a Crystal Stiff Enough for the Mossbauer Effect? Il Nuovo Cimento, Note Brevi, 1992. 14D(3): p. 345-349.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T., Preparata, G.
Keywords: Mossbauer, theory


466. Bressani, T. Nuclear Physics Aspects of Cold Fusion Experiments, Scientific Summary after ICCF-7. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T.
Keywords: review, ICCF-7

1 Introduction The circumstance that I made the scientific summary on Nuclear Products in Cold Fusion Experiments also after ICCF-6 gives to me the opportunity of combining the comparison of the results from two subsequent conferences and of discussing globally the impressive achievements gained in these last three years. The major achievement at ICCF-6 was, to my opinion, the evidence of the corre­lation between Excess Heat, when measured, and the production of 4He, observed in quantities of the same order of magnitude of what expected form the hypothe­sis that the reaction d + d → 4He + (energy) is the main source of energy in Cold Fusion experiments. This conclusion was reached by several experiments.

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467. Bressani, T. Exotic Nuclear Physics: from Cold Fusion to Antikaonic Nuclear Clusters (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T.
Keywords: Theory

One of the more controversial recent issues in Hadronic and Nuclear Physics is the possible existence of the so-called AntiKaonic Nuclear Clusters (AKNC). They are strange (S=-1, -2) nuclear systems composed by nucleons strongly bound to one or two AntiKaons: This topic is connected with the possible existence of exotic nucleon bound states like pp or ppp, with the possibility that a high-density nuclear medium will be created around the AntiKaon, that could be seed for the understanding of the dense nuclear matter in the neutron stars.

In 2002 Akaishi and Yamazaki (1) predicted the appearance of discrete, narrow bound states of Kbar in few-body nuclear systems. The search for such systems started quite soon with nondedicated experiments at Laboratories of KEK (Japan), Frascati (Italy) , CERN (Switzerland), Saclay (France)

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468. Bressani, T. Exotic Nuclear Physics: From Cold Fusion To Antikaonic Nuclear Clusters. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T.
Keywords:

A short review of the status of the experimental searches and theoretical speculations on the possible existence of the AntiKaonic Nuclear Clusters is given. There are no scientific relationships with the possible Cold Fusion phenomena, but some similarities and differences in the perception and acceptance by other communities of physicists.

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469. Briand, J.P., et al., Cold fusion: an alternative diagnostic. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1989. A285: p. 547.

First Author: Briand, J. P.
All Authors: Briand, J. P., Dewynck, J., Chevallier, P., Bobin, J. L.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, ion bombardment, negative


470. Briand, J.P. Is There Any Deuterium in Dr. Jone's Titanium Foils? in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Briand, J. P.
All Authors: Briand, J. P.
Keywords: Ti, D, critique, history


471. Briand, J.P. and M. Froment, La fusion 'froide' dix-huit mois apres" (Cold fusion, 18 months later). Recherche, 1990. 21: p. 1282.

First Author: Briand, J. P.
All Authors: Briand, J. P., Froment, M.
Keywords: review


472. Briand, J.P., et al., Cold fusion rates in titanium foils. Phys. Lett., 1990. A145(4): p. 187.

First Author: Briand, J. P.
All Authors: Briand, J. P., Ban, G., Froment, M., Keddam, M., Abel, F.
Keywords: Ti, D2, electrolysis, D2O, fractofusion, surface, x-ray, negative


473. Bridge, M.E., D.R. Lloyd, and J.M.D. Coey, Cold fusion ideas" (section editor's title). Nature (London), 1989. 340: p. 105.

First Author: Bridge, M. E.
All Authors: Bridge, M. E., Lloyd, D. R., Coey, J. M. D.
Keywords: history, critique


474. Brightsen, R.A. and E. Mallove, Explanation of Cold Fusion Reactions Based on the Nucleon Cluster Model (NCM). 1992.

First Author: Brightsen, R. A.
All Authors: Brightsen, R. A., Mallove, E.
Keywords: theory, cluster


475. Brightsen, R.A., Application of the Nucleon Cluster Model to Experimental Results. 1995.

First Author: Brightsen, R. A.
All Authors: Brightsen, R. A.
Keywords: theory, cluster


476. Brightsen, R.A., The Nucleon Cluster Model and the Periodic Table of Beta-Stable Nuclides. 1995.

First Author: Brightsen, R. A.
All Authors: Brightsen, R. A.
Keywords: Theory, cluster


477. Brightsen, R.A., Correspondence of the Periodic Table of Beta-Stable Nuclides with the Classical Periodic Table of Elements. 1996.

First Author: Brightsen, R. A.
All Authors: Brightsen, R. A.
Keywords: theory


478. Brightsen, R.A., Correspondence of the nucleon cluster model with the periodic table of elements. Infinite Energy, 1996. 1(5 & 6): p. 73.

First Author: Brightsen, R. A.
All Authors: Brightsen, R. A.
Keywords: theory, cluster


479. Brightson, R., Cluster Theory. 1994: Clustron Sciences Corp.

First Author: Brightson, R.
All Authors: Brightson, R.
Keywords: theory, clustron,


480. Brillas, E., et al. Product Analysis From D2O Electrolysis With Palladium and Titanium Cathodes. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Brillas, E.
All Authors: Brillas, E., Sardin, G., Casado, J., Domenech, X., Sanchez, J.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, D2O, tritium, electrolysis, ICCF-2


481. Brillas, E., et al. Product Analysis From D2O Electrolysis With Palladium and Titanium Cathodes. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Brillas, E.
All Authors: Brillas, E., Sardin, G., Casado, J., Domenech, X., Sanchez, J.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, D2O, tritium, electrolysis, ICCF-2


482. Brillas, E., et al., Product analysis from D2O electrolysis with Pd and Ti cathodes. Electrochim. Acta, 1992. 37(2): p. 215.

First Author: Brillas, E.
All Authors: Brillas, E., Esteve, J., Sardin, G., Casado, J., Domenech, X., Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, Ti, tritium, Li, D2O, H2O, surface analysis, negative


483. Brind, J., letter. Science News, 1990: p. 163.

First Author: Brind, J.
All Authors: Brind, J.
Keywords: Theory


484. Britz, D., Cold fusion: an historical parallel. Centaurus, 1990. 33: p. 368.

First Author: Britz, D.
All Authors: Britz, D.
Keywords: Discussion, history, review


485. Britz, D., Parameter correlations in cold fusion measurements. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1991. 155(6): p. 377.

First Author: Britz, D.
All Authors: Britz, D.
Keywords: discussion, gamma emission, Birgul, critique


486. Britz, D., Book Review - The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction: A Comprehensive Compilation of Evidence and Explanations about Cold Fusion. J. Sci. Expl., 2007. 21: p. 801.

First Author: Britz, D.
All Authors: Britz, D.
Keywords: Review,


487. Broad, W.J., Science Times: Despite Scorn , Some Scientists Still Seek Cold Fusion Clues, in The New York Times. 1989: NYEditor. p. 5.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: HISTORY, newspaper


488. Broad, W.J., Signs of 'Cold' Fusion are Cited Cautiously, in The New York Times. 1989: NYEditor.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: history


489. Broad, W.J., M.W. Browne, and W.E. Schmidt, A Frenzy Over Fusion in Hundreds of Labs, in New York Times. 1989.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J., Browne, M. W., Schmidt, W. E.
Keywords: history


490. Broad, W.J., Cold Fusion Claimants Review Puzzling Results, in The New York Times. 1990: NYEditor. p. 8.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: history, newspaper


491. Broad, W.J., Cold Fusion Still Escapes Usual Checks of Science, in New York Times. 1990: New YorkEditor. p. B5 and B9.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: newspaper, history


492. Broad, W.J., Scientist Defends Cold Fusion Work, in The New York Times. 1990: NYEditor.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: history, newspaper


493. Broad, W.J., Cold-Fusion Claim is Faulted on Ethics as Well as Science, in The New York Times. 1991: NYEditor. p. 1.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: history, newspaper


494. Broad, W.J., U.S. Plans to Hire Russian Scientists in Fusion Research, in New York Times. 1992. p. A1-A4.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: newspaper, history


495. Broad, W.J., New Class of Lightning Found High Above Clouds, in New York Times. 1995: New YorkEditor. p. 9.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: newspaper, lightning


496. Broad, W.J., A tempest in a test tube, 10 years later, in New York Times. 1999: NYEditor.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: history


497. Broer, M.M., et al., Search for neutrons from deuterium-deuterium nuclear reactions in electrochemically charged Palladium. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1989. 40(4): p. R1559.

First Author: Broer, M. M.
All Authors: Broer, M. M., Feldman, L. C., James, A. C. W. P., Kraus, J. S., Raghavan, R. S.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, Pd, D2O


498. Brown, N.E. and N. Jarmie, Differential Cross Sections at Low Energies for 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1989. 41(4): p. 1391.

First Author: Brown, N. E.
All Authors: Brown, N. E., Jarmie, N.
Keywords: cross Section, D-D, fusion, energy, branching ratio


499. Brown, T., A Selective, Annotated Bibliography No. 7. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., Lett., 1990. 145: p. 385-388.

First Author: Brown, T.
All Authors: Brown, T.
Keywords: Review


500. Brown, B. Lithium Fission to Fuse Deuterium? in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Brown, B.
All Authors: Brown, B.
Keywords: theory


501. Brown, J. Collective dipole oscillations in hydrogenated metals. in 7th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium loaded Metals. 2006. Asti, Italy: iscmns.org.

First Author: Brown, J.
All Authors: Brown, J.
Keywords: theory,


502. Brown, J., Enhanced low energy fusion rate in metal deuterides due to vibrational deuteron dipole-dipole interactions and associated resonant tunneling between neighbouring sites, in arXiv.org. 2007.

First Author: Brown, J.
All Authors: Brown, J.
Keywords: theory

It is observed that interstitial hydrogen nucleii on a metallic lattice are strongly coupled to their near neighbours by the unscreened electromagnetic field mediating transitions between low-lying states. It is shown that the dominant interaction is of dipole-dipole character. By means of numerical calculations based upon published data, it is then shown that in stoichiometric PdD, in which essentially all interstitial sites are occupied by a deuteron, certain specific superpositions of many-site product states exist that are lower in energy than the single-site ground state, suggesting the existence of a new low temperature phase. Finally, the modified behaviour of the two-particle wavefunction at small separations is investigated and prelimary results suggesting a radical narrowing of the effective Coulomb barrier are presented.

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503. Brown, J., Enhanced Low Energy Fusion Rate in Metal Deuterides Due to Vibrational Deuteron Dipole-Dipole Interactions and Associated Resonant Tunneling Between Neighbouring Sites. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2009. 2.

First Author: Brown, J.
All Authors: Brown, J.
Keywords: RDDI, Phase transition, Protons, Deuterons, Metal, Interference, Entanglement, Fusion, Theory

It is observed that interstitial hydrogen nucleii on a metallic lattice are strongly coupled to their near neighbours by the unscreened electromagnetic field mediating transitions between low-lying states. It is shown that the dominant interaction is of dipole-dipole character. By means of numerical calculations based upon published data, it is then shown that in stoichiometric PdD, in which essentially all interstitial sites are occupied by a deuteron, certain specific superpositions of many-site product states exist that are lower in energy than the single-site ground state, suggesting the existence of a new low temperature phase. Finally, the modified behaviour of the two-particle wavefunction at small separations is investigated and prelimary results suggesting a radical narrowing of the effective Coulomb barrier are presented.

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504. Browne, M.W., New Shot at Cold Fusion by Pumping Sound Waves into Tiny Bubbles, in New York Times. 1994: NYEditor. p. 5.

First Author: Browne, M. W.
All Authors: Browne, M. W.
Keywords: sonoluminescence, accustic, Hot Fusion, newspaper


505. Brudanin, V.B., et al., Does cold nuclear fusion exist? Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 146: p. 347.

First Author: Brudanin, V. B.
All Authors: Brudanin, V. B., Bystritskii, V. M., Egorov, V. G., Shamsutdinov, S. G., Shyshkin, A. L., Stolupin, V. A., Yutlandov, I. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, D2, x-ray, negative


506. Brudanin, V.B., et al., Once more about cold nuclear fusion. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 146: p. 351.

First Author: Brudanin, V. B.
All Authors: Brudanin, V. B., Bystritskii, V. M., Egorov, V. G., Shamsutdinov, S. G., Shyshkin, A. L., Stolupin, V. A., Yutlandov, I. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Ti, neutron, D2


507. Brudanin, V.B., et al., Search for the cold fusion d(d,(4)He) in electrolysis of D2O. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 151(9): p. 543.

First Author: Brudanin, V. B.
All Authors: Brudanin, V. B., Bystritsky, V. M., Egorov, V. G., Stetsenko, S. G., Yutlandov, I. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, foil, helium, He, alpha, CR-39, particle emission, X-ray, negative


508. Bruggeman, A., et al., Studiecentrum Voor Kernenenergie. 1989.

First Author: Bruggeman, A.
All Authors: Bruggeman, A., Loos, M., Van der Poorten, C., Craps, R., Leysen, R., Poortmans, F., Verstappen, G., Snykers, M.
Keywords: heat, error, Pd, D, critique, AC


509. Bruschi, L., et al., Search for neutron emission from a deuterium-titanium system". Europhys. Lett., 1989. 10(4): p. 303.

First Author: Bruschi, L.
All Authors: Bruschi, L., Santini, M., Torzo, G., Nardelli, G.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2


510. Bruschi, M., U. Marconi, and A. Zoccoli. The neutron spectrometer of the cold fusion experiment under the Gran Sasso Laboratory. in Hadronic Phys., Winter Course 8th 1993. 1994. World Sci., Singapore.

First Author: Bruschi, M.
All Authors: Bruschi, M., Marconi, U., Zoccoli, A.
Keywords: neutron, method.


511. Bryan, S.R. and J.H. Gibson, Comments on 'Nuclear energy release in metals'. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 95.

First Author: Bryan, S. R.
All Authors: Bryan, S. R., Gibson, J. H.
Keywords: critique, Mayer, theory


512. Bu, F.S., et al. Loading ratio study in a gas-loading system. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bu, F. S.
All Authors: Bu, F. S., Li, X. Z., Gao, L., Shgi, H., Huang, G. S.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2, ICCF-6, gas discharge


513. Buchachenko, A.L., Chemistry on the border of two centuries - achievements and prospects. Russ. Chem. Rev., 1999. 68((2)): p. 85.

First Author: Buchachenko, A. L.
All Authors: Buchachenko, A. L.
Keywords: review, fractofusion, theory


514. Buchachenko, A.L. and V.V. Chaikovskii, Contraction of electronic shells and a new strategy for cold fusion. Russ. J. Phys. Chem., 1999. 73: p. 1614.

First Author: Buchachenko, A. L.
All Authors: Buchachenko, A. L., Chaikovskii, V. V
Keywords: Theory


515. Bucur, R. and F.A. Lewis, The Establishment of Equilibria in the Isotopic Distribution of Hydrogen and Deuterium Between Palladium and Aqueous Solutions. Z. Phys. Chem. Neue Folge, 1971. 75: p. 207.

First Author: Bucur, R.
All Authors: Bucur, R., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Separation Factor, H2O, D2O, PdH, PdD


516. Budko, K. and A. Korshunov, Calorimetric Investigation of Anomalous Heat Production in Ni-H Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 23: p. 85-90.

First Author: Budko, K.
All Authors: Budko, K., Korshunov, A.
Keywords: Calorimeter, Cold fusion, Hydrogen, LENR, LiAlH4, Nickel

It has been claimed that Ni-H systems produce excess heat for long periods of time. We have performed experimental calorimetric investigations of this phenomenon. The experimental setup consisted of a ceramic reactor with nickel powder inside it, a heater, hydrogen loading system and calorimeter. Nickel powders with different grain size were used because of their large surface area. Hydrogen pressure varied from 0.5 to 2.5 atm. Temperature varied from 25 to 800◦C. Different methods of input power were used in order to investigate possible effects of high amplitude magnetic pulses. The experimental runs lasted from 4 to 50 h. Experiments did not show any evidence of excess heat within the accuracy of measurement.

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517. Budnikov, A.T., et al., Study of gases evolving from palladium, nickel and copper, bombarded with D+ ions, from palladium saturated with gases by heavy water electrolysis and by heating in deuterium. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1990(1): p. 81 (in Russian).

First Author: Budnikov, A. T.
All Authors: Budnikov, A. T., Danilov, P. A., Kartamyshev, G. A., Katrich, N. P., Seminozhenko, V. P.
Keywords: Pd, Ni, Cu, electrolysis, mass spectrometer, tritium, ion bombardment, D+, D2, negative


518. Buehler, D.B., Possible Gamma Bursts From Gas Loaded Ti Chips. 1992.

First Author: Buehler, D. B.
All Authors: Buehler, D. B.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, D2


519. Buehler, D.B., et al. Is Reported "Excess Heat" Due to Nuclear Reactions? in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Buehler, D. B.
All Authors: Buehler, D. B., Hansen, L. D., Jones, S. E., Rees, L. B.
Keywords: heat, method, critique, X-ray, radiation, ICCF-3

A portable X-ray detector has been developed to complement "cold fusion" studies. Our reasoning is that any set of nuclear reactions which produce measurable heat must also produce abundant secondary X-rays. However, at the Nagoya meeting and elsewhere, we found that errors and uncertainties in current experiments prevent unambiguous interpretation of claims of excess-heat generation . Hence, this paper also outlines criteria for establishing calorimeter performance for definitive measurements of "excess heat" in cold-fusion experiments.

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520. Bullock, J.S., G.L. Powell, and D.P. Hutchinson, Electrochemical factors in cold fusion experiments. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 275.

First Author: Bullock, J. S.
All Authors: Bullock, J. S., Powell, G. L., Hutchinson, D. P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, surface analysis, thermodynamic, overvoltage, method


521. Bunch, K.J. and R.W. Grow. Electric Field Distribution of the Palladium Crystal Lattice. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Bunch, K. J.
All Authors: Bunch, K. J., Grow, R. W.
Keywords: Pd, lattice parameter, theory, ICCF-1


522. Bunch, K.J. and R.W. Grow, Self-consistent field calculations on diatomic hydrogen in a potential well. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 2131.

First Author: Bunch, K. J.
All Authors: Bunch, K. J., Grow, R. W.
Keywords: Theory


523. Burch, R., On the role of silver atoms in the absorption of hydrogen by palladium-silver alloys. Solid State Commun., 1969. 7: p. 1313.

First Author: Burch, R.
All Authors: Burch, R.
Keywords: Pd, Ag, Pd-Ag, phase Diagram, pressure, H2


524. Burger, J.P., et al., Electrical Resistivity of Pd-Hx: Residual Resistivity. Solid State Commun., 1975. 17: p. 227.

First Author: Burger, J. P.
All Authors: Burger, J. P., MacLachlan, D. S., Mailfert, R., Souffache, B.
Keywords: resistivity, Pd, PdH


525. Burke, L.D. and J.K. Casey, An examination of the electrochemical behavior of palladium electrodes in acid. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1993. 140(5): p. 1284.

First Author: Burke, L. D.
All Authors: Burke, L. D., Casey, J. K.
Keywords: Pd, PdH, loading, overvoltage


526. Burke, L.D. and J.K. Casey, An examination of the electrochemical behavior of palladium in base. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1993. 140(5): p. 1292.

First Author: Burke, L. D.
All Authors: Burke, L. D., Casey, J. K.
Keywords: PdH, Pd, loading, overvoltage


527. Burrows, A., Enhancement of cold fusion in metal 'hydrides' by screening of proton and deuteron charges. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40(5): p. 3405.

First Author: Burrows, A.
All Authors: Burrows, A.
Keywords: Theory, screening


528. Busch, M.P., Nucear Fusion Reactor and Method, Patent Disclosure. 1990: US.

First Author: Busch, M. P.
All Authors: Busch, M. P.
Keywords: patent, disclosure, apparatus,


529. Bush, R.T. A Transmission resonance Model for Cold Fusion. in Winter Annual Meeting of Am. Soc. Mechan. Eng. 1989. San Francisco.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory


530. Bush, R.T. The TRM (Transmission Resonance Model) for Cold Fusion Fits Calorimetric Data on the Pons-Fleischmann Effect and Suggests Solutions to Nuclear "Anomalies". in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory


531. Bush, R.T. Isotopic Mass Shifts in Cathodically-Driven Palladium Via Neutron Transfer Suggested by the Transmission Resonance Model to Explicate Enhanced Fusion Phenomena (Hot and Cold) Within a Deuterared Metrix. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory, current density, Pd, D2O, heat+, electrolysis, ICCF-1


532. Bush, R.T. Production of Tritium, Neutrons, and Heat Based Upon the Transmission Resonance Model (TRM) for Cold Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory, D/Pd, heat+, T/n


533. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton, A Cold Fusion Model that Matches Experimental Data. 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 1990. 3(3): p. 21, 62.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: theory, history


534. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton, 'Cold nuclear fusion': A hypothetical model to probe an elusive phenomenon. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 397.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: Theory, bosons


535. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton. A Calorimetric Study of the Excess Heat Effect in Thin Films of Palladium. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: Pd, heat+, thin layer, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-2


536. Bush, R.T., Cold 'fusion'. The transmission resonance model fits data on excess heat, predicts optimal trigger points, and suggests nuclear reaction scenarios. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 313.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: Theory, transmission resonance, current density, heat+, D2O, Pd


537. Bush, B.F., et al., Helium production during the electrolysis of D2O in cold fusion experiments. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 304: p. 271.

First Author: Bush, B. F.
All Authors: Bush, B. F., Lagowski, J. J., Miles, M., Ostrom, G. S.
Keywords: electrolysis, He+, heat+, Pd, D2O, H2O, film radiation

INTRODUCTION Our interest in the "cold fusion" process [1,2] was piqued by the apparent lack of systematic investigation into the composition of the gaseous products produced during the electrolysis of D2O. A critical issue in determining whether or not the cold fusion process exists is the quality of the evidence concerning the composition of the gaseous products. The low intensity of neutrons has prompted proposals of other fusion processes such as d + d → 4He + γ [3] and p + d → 3He [4,5]. Accord­ingly, we report the results of experiments designed to detect helium in the effluent gases from electrolysis reactions at palladium cathodes while rigorously excluding possible helium contamination from other sources. The calorimetric electrolysis experiments reported here were performed at China Lake, and the analyses designed to establish the composition of the effluent gases were performed in Austin.

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538. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton. Experimental Studies Supporting the Transmission Resonance Model for Cold Fusion in Light Water: I. Correlation of Isotopic and Elemental Evidence with Excess Heat. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, heat+, transmutation, Rb2CO3, electrolysis Radioactivity, ICCF-3

The experimental evidence cited here (Part I) in support of the Bush TRM Model was originally reported by Bush in his paper, "A Light Water Excess Heat Reaction Suggests That 'Cold Fusion' May Be 'Alkali-Hydrogen Fusion.'" Excess heat production in electrolytic light water experiments was experimentally correlated with a shift not only in elemental abundance but also with an isotopic reversal in the case of a light water-based RbzCD3 cell found to produce strontium. Part II reports on more recent work correlating x-ray emissions with excess power for both a heavy water excess heat reaction and a light water excess heat reaction.

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539. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton. Experimental Studies Supporting the Transmission Resonance Model for Cold Fusion in Light Water: II. Correlation of X-Ray Emission With Excess Power. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: heat+, H2O, Ni, x-ray, radiation, ICCF-3

ABSTRACT: Part I presented evidence in support of Bush's TRM Model and, in particular, his hypothesis of "alkali-hydrogen fusion" in a lattice as a prototype for cold fusion with both light and heavy water. In Part II preliminary evidence is presented for x-ray emission accompanying both the heavy and light water excess heat effects in the form of both characteristic x-rays and bremmstrahlung. These studies had the unsatisfactory feature of low signal-to-noise, but the satisfactory features of reasonable statistics and excellent correlation. An interesting feature was that x-ray emission decreased somewhat after a cell was switched off, but then spiked upward to decay exponentially to the background level over a period of days. This emission was apparently associated with the desorption of hydrogen from the cathode. With the cell turned off it was also possible to study xray emission accompanying the thermal desorption of hydrogen by changing the cell temperature and studying x-ray emission as a function of cathode surface temperature. When this effect of x-rays accompanying desorption was factored in, Bush's TRM Model appears to account for the correlation between x-ray emission and excess power.

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540. Bush, R.T., A light water excess heat reaction suggests that 'cold fusion' may be 'alkali-hydrogen fusion'. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 301.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory, H2O, electrolysis, Ni, Rb, K, transmutation


541. Bush, R.T., Is It Possible That Anomalies Associated with the Excess Heat Effect Were Observed in the 1950's?: The Transmission Resonance Model (TRM) Answers Affirmatively. 1993.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory, heat Capacity, Pd


542. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton. Calorimetric Studies for Several Light Water Electrolytic Cells With Nickel Fibrex Cathodes and Electrolytes with Alkali Salts of Potassium, Rubidium, and Cesium. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, heat+, Rb, K, Cs, transmutation, ICCF-4, electrolysis


543. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton. Evidence for Electrolytically Induced Transmutation and Radioactivity Correlated with Excess Heat in Electrolytic Cells With Light Water Rubidium Salt Electrolytes. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, Rb, transmutation, radioactive, ICCF-4, electrolysis


544. Bush, B.F. and M. Miles. Practical Aspects of Heat and Helium Measurements in Deuterated Palladium. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Bush, B. F.
All Authors: Bush, B. F., Miles, M.
Keywords: heat+, He+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis


545. Bush, R.T. An Interpretation of the Piantelli Effect Based Upon the LANT Hypothesis and ECFM Model for Cold Fusion. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory


546. Bush, R.T. Evidence for an electrolytically induced shift in the abundance ratio of Sr-88 and Sr-86. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: Pd, Sr, D2O, isotope ratio


547. Bush, R.T., A Unifying Model for Cold Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 431.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory screening


548. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton, Evidence for Electrolytically Induced Transmutation and Radioactivity Correlated with Excess Heat in Electrolytic Cells with Light Water Rubidium Salt Electrolytes. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 334.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: Rb, transmutation H2O, Ni, heat+ radioactivity


549. Bush, R.T. The Electron Catalyzed Fusion Model (ECFM) Reconsidered with Special Emphasis Upon the Production of Tritium and Neutrons. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

The author's ECFM ("Electron Catalyzed Fusion Model") first presented at the ICCF-4 is re-examined with special reference to the production of tritium and neutrons. The model is of some interest in that it is the first model to fit excess power-vs-Ioading fraction data of McKubre et al. (SRI Intemational/EPRI) and, independently, that of Kunimatsu et al. (IMRA). Of special note is that the peak of the theoretical curve of tritium production versus loading frachon, which is related to that for neutrons by a branchin8 ratio scaling factor, is found to be at a fractional DlPd loading of approximately 0.825, whlch is in go.od agreement with the empirical value of 0.83 announced at the ICCF-5 by Iwamura et al.(Mitsuoishi) for both tritlUm and neutrons. It is of interest then that this theoretical ECFM tritium production curve arises essentially from purely statistical mechanical considerations involving the deuteron occupation of the three-dimensional interstitial lattice, rather than arising from the details of a specific nuclear mechanism. The model shows why tritium is ordinarily not observed when excess heat is being observed. For the neutron-to-triton branching ratio a theoretical lower limit (rlR) 1 results (r is tee protonic charge radius and R is the deuteronic charge radius.) yielding a value of 2 x 10^-9 in agreement with the empirical value of 2 x 10^-9 for the neutron-to-triton branching ratio.

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550. Bush, R.T. A Model for the Impurity Promotion and Inhibition of the Excess Heat Effects of Cold Fusion. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: Monte-Carlo, Monaco.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

A theoretica12 model describes impurity promotion and inhibition of the heavy water1 and light water3,4 excess heat effects of cold fusion based upon the infl uence on the magnetic properties of Pd and Ni, respectively, of al loying with different metal s. For Ni (light water case), promoters, in increasing order of efficiency, are predicted to be Cu, Zn, AI, and S n . Inhibitors, in increasing order of efficiency, are predicted to be Co, Fe, and M n . Ag, Au, and Cu are indicated as promoters in the case of Pd (heavy water case). Empirical evidence impacting the model will be presented in another paper (ref. 5) in these Proceedings.

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551. Bush, R.T., Electrolytically Simulated Cold Nuclear Synthesis of Strontium from Rubidium. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 28.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: transmutation,, electrolysis,, H2O,, Sr, Rb


552. Bush, R.T., Can the Electron Catalyzed Fusion Model (ECFM) Account for Light Water Fusion? J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 63.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory,, H2O


553. Bush, R.T., Consequences of lattice occupational symmetry. Infinite Energy, 1997. 2(12): p. 34.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory


554. Bush, B.F., Data for 4He measurement. 1998.

First Author: Bush, B. F.
All Authors: Bush, B. F.
Keywords: 4He


555. Bush, B.F. and J.J. Lagowski. Methods of Generating Excess Heat with the Pons and Fleischmann Effect: Rigorous and Cost Effective Calorimetry, Nuclear Products Analysis of the Cathode and Helium Analysis. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Bush, B. F.
All Authors: Bush, B. F., Lagowski, J. J.
Keywords: He+, heat+, PdD, method, Al Seebeck, ICCF-7, electrolysis

Abstract: The results from a growing number of laboratories suggest that the Pons and Fleischmann effect (the production of "excess heat" during the electrolysis of D2O at palladium electrodes) is real. More over data from these laboratories indicate that excess heat events are accompanied by 4He production. Excess heat generation appears to depend on a number of factors: the quality - nature - of the cathode, chemical species present in the D2O / LiOD electrolyte, the conditions surrounding the electrolysis process - current density, potential, time, and the previous history of the cathode. Methods for obtaining useful cathodes will be described.

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556. Bush, B.F. and J.J. Lagowski, Trace Elements Added to Palladium by Electrolysis in Heavy Water. 1999, EPRI: Palo Alto, CA.

First Author: Bush, B. F.
All Authors: Bush, B. F., Lagowski, J. J.
Keywords: Transmutation

Palladium samples taken from the center section of a 2-mm diameter cylindrical heat-producing cathode and similar material from the original stock palladium rod adjacent to that used for the cathode have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis for trace element impurity differences. The focus was on all elements for which NAA is appropriate and sensitive. Although it is known that electrolysis deposits impurity metals on cathodic surfaces from the electrolyte (lithium deuteroxide in this case), this occurs only at the external surface of the rod. The samples were cut diametrally to minimize the surface relative to the bulk or interior portion of the cathode. Large increases in iron and zinc of a factor of 56 and 12 respectively were observed in the active cathode relative to the virgin material. Smaller but significant increases were observed for chromium, cobalt, and cesium. In addition, the Pd-110/Pd-108 ratios were determined. Preliminarily, it appears that Pd-108 was depleted in the active cathode relative to Pd-110 as compared with that ratio in the virgin material. Possible sources of these changes in addition to the conventional explanations are discussed.

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557. Bushnell, D. LENR and NASA (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Bushnell, D.
All Authors: Bushnell, D.
Keywords: Review

Outline

* What * Status * Why * Plans

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558. Bushuev, V.S., et al., Some results obtained by detecting nuclear radiation during heavy-water electrolysis. Sov. Phys. Lebedev Inst. Rep., 1990(5): p. 57.

First Author: Bushuev, V. S.
All Authors: Bushuev, V. S., Ginodman, V. B., Zherikhina, L. N., Kuznetsov, S. P., Lapushkin, Yu. A., Matviyenko, I. P., Nikitenko, A. I., Perekrestenko, A. D., Saposhnikov, N. P., Tolokonnikov, S. M., Tskhovrebov, A. M.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd neutron, gamma emission D2O D2SO4


559. Bushuev, V.S., et al., Experiments in the recording of nuclear emissions by electrolysis of heavy water. Trud. Ord. Lenin. Ord. Oktyab. Revol. Fiz. Inst. im. P.N. Lebedeva, Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1992. 220: p. 89 (in Russian).

First Author: Bushuev, V. S.
All Authors: Bushuev, V. S., Ginodman, V. B., Zherikhina, L. N., Kuznetsov, S. P., Lapushkin, Yu. A., Matviyenko, I. P., Nikitenko, A. I., Perekrestenko, A. D., Saposhnikov, N. P., Tolokonnikov, S. M., Tskhovrebov, A. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, gamma emission, D2O


560. Bushuev, V.S., et al., Some results obtained by detecting nuclear radiation during heavy-water electrolysis. J. Opt. Res., 1996. 4(5): p. 171.

First Author: Bushuev, V. S.
All Authors: Bushuev, V. S., Genodman, V. B., Jerikhina, L. N., Kuznetsov, S. P., Lapushkin, Yu. A., Matviyenko, I. P., Nikitenko, A. I., Perekrestenko, A. D., Saposhnikov, N. P., Tolokonnikov, S. M., Tzkhovrebov, A. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, gamma emission, Pd, D2O


561. Bussard, R.W., Virtual-state internal nuclear fusion in metal lattices. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 231.

First Author: Bussard, R. W.
All Authors: Bussard, R. W.
Keywords: Theory, loading


562. Butler, M.A., et al., High-sensitivity search for neutrons during electrochemical reactions. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 388.

First Author: Butler, M. A.
All Authors: Butler, M. A., Ginley, D. S., Schirber, J. E., Ewing, R. I.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, Pd, D2O


563. Buxerolle, M. and J. Kurkdjian, An Historical Experiment of Neutron Detection Near an Electrolytic Cell. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 7-12.

First Author: Buxerolle, M.
All Authors: Buxerolle, M., Kurkdjian, J.
Keywords: Chain, Deuterium, Electrolysis, Neutron, Palladium, Reaction

An electrolysis experiment performed in April 1989, with a hollow palladium cathode in heavy water showed neutrons production. The results were sufficiently reliable to exclude any experimental error. Unfortunately a similar experiment has never been attempted since then. The presence of neutrons is the signature of nuclear reactions.

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564. Bylinsky, G., Cold Fusion Heats up Again. Fortune Magazine, 1991. 124(1): p. 18.

First Author: Bylinsky, G.
All Authors: Bylinsky, G.
Keywords: history


565. Byung, J.H., Cold nuclear fusion. Hwahak Kwa Kongop Ui Chinbo, 1990. 30: p. 86 (in Korean).

First Author: Byung, J. H.
All Authors: Byung, J. H.
Keywords: review


566. Cage, K., Memorandum: Cold Fusion Applications. 1989, U.S. Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark office: Washington, DC.

First Author: Cage, K.
All Authors: Cage, K.
Keywords: patent

Although the media attention relating to cold fusion has dimishecl, we are Just now beginning to see a large number of applications relating to this subjects Although we are attempting to identify an of these applications in the pre-examination screening process, there is a possibility that a few applications may slip through without being identified. . . .

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567. Cain, B.L., et al. Thermal Power Produced Using Thin-Film Palladium Cathodes in Concentrated Lithium Salt Electrolyte. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Cain, B. L.
All Authors: Cain, B. L., Cheney, A. B., Rigsbee, J. M., Cain, R. W., McMillian, L. S.
Keywords: thin-film, Pd, heat+, Li2CO3, ICCF-7


568. Calaon, A., Yet Another LENR Theory: Electron-mediated Nuclear Reactions (EMNR). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Calaon, A.
All Authors: Calaon, A.
Keywords: EMNR theory, Extreme ultra violet, Hydronion, Magnetic attraction, Strange radiation, Zitterbewegung

An attempt is made to build an LENR theory that does not contradict any basic principle of physics and gives a relatively simple explanation to the plethora of experimental results. A single unconventional assumption is made, namely that nuclei are kept together by a magnetic attraction mechanism, as proposed in the 1980s of the past century by Valerio Dallacasa and Norman Cook. This assumption contradicts a non-proven detail of the standard model, which instead attributes the nuclear force to a residual effect of the strong interaction. The theory is based also on a property of the electron which has been known for long, but has rarely been used: the Zitterbewegung (ZB). This property should allow the magnetic attraction mechanism that binds nucleons together, to manifest also between the electron and any isotope of hydrogen, leading to the formation of three neutral pseudo-particles (the component particles remain separate entities), collectively named here Hydronions (or Hyd). These pseudo-particles can then couple with other nuclei and lead to a fusion reaction "inside" the electron. The Coulomb barrier is not overcome kinetically, but through what could be interpreted as a range extension of the nuclear force itself, realized by the electron when some specific conditions are satisfied. The most important of these necessary conditions is that the electron has to "orbit" the hydrogen nucleus at a frequency of 2.055  1016Hz. This frequency corresponds to photons with an energy of about 85 eV or equivalently a wavelength of 14.6 nm in the Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV). So the large quanta of nuclear energy fractionate into EUV photons during the formation of the Hydronions and during the coupling of Hydronions to other nuclei. The formation of Hydronions requires the so called Nuclear Active Environment (NAE), which is what makes LENR so rare and difficult to reproduce. The numbers suggest that the NAE forms when an unshielded atomic core electron orbital that has an "orbital frequency" near to the coupling frequency is stricken by a naked Hydrogen Nucleus (HNu). This theory therefore implies that the NAE is not inside the metal matrix, but in its immediate neighbourhood. The best candidate atoms for a NAE are listed, based on the energy of their ionization energies. The coincidence with the most common LENR materials appears noteworthy. The Electron Mediated Nuclear Reactions (EMNR) theory can explain also very rapid runaway conditions, radio emissions, biological NAE, and the so called "strange radiation".

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569. Cali, G.J., et al., Electrochemical Regeneration of Clean and Well-Ordered Pd(111) Surface. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 297: p. 523.

First Author: Cali, G. J.
All Authors: Cali, G. J., Berry, G. M., Bothwell, M. E., Soriaga, M. P.
Keywords: Pd, H, LEED, order, surface


570. Cammarota, G., et al. A flow calorimeter study of the Ni/H system. in Asti Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Metals. 1997.

First Author: Cammarota, G
All Authors: Cammarota, G, Collis, W. J. M. F., Rizzo, A., Stremmenos, C.
Keywords:

This paper documents the continuing calorimetric study of the nickel natural hydrogen system at Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Bologna, Italy. Our previous unpublished work had already verified anomalous increase in temperature of a nickel sample loaded with sub-atmospheric hydrogen first noted by Piantelli and co-workers. To ensure that such temperature anomalies were not the result of changes in heat transmission, it was decided to investigate the system using a flow calorimeter.

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571. Camp, W.J., Helium Detrapping and Release from Metal Tritides. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 1977. 14: p. 514.

First Author: Camp, W. J.
All Authors: Camp, W. J.
Keywords: helium tritium, release, PdT


572. Campari, E.G., et al. Ni-H Systems. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Campari, E. G.
All Authors: Campari, E. G., Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Porcu, E., Tosti, E., Veronesi, S.
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen, heat+, gamma emission neutron, transmutation, particle emission


573. Campari, E.G., et al. Photon and particle emission, heat production and surface transformation in Ni-H system. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Campari, E. G.
All Authors: Campari, E. G., Fasano, G., Focardi, S., Lorusso, G., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F.
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen NiH, loading, heat

The results obtained in several experiments on Ni-H system are presented here. Photon emission during the preliminary phases of activation and 1H isotope absorption are shown; their correlation with the kind of surfaces (Ni and its alloys) and with neutron and other particle emission in the excitation progress and in large heat production is also presented. Finally the SEM-EDAX analysis of the sample surfaces after same months of heat production is shown; new elements (not present in the initial analysis) appeared. The concentrations of these elements with atomic number between C and Zn, is compared to the unmodified parts of same samples that remained inside the cell, outside of the activated region.

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574. Campari, E.G., et al. Surface Analysis of hydrogen loaded nickel alloys. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Campari, E. G.
All Authors: Campari, E. G., Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Veronesi, F.
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen NiH, loading, heat

We present a surface analysis of nickel alloy rods loaded with hydrogen. By comparing these with a blank (unused) metal rod, morphological differences and a different composition of the surface are observed. These surface modifications follow a spatial distribution along the rod. These results are compared with a previous analysis of similar samples.

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575. Campari, E.G., et al. Overview Of H-Ni Systems: Old Experiments And New Setup. in 5th Asti Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium loaded Metals. 2004. Asti, Italy.

First Author: Campari, E. G.
All Authors: Campari, E. G., Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Veronesi, S.
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen NiH, loading, heat+, neutron, gamma emission transmutation

This is an overview of our experimental activity during the last twelve years. We have been studying the Ni-H system at temperatures of about 700 K. Our investigations have revealed several interesting effects:

a) energy production for long time
b) neutron emission
c) gamma-ray emission
d) charged particles emission
e) appearance of elements other than Ni on the surfaces of Ni samples.

These experiments were performed in several laboratories: the greatest part in Siena but also in Bologna, Colleferro and Pavia. A new laboratory in Colle Val d'Elsa (Siena) will become operative in the summer 2004.

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576. Campbell, R.B. and L.J. Perkins, A study of 'cold fusion' in deuterated titanium subjected to high-current densities. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 383.

First Author: Campbell, R. B.
All Authors: Campbell, R. B., Perkins, L. J.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, electrolysis, D2O, current density, loading


577. Campbell, C. The Cold Fusion Phenomenon: A Hypothesis. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Campbell, C.
All Authors: Campbell, C.
Keywords: theory


578. Caneve, L. Characterization of Materials by Means of Laser-Based Techniques (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Caneve, L.
All Authors: Caneve, L.
Keywords: materials

Laser-based techniques are more and more used in the field of materials processing and analysis.

In particular, laser spectroscopic techniques as the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) have been applied to investigate the chemical-physical properties and the morphological structure of several kinds of materials.

Some results in different fields of application are reported.

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579. Caneve, L. Characterization of materials by means of laser-based techniques. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Caneve, L.
All Authors: Caneve, L.
Keywords:

Laser-based techniques are more and more used in the field of materials processing and analysis. In particular, laser spectroscopic techniques as the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) have been applied to investigate the chemical-physical properties and the morphological structure of several kinds of materials. Some results in different fields of application are reported.

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580. Cannizzaro, F., et al., Search for neutrons as evidence of cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 86.

First Author: Cannizzaro, F.
All Authors: Cannizzaro, F., Greco, G., Raneli, M., Spitale, M. C., Tomarchio, E.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, Ti, neutron, D2O


581. Cantwell, R. Update on results as Coolescence, LLC (PowerPoint slides). in 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Cantwell, R.
All Authors: Cantwell, R.
Keywords: glow discharge, calorimetry

Update on results at Coolescence, Inc., in calorimetry, glow discharge and gas flow initiated LENR.

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582. Cantwell, R. and M. McConnell. Partial Replication of Storms/Scanlan Glow Discharge Radiation. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Cantwell, R.
All Authors: Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords: glow diacharge

The Storms/Scanlan paper1 presented at the 8th international workshop in Catania described two types of radiation produced in a deuterium glow discharge. One type was thought to be mono energetic electrons in the 0.8 MeV range. A second type of emission, obtained when oxygen was added to the D2, was also described by Storms/Scanlan.

We have produced radiation with similar characteristics to this second type of emission. This radiation has been characterized with GM tubes, absorbers, silicon diode detector, and magnetic deflection. We propose that conventional low energy x-rays would produce behavior consistent with our observations.

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583. Cantwell, R. and M. McConnell. Search for charged particle emissions resulting from Pd-D Co-Deposition (PowerPoint slides). in ACS National Meeting. 2011. Anaheim, CA.

First Author: Cantwell, R.
All Authors: Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords: Neutron, cr-39

We have attempted to replicate Pd-D Co-Deposition charged particle results reported by Mosier-Boss et al. CR-39 pits similar to those reported by Mosier-Boss et al. were found using both in-situ CR-39 and Mylar-protected CR-39. However, CR-39 protected by a combination of Mylar and a small air gap did not show any pits. The electrolyte, as its chemistry changes during the electrolysis, is shown to damage the acrylic cell containing the experiment and to damage an aluminum foil separated from the electrolyte by a Mylar film. This damage together with the absence of pits when a small air gap is added to the Mylar protection suggests chemical reactions may be the source of the observed CR-39 pits.

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584. Cantwell, R., D. McConnell, and T.N. Claytor, Search for excess heat in metal cathodes exposed to pulsed hydrogen plasma (PowerPoint slides), in 10th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals. 2012.

First Author: Cantwell, R.
All Authors: Cantwell, R., McConnell, D., Claytor, T. N.
Keywords: tritium, excess heat

Claytor tritium since early 90's    High current, high pressure    This work in this pressure/current/voltage regime

Karabut variety of effects since ‘92    Low pressure, lower current    Reference only - this work does not attempt to replicate Karabut

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585. Capek, V. and J. Czech, Tunnelling efficiency and the problem of cold fusion. Phys., 1989. B39: p. 793.

First Author: Capek, V.
All Authors: Capek, V., Czech, J.
Keywords: Theory, tunnelling


586. Caravella, A., G. Barbieri, and E. Drioli. Concentration polarization in Pd-based membranes for hydrogen separation: modeling and simulation. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Caravella, A.
All Authors: Caravella, A., Barbieri, G., Drioli, E.
Keywords:

In this study, a new hydrogen permeation model through Pd-based membranes is developed and used to analyze the role of the concentration polarization. According to this new model, the entire hydrogen permeation process is divided into several elementary steps: multicomponent mass transport in the feed and permeate side, adsorption and desorption on/from the membrane surface, absorption and de-absorption into/from the metal lattice, diffusion through the Pd-based bulk and multicomponent mass transport through an asymmetric multilayered porous support. Each of these steps is modeled by means of some equations whose solution provides as result the value of transmembrane flux and the hydrogen partial pressure profile through the membrane. The influence of each step is evaluated as a function of several operating conditions (membrane thickness, temperature, fluid-dynamic conditions, hydrogen partial pressure on feed and permeate side). The effect of the mass transfer in the feed and permeate side is evaluated in terms of concentration polarization effect by defining an opportune coefficient and analyzing its behaviour in different conditions. As results, the investigation shows that the influence of the polarization can be appreciable even for not so thin membranes and provides some "polarization maps", which are diagrams where the polarization level (in terms of CPC) can be directly visualized and simply estimated once knowing the external operating conditions. Hence, these maps can be very useful in order to predict better the membrane performances and, consequently, reduce the uncertainness during the design step of the membrane modules.

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587. Cardone, F., A. Petrucci, and R. Mignani, Piezonuclear Neutrons from Iron. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8: p. 198-207.

First Author: Cardone, F.
All Authors: Cardone, F., Petrucci, A., Mignani, R.
Keywords: Iron bars, Neutron spectrum, Nuclear transmutations, Piezonuclear reactions, Ultrasounds

We report the results of neutron measurements carried out during the application of ultrasounds to bars of iron and Steel. Like in our previous similar works with cavitated solutions of iron, neutrons were emitted in bursts and the spectrum of this peculiar emission was measured for the first time. A further and very interesting outcome of these experiments was the unexpected appearance of circular, macroscopical and regular damages on the lateral surface of the bars which was not directly in contact with the sonotrode. The superficial elemental micro-analysis on these spots showed some interesting and macroscopic departures of the concentration of chemical elements from that of the undamaged surface, which may suggest that, along with the emission of neutrons, some transmutations occurred as well.

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588. Carey, J., et al., Fusion in a Bottle: Miracle or Mistake?, in Business Week. 1989. p. 100.

First Author: Carey, J.
All Authors: Carey, J., Marbach, W. D., Gross, N., Symonds, W.
Keywords: newspaper, history


589. Carpenter, J.M., Cold fusion: what's going on? Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 711.

First Author: Carpenter, J. M.
All Authors: Carpenter, J. M.
Keywords: critique, Jones


590. Carpinteri, A. and G. Lacidogna. Piezonuclear Reactions in Inert Solids: Neutron Emissions from Brittle Fracture (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Carpinteri, A.
All Authors: Carpinteri, A., Lacidogna, G.
Keywords: fractofusion

Neutron emission measurements by means of helium-3 neutron detectors were performed on solid test specimens during crushing failure.

The materials used were marble and granite, selected in that they present a different behaviour in compression failure (i.e., a different brittleness index) and a different iron content. All the test specimens were of the same size and shape.

Neutron emissions from the granite test specimens were found to be about one order of magnitude larger than the natural background level at the time of failure. These neutron emissions were caused by piezonuclear reactions that occurred in the granite, but did not occur in the marble.

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591. Carpinteri, A., et al. Piezonuclear reactions in inert solids revealed by neutron emissions from brittle fracture. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Carpinteri, A.
All Authors: Carpinteri, A., Cardone, F., Lacidogna, G., Manuello, A., Boria, O.
Keywords:

Neutron emission measurements by means of 3He neutron detectors were performed on solid test specimens during crushing failure. The tests were carried out at the Laboratory of Fracture Mechanics of the Politecnico di Torino. The materials used were marble and granite, selected in that they present a different behaviour in compression failure (i.e., a different brittleness index) and a different iron content. All the test specimens were of the same size and shape. Neutron emissions from the granite test specimens were found to be of about one order of magnitude higher than the natural background level at the time of failure. These neutron emissions should be caused by nucleolysis or piezonuclear "fissions" that occurred in the granite, but did not occur in the marble: Fe 2Al14 2 neutrons. . . .

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592. Carpinteri, A., et al., Piezonuclear Fission Reactions Simulated by the Lattice Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Carpinteri, A.
All Authors: Carpinteri, A., Manuello, A., Veneziano, D., Cook, N.
Keywords: Earth crust composition, Lattice model, Nuclear cold fusion, Piezonuclear fission reactions


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593. Carpinteri, A., et al., Hydrogen Embrittlement and Piezonuclear Reactions in Electrolysis Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Carpinteri, A.
All Authors: Carpinteri, A., Borla, O., Manuello, A., Veneziano, D., Goi, A.
Keywords: Cold nuclear fusion, Electrolysis, Hydrogen embrittlement, Piezonuclear fissions

Several evidences of anomalous nuclear reactions occurring in condensed matter have been observed in the phenomena of electrolysis, fracture (solids), and cavitation (liquids). Despite the great amount of experimental results coming from the so-called Cold Nuclear Fusion and Low Energy Nuclear Reactions research activities, the comprehension of these phenomena still remains unanswered. On the other hand, as reported by most of the articles devoted to Cold Nuclear Fusion, one of the principal features is the appearance of micro-cracks on the electrode surfaces after the experiments. In the present paper, a mechanical explanation is proposed considering a new kind of nuclear reactions, the piezonuclear fissions, which are a consequence of hydrogen embrittlement of the electrodes during electrolysis. The experimental activity was conducted using a Ni-Fe anode and a Co-Cr cathode immersed in a potassium carbonate solution. Emissions of neutrons and alpha particles were measured during the experiments and the electrode compositions were analyzed both before and after the electrolysis, recognizing the effects of piezonuclear fissions occurring in the host lattices. The symmetrical fission of Ni appears to be the main and most evident feature. Such reaction would produce two Si atoms or two Mg atoms with additional fragments as alpha particles.

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594. Carson, A.W., T.B. Flanagan, and F.A. Lewis, Electrode Potentials and Compound Formation in the Palladium-Platinum-Hydrogen System. Nature (London), 1959. 183: p. 39.

First Author: Carson, A. W.
All Authors: Carson, A. W., Flanagan, T. B., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd-Pt, phase Diagram, overvoltage, H2O


595. Carson, A.W., T.B. Flanagan, and F.A. Lewis, Proton Transfer Between Pd/H and Pd/Pt/H Electrodes. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1960. 56: p. 1324.

First Author: Carson, A. W.
All Authors: Carson, A. W., Flanagan, T. B., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Overvoltage, Pd, Pt, H2


596. Carson, A.W., T.B. Flanagan, and F.A. Lewis, Absorption of Hydrogen by Palladium/Platinum Alloys. Faraday Soc., 1960. 56: p. 363.

First Author: Carson, A. W.
All Authors: Carson, A. W., Flanagan, T. B., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, Pt, H, overvoltage, resistivity


597. Carstens, D.H.W. and W.R. David, Equilibrium Measurements in the Beta Region of Palladium Protide and Palladium Deuteride. 1989: Los Alamos.

First Author: Carstens, D. H. W.
All Authors: Carstens, D. H. W., David, W. R.
Keywords: PdD, D2, H2, phase Diagram, pressure, PdH


598. Carstens, D.H.W., An Apparatus for Studies of Hydrogen Isotope Exchange over Metals Using Laser-Raman Spectroscopy. 1990: Los Alamos.

First Author: Carstens, D. H. W.
All Authors: Carstens, D. H. W.
Keywords: PdD, deuterium, hydrogen, Raman,


599. Case, M. and R. Boehm. Assessment of thermal energy output from electrochemical cells - a critical review. in HDT (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.) 151 (Heat Transfer Adv. Energy Syst.). 1990.

First Author: Case, M.
All Authors: Case, M., Boehm, R.
Keywords: review, heat, method


600. Case, L.C., The reality of 'cold fusion'. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 478.

First Author: Case, L. C.
All Authors: Case, L. C.
Keywords: theory, d-t, fusion


601. Case, L.C. Catalytic Fusion of Deuterium into Helium-4. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Case, L. C.
All Authors: Case, L. C.
Keywords: Pd-black He+, heat+, D2, catalyst, ICCF-7, particle

Long empirical study has defined one specific set of experimental conditions under which D2 reproducibly undergoes nuclear fusion under mild laboratory conditions. Gaseous D2 is contacted with a supported metallic catalyst at superatmospheric pressure, and about 130-300 C. The catalyst is a platinum-group metal, at about 1/2% to 1% by weight, on activated carbon. Pd, Pt, Ir and Rh all work, and Ru has not been carefully studied yet. (Pd is preferred). This type of PGM on activated carbon is one of the standard hetero­geneous catalysts employed in the chemical industry, but the useful range of PGM content is much narrower than is known to be generally useful. . . .

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602. Case, L.C. There is a Fleischmann-Pons effect. The process is electrolytic, but the effect is catalytic. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Case, L. C.
All Authors: Case, L. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, ICCF-9, D2O, H2O, case catalyst, heat


603. Castagna, E., et al. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Castagna, E.
All Authors: Castagna, E., Sibilia, C., Paoloni, S., Violante, V., Sarto, F.
Keywords: theory, plasmons,


604. Castagna, E., et al. Metallurgical characterization of Pd electrodes employed in calorimetric experiments under electrochemical deuterium loading. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Castagna, E.
All Authors: Castagna, E., Sansovini, M., Lecci, S., Rufoloni, A., Sarto, F., Violante, V., Knies, D., Grabowski, K. S., Hubler, G. K., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: metallurgy

A systematic approach has been followed in the production and characterization of Pd foils to be used in excess heat production experiments. Starting with a metal foil as supplied, palladium samples have been fabricated and characterized in a step by step process, and then subjected to electrolysis deuterium loading. The characterized metallurgical properties include the main grain size, the grain boundary, the material Vickers hardness, and the crystal grain orientation. Electrochemical properties that are recorded include the D/Pd loading ratio and the D/Pd low current loading ratio. A suitable correlation parameter has been defined and correlations have been found between excess heat production and individual properties; i.e. the mean grain size, grain boundary, material hardness, crystal grain orientation, deuterium loading and low-current deuterium loading level.

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605. Castagna, E., et al. Interaction Of The Electromagnetic Radiation With The Surface Of Palladium Hydride Cathodes (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Castagna, E.
All Authors: Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Sarto, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: materials

The change of the electronic density of metallic Pd due to the hydride formation and to the build-up of the double layer, rising at the metal-dielectric interface when an electric field is  applied, is involved in the variation of the metal dielectric function. A model including also metal surface roughness has been developed to take into account such modifications.

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606. Castagna, E., et al. Interaction of the Electromagnetic Radiation with the Surface of Palladium Hydride Cathodes. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Castagna, E.
All Authors: Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Sarto, F., Violante, V.
Keywords:

The change of the electronic density of metallic Pd due to the hydride formation and to the build-up of the double layer, rising at the metal-dielectric interface when an electric field is applied, is involved in the variation of the metal dielectric function. A model including also metal surface roughness has been developed to take into account such modifications.

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607. Castagna, E., et al., Correlation Between Surface Properties and Anomalous Effects in F&P Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8: p. 49-59.

First Author: Castagna, E.
All Authors: Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Sarto, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: Atomic force microscopes, Electron states at surfaces and interfaces, Optical properties of surfaces

The reproducibility of anomalous excess heat production during electro-chemical deuterium permeation of Pd cathodes has been recently observed1 to be strongly correlated with the palladium surface properties (easy loading at low current, crystal grain distribution, crystallographic orientation, and surface morphology). The understanding of the physical mechanism that is responsible for such observed correlation is very challenging and it is complicated further by the fact that the different features are not, in principle, independent each from the other. In this work, the experimental results concerning the correlation of the excess heat production with the cathode surface properties are reviewed and some possible connections of the observed effects with the deuterium kinetics inside the palladium and the electromagnetic interactions at the metal/electrolyte interface are discussed.

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608. Castano, C.H., et al. In-Situ Charactorization of Sputtered Pd Thin-Films Undergoing Electrolysis. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Castano, C. H.
All Authors: Castano, C. H., Kim, S-O., Lipson, A. G., Woo, T., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat


609. Castano, C.H., et al. Calorimetric Measurements During Pd-Ni Thin Film-cathodes Electrolysis in Li2SO4/H2O Solution. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Castano, C. H.
All Authors: Castano, C. H., Lipson, A. G., Kim, S-O., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat

A sensitive open-type calorimeter was used to measure excess heat production during electrolysis in Li2SO4/H2O solution with Pt-anode and Pd-Ni thin film cathodes 9000 Å thick, sputtered on Al2O3 substrate. In order to estimate the actual performance and possible measurement errors during electrolysis in the calorimeter used, including heat convection, bubbling and possible H2+O2 recombination, smooth Pt sheets were used as cathodes in special reference runs. It is shown that the Alumina/ Pd-Ni sample that survived during electrolysis achieved excess heat production of 20-25 % of the input power              (equivalent to 300 30 mW).

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610. Castellan, G.W., J.P. Hoare, and S. Schuldiner, Electrochemical behavior of the palladium-hydrogen system.(II). Thermodynamic considerations. J. Chem. Phys., 1958. 28: p. 20.

First Author: Castellan, G. W.
All Authors: Castellan, G. W., Hoare, J. P., Schuldiner, S.
Keywords: Pd, H2, phase Diagram, thermodynamic


611. Castellano, et al. Nuclear Transmutation in Deutered Pd Films Irradiated by an UV Laser. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Castellano
All Authors: Castellano, Di Giulio, M., Dinescu, M., Nassisi, V., Conte, A., Pompa, P. P.
Keywords: laser, Pd, layer, D2, transmutation, ICCF-8

ABSTRACT Nuclear transmutation results in palladium films loaded with deuterium gas and processed by an excimer laser are reported. Vacuum evaporation was utilised to obtain palladium films on Si wafers. The films were inserted in chambers with deuterium gas at a variable pressure up to 5 bar. During the UV laser processing the maximum irradiating energy density was lower than 50 mJ/cm in order to avoid the ablation of the palladium films. The samples were analysed by a scanning electron microscope and an electron probe microanalyzer. After the experiments, we found that the Pd films was modified. They presented many cracks and bubbles with very sharp edges. In the bubbles the transmutation of elements was observed.

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612. Catlett, D.S., J.N. Spencer, and G.J. Vogt, Hydrogen Transport in Lithium Hydride as a Function of Pressure. J. Chem. Phys., 1973. 58: p. 3432.

First Author: Catlett, D. S.
All Authors: Catlett, D. S., Spencer, J. N., Vogt, G. J.
Keywords: pressure, diffusion, LiH


613. Cau, A., Natural nuclear synthesis of superheavy elements (SHE). J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 155.

First Author: Cau, A.
All Authors: Cau, A.
Keywords: alchemy, theory, transmutation


614. CBS, 60 Minutes, Cold Fusion is Hot Again. 2009.

First Author: CBS
All Authors: CBS
Keywords: review,


615. Cecil, F.E., et al., Measurement and Application of DD-gamma, DT-gamma and D He -gamma Reactions at Low Energy. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1985. 10-11: p. 411.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Cole, D. M., Wilkinson, F. J., Medley, S. S.
Keywords: gamma emission branching Ratio


616. Cecil, F.E., D.M. Cole, and F.J. Wilkinson, Measurement and Application of DDg, DTg and D3Heg Reactions at Low Energy. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, 1985. 10/11: p. 411.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Cole, D. M., Wilkinson, F. J.
Keywords: fusion, gamma emission, deuterium, Branching Ratio D-D


617. Cecil, F.E., et al. Observation of Charged-Particle Bursts from Deuterium-Loaded Thin-Titanium Foils. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Liu, H., Beddingfield, D. H., Galovich, C. S.
Keywords: particle emission, Ti, D2


618. Cecil, F.E., et al., Study of energetic charged particles emitted from thin deuterated palladium foils subject to high current densities. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 195.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Ferg, D., Furtak, T. E., Mader, C., McNeil, J. A., Williamson, D. L.
Keywords: Pd, ion implantation, D+, H+, particle emission


619. Cecil, F.E. and G.M. Hale. Measurement of D-D and D-Li6 Nuclear Reactions at Very Low Energies. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Hale, G. M.
Keywords: fusion, T/n, rate, cross section, low energy, ion bombardment, ICCF-2, branching ratio

The nuclear reactions of very low energy deuterons (down to center-of-mass energies of 2 keV) with deuterons and 6Li have been measured. The measured D-D reactions are in good with agreement recent R-matrix calculations. The reaction ratios D(d,p)T/D(d,n)3He and 6Li(d,p)7Li/6Li(d,α)4He in particular were examined for possible evidence of an Oppenheimer-Phillips type enhancement. No significant enhancement was found in either ratio or in the absolute yields of the reactions. The radiative capture reactions D(d,γ)4He and 6Li(d,γ)8Be were likewise measured. The branching ratios of these radiative capture reactions to the nucleonic branches of the reactions appear roughly independent of energy. The role of these reactions in the production of heat in cold-fusion experiments is evaluated.

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620. Cecil, F.E., H. Liu, and J.S. Yan, Measurements of branching ratios of low energy deuteron-induced nuclear reactions on 2H, 6Li, and 10B. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1993. 47: p. 1178.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Liu, H., Yan, J. S.
Keywords: branching ratio, ion beam, Oppenheimer-Phillips, theory


621. Cecil, F.E., H. Liu, and C.S. Galovich. Energetic Charged Particles from Deuterium Metal Systems. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Liu, H., Galovich, C. S.
Keywords: Charged particle

We report on measurements made a number of years ago of energetic charged particles which were emitted from deuterium metal systems subject to non-equilibrium conditions of temperatures and electric currents. These measurements include (i) thin Titanium foils deuterated at moderately high temperatures in a deuterium atmosphere and then monitored as they were cycled from LN2 to room temperatures; (ii) charged particle detection of Ti foils exposed to a deuterium glow discharge; and (iii) observation of charged particles from Ti foils following bombardment with energetic deuterium ions.

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622. Cedzynska, K., et al. Tritium Analysis in Palladium With an Open System Analytical Procedure. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Cedzynska, K.
All Authors: Cedzynska, K., Barrowes, S. C., Bergeson, H. E., Knight, L. C., Will, F. G.
Keywords: tritium, analysis, Pd, method


623. Cedzynska, K., et al., Tritium analysis in palladium with an open system analytical procedure. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 108.

First Author: Cedzynska, K.
All Authors: Cedzynska, K., Barrowes, S. C., Bergeson, H. E., Knight, L. C., Will, F. G.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, tritium, D2O, analysis, method


624. Cedzynska, K. and F.G. Will, Closed-system analysis of tritium in palladium. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 156.

First Author: Cedzynska, K.
All Authors: Cedzynska, K., Will, F. G.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, tritium, method, analysis


625. Celani, F., et al., Preliminary Measurements on Electrolytic Cold Fusion at Underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. 1989.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Di Stefano, V., Pace, S., Bianco, S.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, Ti, gamma, neutron, chargedParticle


626. Celani, F., et al. Measurements in the Grans Sasso Laboratory: Evidence for Nuclear Effects in Electrolysis With Pd/Ti and Different Tests with Deuterium Hight-Temperature Superconductors. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Liberatori, L., Stella, B., Ferrarotto, F., Corradi, M., Marini, P., Fortunati, S., Tului, M.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, Ti, D, D2O, superconductor


627. Celani, F., et al., Further measurements on electrolytic cold fusion with D2O and palladium at Gran Sasso Laboratory. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 718.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Pace, S., Polichetti, B., Saggese, A., Di Liberatori, L., Di Stefano, V., Marini, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, gamma emission D2O


628. Celani, F., et al. Search for Neutron Emission from Deuterided High Temperature Superconductors in a Very Low Background Environment. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Liberatori, L., Croce, F., Storelli, L., Fortunati, S., Tului, M., Sparvieri, N.
Keywords: superconductor, neutron, D2, ICCF-2, YBaCuO


629. Celani, F., et al. Measurement of Excess Heat and Tritium During Self-Biased Pulsed Electrolysis of Pd-D2O. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Nuvoli, A.
Keywords: heat+, tritium, Pd, D2O, pulse, ICCF-3, electrolysis

After Takahashi reported large excess heat with pulsed electrolysis, we built a gas-closed flow calorimeter to perform pulsed current electrolysis. Blank tests using Au plate cathodes were carried out to characterize the system. Four cold-worked Pd sheets were tested, and two of them produced 7.5% and 6% mean excess heat for many weeks. The others Pd sheets did not produce excess heat in most tests, although one of them, after deuterium reloading, produced up to 25% excess heat, but only for few hours. Tritium analysis was carried out and some coincidence between tritium production and excess heat was found.

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630. Celani, F., et al., Search for enhancement of neutron emission from neutron-irradiated, deuterated, high-temperature superconductors in a very low background environment. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 181.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Liberatori, L., Croce, F., Storelli, L., Fortunati, S., Tului, M., Sparvieri, N.
Keywords: neutron, superconductivity, theory, D2


631. Celani, F., et al. High Power µs Pulsed Electrolysis for Large Deuterium Loading on Pd Plates. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Nuvoli, A., Petrocchi, A., Di Gioacchino, D., Boutet, M., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, heat+, overvoltage, resistance, hardness, ICCF-4, electrolysis

An high peak current (up to 100 A) and a very short pulse (1 microsecond) generator was used to perform electrolysis in D2O-LiOD solution using a Pd sheet as a cathode and a Pt net as an anode. This high power pulse (up to 50 KW) can be rated up to 20 KHz.
Very high D/Pd values (up to about 1:1) has been reached with any cold-worked Pd sheets used. A very hard sheet (about 300 Hv) has generated an excess heat of the order of 15% for a long time (some weeks).
Some considerations about the metallurgy of electrodes are performed and an effort is made to correlate the excess heat with metallurgical parameters, over-voltage and surface resistance.

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632. Celani, F., et al. D/Pd Loading Ratio up to 1.2:1 by High Power µS Pulsed Electrolysis in Pd Plates. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Petrocchi, A., Di Gioacchino, D., Boutet, M., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, pulse loading


633. Celani, F., et al. Numerical Simulation of Deuterium Loading Profile in Palladium and Palladium Alloy Plates From Experimental Data Obtained Using µs Pulsed Electrolysis. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Petrocchi, A., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Nakamura, M., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Preparata, G., Verpelli, M.
Keywords: Pd, loading, Ag-Pd, Ce-Pd, Pd-V, diffusion, pulsed loading, ICCF-5, electrolysis

Various palladium cathodes hav e been studied to determine the i nfluence of metallurgy and surface treatment o n deuterium loading. In this paper we apply a numerical solution to the appropriate differential equation to calculate the time dependent local deuterium concentration i n side the plates. We use experimentally determined deuterium coefficients for the alpha, beta and gamma phases.

We find the highest concentration gradient in the case of oxidized samples.

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634. Celani, F., et al. Study of Deuterium Charging Behavior in Palladium and Palladium Alloy Plates, Charging Surface Treatments, by µs Pulsed Electrolysis. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Petrocchi, A., Di Gioacchino, D., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Diociaiuti, M., Mancini, A.
Keywords: Pd, loading, pulse, D2, surface, oxidation, electrolysis, ICCF-5

A systematic study about deuterium loading in palladium has been performed. Palladium cold worked plates and palladium alloy plates have been used as comparison. A proper plate surface oxidation has been performed and anomalous absorption rates have been measured. A high peak current (15 A), short width pulse (duration 1 μs) electrolysis technique has been used to test all cathode plates and it is visible that this technique permits to reach very high D/Pd loading values (around 1/1 or even more for palladium). At the beginning of the loading, in close relation with the anomalous absorption rate, a bump of excess heat has been measured in two similar oxidized surface palladium plates. All these tests show that the loading is completely reproducible.

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635. Celani, F., et al. High Power µs Pulsed Electrolysis Using Palladium Wires: Evidence for a Possible "Phase" Transition Under Deuterium Overloaded Conditions and Related Excess Heat. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Petrocchi, A., Di Gioacchino, D., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Pace, S., Mancini, A.
Keywords: D2O, heat+, electrolysis, Pd, pulse, electromigration, resistivity, ICCF-5

Abstract In this paper we describe an electrolytic experiment aimed at reaching high deuterium concentration gradients in palladium wires, using the electromigration effect.

We will describe the selection criteria of experimental parameters and we will show results of our loading and c alorimetric measurements. These tests reveal that a high mean value of D/Pd has been reached in a short time and that there is a correlation between an anomalous heat emissio n and an electric resistivity 'transition" of the overloaded palladium.

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636. Celani, F., et al. New Kinds of Electrolytic Regimes and Geometrical Configurations to Obtain Anomalous Results in Pd(M)-D Systems. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Mancini, A., Pace, S.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, electrolysis, Coehn, electromigration. D2O, ICCF-6


637. Celani, F., et al. Observations of strong resistivity reduction in a palladium thin long wire using ultra-high frequency pulse electrolysis at D/Pd>1. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Marini, P., Mancini, A.
Keywords: Pd, loading, resistivity, pulsed electrolysis, ICCF-6

We performed an ultra-short width high voltage pulse electrolysis using a Pd thin wire cathode; a diluted electrolytic solution of D2P+LiOD was used in a peculiar wire-turned electrodes geometry.

The deuterated Pd loading was evaluated by the D/Pd normalized electric resistance curve (R/Ro). After a long time of electrolysis a very high D/Pd loading (1:1 or more) was reached.

Very low R/Ro (<0.1) Pd wire was measured after switching of electrolysis and this effect lasted for several minutes. The deuterium deloading occurred in several typologies (fast and slow terms) showed as a resistance transition on the Pd wire.

This effect can be related to a peculiar surface structural condition.

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638. Celani, F., et al., Reproducible D/Pd ratio > 1 and excess heat correlation by 1-microsec-pulse, high-current electrolysis. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 398.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Petrocchi, A., Di Gioacchino, D., Boutet, A.
Keywords: pulsed electrolysis, heat+, D2O, loading

A high-current (up to 100 A), short-pulse (1-μs du­ration) electrolysis technique is presented that permits high loading (D/Pd up to 1.2) of deuterium in palla­dium cathodes. Several different cold-worked palladium plates were used as cathodes, and some underwent sur­face treatments (oxidation or addition of intermetallic compounds). The surface-treated plates showed atypical deuterium absorption dynamics, and the D/Pd loading ratio exceeded 1. Moreover, during initial loading, these cathodes showed anomalous excess heat (up to 80%) far greater than the absorption enthalpy. The pure pal­ladium surface plates did not show this effect.

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639. Celani, F., et al., Deuterium overloading of palladium wires by means of high power microsecond pulsed electrolysis and electromigration: suggestions of a "phase transition" and related excess heat. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 214: p. 1.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Petrocchi, A., Di Gioacchino, D., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Pace, S., Mancini, A.
Keywords: pulsed electrolysis, loading, heat+, Coehn Pd, D2O, superconductivity

           We describe room-temperature hydrogen and deuterium loading of palladium wires by means of pulsed electrolysis and the electromigration effect. The D/Pd atomic ratio has been measured by means of the dependence of the resistivity upon the D/Pd ratio. Values of the D/Pd ratio up to 0.95 or even higher have been reached in short times. A correlation between an anomalous temperature rise and a resistivity "transition" of the overloaded palladium clearly appears.

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640. Celani, F. Ultra high (over 1:1) H/Pd loading ratio using thin wires in acidic solution with addition of very low concentration impurities. in Italian Physical Soc. 1998. Salerno, Italy.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F.
Keywords: loading, Pd, electrolysis


641. Celani, F., et al. Preliminary Results with "Cincinnati Group Cell" on Thorium "Transmutation" under 50 Hz AC Excitation. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Achilli, M., Battaglia, A., Cattaneo, C., Buzzanca, C., Sona, P. G., Mancini, A.
Keywords: transmutation, Th, plasma, ICCF-7


642. Celani, F., et al. The Effect of g-b Phase on H(D)/Pd Overloading. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Pace, S., Selvaggi, G., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A.
Keywords: electromigration, loading PdD, gamma phase ICCF-7 phase diagram

It will be shown, using long and thin wires of Pd, that the Electromigration is a powerful tool to increase the H(D) loading in Pd only, and only if, some proper experimental set-up and conditions are fulfilled. Some of key interrelated parameters are: wire diameter, effective  wire temperature, strong barriers at most and less cathodic side, anode-cathode and intercathodic voltages, current densities, proper impurities on the Pd surface, ageing effects.

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643. Celani, F., et al. The Effect of Gamma-Beta Phase on H(D)/Pd Overloading. in ICCF7, Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Pace, S., Selvaggi, G., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A.
Keywords: electromigration, loading, PdD, gamma phase


644. Celani, F., et al. The Effect of Gamma-Bet Phase on H(D)/Pd Overloading. in ICCF7, Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Pace, S., Selvaggi, G., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A.
Keywords: electromigration, loading, PdD, gamma phase


645. Celani, F., A study on the electrochemistry parameters to achieve reproducible high H/Pd and D/Pd vlues in relation to anomalous excess heat: proteobacteria contamination problematics. 1999.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F.
Keywords: loading, bacteria


646. Celani, F., et al. High Hydrogen Loading into Thin Palladium Wires through Precipitate of Alkaline-Earth Carbonate on the Surface of Cathode: Evidence of New Phases in the Pd-H System and Unexpected Problems Due to Bacteria Contamination in the Heavy-Water. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A., Pace, S., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Catena, C., D'Agostaro, G., Petraroli, R., Quercia, P., Righi, E., Trenta, G.
Keywords: loading, Pd, bacteria, heat, H2O, D2O, ICCF-8

A new procedure has been developed at INFN Frascati Laboratory in order to achieve a very high Hydrogen or Deuterium electrolytic loading into a long and thin Palladium wire. This technique consists in the addition of a very small amount of alkaline-earth elements into a very diluted acidic solution. Because of enhancing pH values around the cathode, during the electrolysis, carbonates are able to precipitate onto the cathode's surface forming a thin layer which strongly increases the Pd loading; a computer simulation has been developed to find out the proper working conditions for the carbonates precipitation. Loading results of Hydrogen were excellent (H/Pd1). The evidence of a new phase in the Pd-H system was inferred from the basis of the variation of the thermal resistivity coefficient of the Pd wire as a function of the H/Pd ratio. . . .

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647. Celani, F., et al. Unexpected Detection Of New Elements In Electrolytic Experiments With Deuterated Ethyl-Alcohol, Pd Wire, Sr And Hg Salts. in JCF-4. 2002. Morioka, Japan.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A., D'Agostaro, G., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Quercia, P., Catena, C., Andreassi, V., Fontana, F., Garbelli, D., Gamberale, L., Azzarone, D., Celia, E., Falcioni, F., Marchesini, M., Novaro, E.
Keywords: transmutation, Pd, thin-wire

Abstract The insoluble powder recovered at the bottom of our electrolytic cell, after several electrolytic deuterium loading/deloading cycles, was analysed by an ICP-MS analyser. The electrolyte was constituted of a deuterated hydro-alcoholic solution; Sr and Hg salts were added to such a solution at micromolar concentration; the cathode was a long and thin Pd  wire. The ICP-MS analyses of the insoluble powder were motivated from the recent results of Y. Iwamura and collaborators at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries-Research Center (Yokohama, Japan) showing reproducible "transmutation" of Sr into Mo (isotopic composition different from natural one) and Cs into Pr, when a special multilayer Pd sheet was subjected to a prolonged Deuterium gas flowing. Some of our results look partially in agreement with Y. Iwamura report. Other unexpected elements were also detected with an isotopic distribution close to the natural one. The production of stable isotopes by Selective Channel Photofission, according to the model of A.Takahashi (Osaka University, Japan), can help for  nderstanding. Further works, hopefully also from other Laboratories, are needed to clarify these kinds of results.

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648. Celani, F., et al., Evidence of anomalous tritium excess in D/Pd overloading experiments. 2002, Laboratori Nazionali Di Frascati.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Quercia, P., Mancini, A., D'Agostaro, G., Catena, C., Sandri, S., Nobili, C., Andressi, V.
Keywords: tritium, electrolysis, D2O, ICCF-9, alcohol

Measurements of Tritium have been performed, using a very low background and accurate instrumentation, on electrolytes before and after Deuterium absorption in Palladium wires. Tritium was always present in the electrolytic cells, having long and thin Palladium wires (carefully degassed) as cathode and Platinum wire as anode, because  "normal contamination" of deuterated liquids.

Two different kinds of electrolytes were used (unusual, for several aspects, to conventional ones adopted in Cold Fusion experiments): the first one was composed by heavy water in DCl acidic environment (pH=4.5) with the addition of Strontium (and Mercury) salts at micro-molar concentration, the second one was composed by heavy ethyl alcohol--heavy water solution (concentration ratio about 11:1), acidic environment (DCl+D2SO4), with the addition of Strontium and Mercury concentrated as before.

We have found anomalous Tritium production (at large statistical significance) only when the achieved loading ratio (D/Pd) was quite large (about 0.95) and several loading/deloading cycles had been performed.

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649. Celani, F., et al. Electrochemical D loading of palladium wires by heavy ethyl-alcohol and water electrolyte, related to Ralstonia bacteria problematics. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A., D'Agostaro, G., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Quercia, P., Catena, C.
Keywords: electrolysis, alcohol, Pd, wires, loading, ICCF-9, D2O


650. Celani, F., et al. Electrochemical D loading of palladium wires by heavy ethyl-alcohol and water electrolyte, related to Ralstonia bacteria problematics. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A., D'Agostaro, G., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Quercia, P., Catena, C.
Keywords: electrolysis, alcohol, Pd, wires, loading, ICCF-9, D2O

Taking in considerations the several effects of new kinds of bacteria living in heavy water (discovered by us in 1999), from the point of view of Deuterium (D) overloading inside Palladium (Pd), it was developed (since June 2001) a new kind of electrolyte based on mixture of alcohol and water (both heavy) with proper addition of Strontium (Sr) and Mercury (Hg) salts in an acidic environment (DCl, D2SO4): all these procedure according to what developed from our group since 1996 for H2O solutions (without H2SO4) and, since 2000, for light water-alcohol (with H2SO4). It was found excess heat (by high accuracy flow calorimeter) and excess Tritium (T) production (by low background T measurement instrumentation) only when the loading ratio was quite high and some movements to D inside Pd was performed.

Efforts will be done to increase the absolute values of such experimental results, in the near future.

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651. Celani, F., et al. Evidence of anomalous tritium excess in D/Pd overloading experiments. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Quercia, P., Mancini, A., D'Agostaro, G., Catena, C., Sandri, S., Nobili, C., Andressi, V.
Keywords: tritium, electrolysis, D2O, ICCF-9, alcohol

Measurements of Tritium have been performed, using a very low background and accurate instrumentation, on electrolytes before and after Deuterium absorption in Palladium wires. Tritium was always present in the electrolytic cells, having long and thin Palladium wires (carefully degassed) as cathode and Platinum wire as anode, because "normal contamination" of deuterated liquids.

Two different kinds of electrolytes were used (unusual, for several aspects, to conventional ones adopted in Cold Fusion experiments): the first one was composed by heavy water in DCl acidic environment (pH=4.5) with the addition of Strontium (and Mercury) salts at micro-molar concentration, the second one was composed by heavy ethyl alcohol--heavy water solution (concentration ratio about 11:1), acidic environment (DCl+D2SO4), with the addition of Strontium and Mercury concentrated as before.

We have found anomalous Tritium production (at large statistical significance) only when the achieved loading ratio (D/Pd) was quite large (about 0.95) and several loading/deloading cycles had been performed.

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652. Celani, F., et al. Thermal and Isotopic Anomalies when Pd Cathodes are Electrolysed in Electrolytes Containing Th-Hg Salts Dissolved at Micromolar Concentration in C2H5OD/D2O Mixtures. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Catena, C., D'Agostaro, G., Quercia, P., Andreassi, V., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A., Sona, P. G., Fontana, F., Gamberale, L., Garbelli, D., Falcioni, F., Marchesini, M., Novaro, E., Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: Excess heat, transmutation

Discussed in this paper is the evolution of work that started by using the M. Fleischmann and S. Pons method and ended by using thin palladium wires electrolyzed in an electrolyte consisting of slightly acidic heavy alcohol-water solution containing thorium (Th) and mercury (Hg) salts at micromolar concentrations. The resulting large and dynamic loading of the Pd wires was studied. The recent use of thorium instead of strontium resulted in thermal anomalies and detection of new elements in larger amounts. The results with Sr are qualitatively in agreement with what was found by Y. Iwamura (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries) using multilayers of Pd-CaO-Pd-Sr in flowing deuterium gas. Most  results seem to be in agreement with a "multi-body resonance fusion of deuterons" model recently developed by A.Takahashi (Osaka University).

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653. Celani, F., et al. New Procedures to Make Active, Fractal-like Surfaces on Thin Pd Wires. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Righi, E., Trenta, G., D'Agostaro, G., Quercia, P., Andreassi, V., Giacinti, O., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Todarello, E., Purchi, E., Mancini, A., Sona, P. G., Fontana, F., Gamberale, L., Garbelli, D., Celia, E., Falcioni, F., Marchesini, M., Novaro, E., Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: loading, nanoparticles


654. Celani, F., et al. The Effect of -Phase on H(D)/Pd Overloading. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Pace, S., Selvaggi, G., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A.
Keywords: electromigration, loading, PdD, gamma phase,


655. Celani, F. Toward the use of nanoparticles for stable excess heat in Pd-D system: progress report at INFN-LNF. in 7th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium loaded Metals. 2006. Asti, Italy: iscmns.org.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F.
Keywords: theory

Since 2003, we suspected and later get evidence that nanostructures (or fractals) at the surface of  Pd make a key role in obtaining anomalous effects in Pd-D system, both of nuclear (like transmutations) and/or thermal origin.

We presented several papers, at JCF, Asti and ICCF Conferences which aim was to explore the role of nanometric Palladium. We developed a (complex) procedure to oxidise-produce fractals/holes at Pd wire surface, during electrolysis. . . .

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656. Celani, F., et al. Deuteron Electromigration in Thin Pd Wires Coated With Nano-Particles: Evidence for Ultra-Fast Deuterium Loading and Anomalous, Large Thermal Effects. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Andreassi, V., Marmigi, A., Cappuccio, G., Hampai, D., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Todarello, F., Purchi, E., Mastromatteo, U., Mancini, A., Falcioni, F., Marchesini, M., Di Biagio, P., Martini, U., Sona, P. G., Fontana, F., Gamberale, L., Garbelli, D., Calamai, O. M.
Keywords: electromigration, heat

Large excess heat is measured in a Pd wire coated with nano-particles. A long (65 cm) and thin (50 μm) Pd wire is coated with thin layers of Pd nano-particles, stabilized against self-sintering by the addition of selected chemical elements: the coating is adhered to the wire surface by heating it in air up to about 800C. The wire is then heated with up to 1 A of direct current in a pressurized D2 gas atmosphere. The D+ deuterons in the Pd lattice are forced to move toward the cathodic end of the wire because of the voltage drop along the wire (the Cohn effect). Large excess power density (about 400 W/g of Pd), at high temperatures (up to 400-500C), is then measured using isoperibolic calorimetry. The reference experiment is made, in situ and without opening the cell, using a Pt wire of same dimensions as the Pd wire, to which was applied the same electrical power. . . .

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657. Celani, F., et al. Towards a high temperature CMNS reactor: nano-coated Pd wires with D2 at high pressures (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Calamai, O. M., Spallone, A., Purchi, E., Andreassi, V., Ortenzi, B., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Cappuccio, G., Hampai, D., Piastra, F., Nuvoli, A.
Keywords: Excess heat

1) Improved measurements on "Washington type" reactor (P<10bar; max wires temp. 500C; reactor SS wall temperature <;40C): main results of ICCF14 confirmed (i.e. anomalous excess power, stable over time, up to 400W/g Pd).
2) Experiments on HP (60bar)-HT (600C) reactor wall are still in progress: experienced heavy problems coming out because degassing impurities (especially S, P) from SS (304, 316) used in the reactor wall. The scavenger effect of H2 (and D2) on SS makes the impurities problem quite difficult to be overcome. For such reasons we designed and build a new, multilayer (SS/Cu 3N), reactor that is now under the stage of final test.

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658. Celani, F., et al. Towards a High Temperature CMNS Reactor: Nano-Coated Pd Wires with D2 at High Pressures. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Calamai, O. M., Spallone, A., Purchi, E., Andreassi, V., Ortenzi, B., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Cappuccio, G., Hampai, D., Piastra, F., Nuvoli, A., Mastromatteo, U., Mancini, A., Falcioni, F., Marchesini, M., Di Biagio, P., Martini, U., Gamberale, L., Garbelli, D.
Keywords:

There were improved measurements on our reactor presented at ICCF14 (2008): long-thin Pd wires with surfaces nano-coated by multi-layers of several elements, D2 at P<10bar; wires temp. <500C; SS reactor wall temperature <100C; longitudinal current density up to 45 kA/cm2 (voltage drop up to 70V); transversal electric field up to 700V/cm. Previous ICCF14 results confirmed: anomalous excess power, stable over time and power cycling, up to 400 W/g of Pd. Made a new experiment with D2-Ar mixture: demonstrated the role of high temperatures (into "nano" Pd-D) to enhance production of anomalous thermal effects. The combined effects of high concentration and mobility of D inside Pd seem the key points to get them: models based on High Temperature BEC Nuclear Fusion (Kim, Premuda) fits several of our experimental results. Experiments on the planned (new) High Pressure (60 bar) High Temperature (>600 C) reactor wall are still in progress: experienced heavy problems coming out because degassing of impurities (specially S, P) from SS (304, 316) used in the reactor wall. The scavenger effect of H2 (and D2) on SS and other materials makes the impurities problem quite difficult to be overcome: designed and build a new, multiple layer wall (SS/Cu 3N), reactor that is now under the stage of final test.

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659. Celani, F., et al. Sviluppo di catalizzatore ternario, skeleton type, per studi su anomalie termiche nei sistemi Metallo-Idrogeno ad alta temperatura (PowerPoint slides). in Coherence 2011. 2011. Ministero dell'Aereonautica, Italy.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Nakamura, M., Zangari, G., Spallone, A., Nuvoli, A., Purchi, E, Marano, E., Ortenzi, B., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Micciulla, F., Bellucci, S.
Keywords: Excess heat

Nell'ambito degli studi volti ad evidenziare eventuali anomalie di tipo termico (e/o nucleare) nei sistemi Metallo-Idrogeno (e/o Deuterio), studi che rientrano nella fenomenologia nota (dal 2002) con la sigla CMNS (Condensed Matter Nuclear Science), è divenuta sempre più palese l'importanza che ricoprono sistemi nanostrutturati per poter ottenere, in opportune condizioni di temperatura e pressione, fenomeni anomali riconducibili a processi NON di origine chimica e fisica convenzionale.

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660. Celani, F., et al. Experimental results on sub-micro structured Cu-Ni alloys under high temperatures Hydrogen/Deuterium interactions (PowerPoint slides). in X International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals. 2012. Siena, Italy.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marano, E., Spallone, A., Nuvoli, A., Ortenzi, B., Nakamura, K., Purchi, E, Zangari, G., Pella, S., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Micciulla, F., Bellucci, S., Bartalucci, S., Cupellini, S., Mancini, A., Maggiore, F.
Keywords: excess heat, hydrogen, nickel

In the framework of studies devoted to detect thermal and/or nuclear anomalies during the  close interactions of H2 and/or D2 with Hydrogen-absorbing materials (e.g. Pd, Ni, Ti, Th, U, Fe, rare-earths, pure and their alloys), since March 2011, we made several experiments with a specific commercial alloy (ISOTAN 44  from Isabellenhutte, Germany) with nominal composition: Cu55-Ni44-Mn1.

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661. Celani, F., et al., Development of a High Temperature Hybrid CMNS Reactor. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 24-33.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Calamai, O. M., Spallone, A., Nuvoli, A., Andreassi, V., Ortenzi, F., Piastra, F., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Marano, E., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Purchi, E
Keywords: Anomalous effects, Deloading, Hybrid, Isoperibolic calorimetry, Nano-particles

We presents some improvements on the reactor presented at ICCF14 (Washington DC, August 2008): use of long-thin Pd wires with nano-coated surfaces by multi-layers of several elements, loading with D2 at pressure <10 bar; wires temperatures >500C; Stainless Steel (SS) reactor wall temperature <100C; current density along Pd up to 45 kA/cm2; voltage drop along the Pd wire up to 70 V. Mainly, the Pd wire temperature was increased up to 750C and was improved the temperature detection of anomalous excess heat, if any, using a SS shielded type-K thermocouple: it was put inside a small Cu tube, used as thermal equalizer, where, at the outer surface, both the "active" Pd wire and the "reference" Pt were twisted. The overall results were in agreement with that obtained in 2008 experiments and they confirm the positive effect of high temperatures in increasing the amount of anomalous energy gain. In both the experiments the fast and simple isoperibolic calorimetry was used. Main gas adopted were: He and He (60%)-Ar(40%) mixture, both for calibration purposes; D2 and D2(60%)-Ar(40%) as potentially active gas.

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662. Celani, F., et al. Further progress/developments, on surface/bulk treated Constantan wires, for anomalous heat generation by H2/D2 interaction. in ICCF18 Conference. 2013. University of Missouri.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Vassallo, G., Purchi, E, Nuvoli, A., Spallone, A., Nakamura, M., Marano, E., Ortenzi, B., Pella, S., Ovidi, A., Bartalucci, S., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Santandrea, F., Cirilli, P., Grotta, A.
Keywords: excess heat, nickel, wire

Outline and motivations

1) Path of HT anomalies: from Langmuir (W&H2) to nano-Constantan.

2) Proof, by calibration experiments with Pt wires (different diameters, gases, pressures, power), that main results obtained on 2012 with surface-treated Constant wires, were right. Focused on not-dependence of Anomalous Heat Effects (AHE) on pressure variations inside the transparent glass reactor: reconfirmed and reinforced previous calibration data (June 2012) using He.

3) Evidence of unexpected water splitting phenomena, under vacuum, by "nanodiamandoids-coated" Constantan. . . .

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663. Celani, F., et al., Experimental Results on Sub-Micro structured Cu-Ni Alloys under High Temperature Hydrogen/Deuterium Interaction. Chemistry and Materials Research, 2013. 3(3).

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marano, E., Spallone, A., Nuvoli, A., Ortenzi, B., Pella, S., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Micciulla, F., Bellucci, S., Bartalucci, S., Nakamura, K., Purchi, E, Zangari, G., Cupellini, S., Mancini, A., Maggiore, F., Ovidi, A.
Keywords: excess heat, hydrogen, nickel

This study shows in detail how even a low cost material, like commercial Cu-Ni-Mn alloy (named Konstantan or ISOTAN 44), as far its surface is properly modified from the point of view of dimensionality, can be used as material able to produce anomalous heat effects due to close interaction with Hydrogen (or Deuterium, but at lower intensity) at high temperature. This work is supported by Enel Engineering and Innovation SpA, Via Andrea Pisano 120, 56122, Pisa (Italy), ORIM SpA, Via Concordia 65, 62100 Macerata (Italy) and Kresenn Ltd, 5a Frascati Way, SL6 4UY, Maidenhead (United Kingdom).

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664. Celani, F., et al., Improved understanding of self-sustained, sub-micrometric multicomposition surface Constantan wires interacting with H2 at high temperatures: experimental evidence of Anomalous Heat Effects. Chemistry and Materials Research, 2013. 3(12).

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marano, E., Nuvoli, A., Purchi, E, Nakamura, M., Pella, S., Ortenzi, B., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Bartalucci, S., Ovidi, A., Zangari, G., Micciulla, F., Bellucci, S., Vassallo, G.
Keywords: calorimeter, LENR, Nickel based alloys, sub-micrometric surfaces

This article is an extension of what presented by our team at 17th International Conference on Cold Fusion, ICCF-17, in Daejon, Korea, in 2012 [1]. It documents the improvements on Constantan-related experiments, started in 2011, in order to study the feasibility of new Nickel based alloys that are able to absorb proper amounts of Hydrogen (H2) and/or Deuterium (D2) and that have, in principle, some possibility to generate anomalous thermal effects at temperatures >100C. The interest in Ni comes in part because there is the possibility to use also H2 instead of expensive D2. Moreover, cross-comparison of results using H2 instead of D2 can be made and could help the understanding of the phenomena involved (atomic, nuclear, super-chemical origin?) due to the use of such isotopes.

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665. Celani, F., et al., Cu-Ni-Mn alloy wires, with improved submicrometric surfaces, used as LENR device by new transparent, dissipation-type, calorimeter. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13: p. 56-67.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marano, E., Spallone, A., Nuvoli, A., Purchi, E, Nakamura, K., Ortenzi, B., Pella, S., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Bartalucci, S., Zangari, G., Micciulla, F., Bellucci, S.
Keywords: excess heat, hydrogen, nickel

Abstract -- Starting in February 2011, we studied the feasibility of new Nickel based alloys that are able to absorb  proper  amounts  of  Hydrogen  (H2)  and/or Deuterium  (D2)  and  that  have,  in  principle,  some possibility to generate anomalous thermal effects at temperatures >100C. The interest in Ni comes in part because there is the possibility to use H2 instead of expensive D2. Reports by F. Piantelli (since 1992), G. Miley (about 1995), M. Patterson, F. Celani (since 2010) and, overall, claims by A. Rossi and (later on) by Defkalion Company, could be further investigated. Moreover, cross-comparison of results using Hydrogen instead of Deuterium can be made and could help the understanding of the phenomena involved (nuclear origin?) because use of such isotopes.

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666. Celani, F., et al. Cu-Ni-Mn alloy wires, with improved submicrometric surfaces, used as LENR device by new transparent, dissipation-type, calorimeter (PowerPoint slides). in ICCF18 Conference. 2014. University of Missouri.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marano, E., Spallone, A., Nuvoli, A., Purchi, E, Nakamura, K., Ortenzi, B., Pella, S., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Bartalucci, S., Zangari, G., Micciulla, F., Bellucci, S.
Keywords: excess heat, hydrogen, nickel

Abstract -- Starting in February 2011, we studied the feasibility of new Nickel based alloys that are able to absorb  proper  amounts  of  Hydrogen  (H2)  and/or Deuterium  (D2)  and  that  have,  in  principle,  some possibility to generate anomalous thermal effects at temperatures >100C. The interest in Ni comes in part because there is the possibility to use H2 instead of expensive D2. Reports by F. Piantelli (since 1992), G. Miley (about 1995), M. Patterson, F. Celani (since 2010) and, overall,  claims by A. Rossi and (later on) by Defkalion Company, could be further investigated. Moreover, cross-comparison of results using Hydrogen instead of Deuterium can be  made  and  could  help  the  understanding  of  the phenomena involved (nuclear origin?) because use of such isotopes.

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667. Celani, F., et al., Observation of Macroscopic Current and Thermal Anomalies, at High Temperature, by Hetero-structures in Thin and Long Constantan Wires Under H2 Gas. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Ortenzi, B., Pella, S., Purchi, E, Santandrea, F., Fiorilla, S., Nuvoli, A., Nakamura, M., Cirilli, P., Boccanera, P., Notargiacomo, L.
Keywords: Constantan sub-micrometric surfaces, H2 ad-/absorption, Iron, Rydberg Matter, Thermodynamic second law

Since 2011, we introduced into LENR field, the use of a Constantan (Cnst) alloy to absorb/adsorb proper amounts of H2 or D2 and to generate thermal anomalies even at low temperatures (>200◦C). We developed a reactor with a core of sub-micrometric layered Cnst wires that produced measurable excess power (almost reproducible). Subsequently, we used fiberglass sheaths as electrical insulation and found out that this material actually improves reactor performance. In the most recent configuration, we studied the effects of adding Fe nanolayers to the Cnst wires and of including several small knots along their extension, actions that resulted in a larger excess power that grew with increasing wire temperature. We detected a new electric effect: the generation of spontaneous voltage between the ends of a floating wire in the reactor. We performed tests to study results in agreement with Inverse Rydberg Matter model by L. Holmlid.

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668. Cellucci, F., et al. X-Ray, Heat Excess and 4He in the Electrochemical Confinement of Deuterium in Palladium. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Cellucci, F.
All Authors: Cellucci, F., Cignini, P. L., Gigli, G., Gozzi, D., Tomellini, M., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: He, radiation, electrolysis, heat+, Pd, D2O, X-ray, ICCF-6

Abstract The energy balance between heat excess and 4He in the gas phase has been found reasonably satisfied even if the low levels of 4He found do not give the necessary confidence to state definitely that we are dealing with the fusion of deuterons to give 4He. In the melted cathode, whose data are reported here, 4He was not found at the achieved sensitivity. X-ray film, positioned at 50 mm from the cell, roughly gave the image of the cathode through spots. The energy of the radiation and the total energy associated to it have been, respectively, evaluated as (891) keV and (12.0 0.4) kJ. This value is ≈ 0.5% of the energy measured by calorimetry in the same interval of time.

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669. Cerofolini, G.F., N. Re, and A.F. Para. (D+D+)2e- Binuclear Atoms as Activated Precursors in Cold Fusion and Warm Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Cerofolini, G. F.
All Authors: Cerofolini, G. F., Re, N., Para, A. F.
Keywords: theory, D-D, dineutron


670. Cerofolini, F., et al. Binuclear Atoms as Fusion Precursors in a Hot Cloud. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Cerofolini, F.
All Authors: Cerofolini, F., Dierckx, R., Para, A. F., Ottaviani, G.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-2


671. Cerofolini, C.F. and A.F. Para, Exotic Atoms in Condensed Matter Alternatives in Low Energy Fusion? 59 ed, ed. G. Benedek and H. Schneuwly. 1992: Springer Proc. in Phys.Cerofolini, C.F. 129.

First Author: Cerofolini, C. F.
All Authors: Cerofolini, C. F., Para, A. F.
Keywords: review,


672. Cerofolini, C.F. and A.F. Para, Alternatives in low energy fusion?". Springer Proc. Phys., 1992. 59 (Exot. At. Condens. Matter): p. 129.

First Author: Cerofolini, C. F.
All Authors: Cerofolini, C. F., Para, A. F.
Keywords: Theory, Ti, cluster impact, D2


673. Cerofolini, G.F., et al., Giant Neutron Trapping by a Molecular Species Produced During the Reaction of D+ With H- in a Condensed Phase. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 465.

First Author: Cerofolini, G. F.
All Authors: Cerofolini, G. F., Boara, G., Agosteo, S., Para, A. F.
Keywords: theory, neutron, absorption


674. Cerofolini, G.F. and A.F. Para, Can binuclear atoms solve the cold fusion puzzle? Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 98.

First Author: Cerofolini, G. F.
All Authors: Cerofolini, G. F., Para, A. F.
Keywords: Theory, dineutron


675. Cerron-Zeballos, E., et al., Investigation of anomalous heat production in Ni-H systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1996. 109A: p. 1645.

First Author: Cerron-Zeballos, E.
All Authors: Cerron-Zeballos, E., Crotty, I., Hatzifotiadou, D., Lamas Valverde, J., Williams, M. C. S., Zichichi, A.
Keywords: Ni, H2, heat

Summary. -- Anomalous heat production in a nickel rod loaded with hydrogen has been reported by Focardi et al. (Nuovo Cimento A, 107 (1994) 163). We have investigated this phenomenon by repeating the experiment. We found the results previously published to be consistent with our observations; namely we measured higher temperatures for the same input power when hydrogen is absorbed during a heating cycle. Nevertheless this temperature rise does not appear to correspond to an increase in heat production. We have added a temperature sensor to the container of the experiment. The temperature of the container follows the same temperature with input power curve irrespective of whether there is an anomalous absorption of hydrogen or not; therefore we have no evidence that this temperature increase corresponds to another source of heat. In conclusion, we have observed all the effects discovered by Focardi et al., but our results imply that there is no production of power associated with the absorption of hydrogen by nickel

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676. Chambaud, G., B. Levy, and J.G. Esteve, Estimate of Ti effects on D-D fusion. Phys. Lett., 1991. A156: p. 395.

First Author: Chambaud, G.
All Authors: Chambaud, G., Levy, B., Esteve, J. G.
Keywords: Theory, screening, Ti


677. Chambers, G.P., G.K. Hubler, and K.S. Grabowski. Search for Energetic Charged-Particle-Reaction Products During Deuterium-Charging of Metal Lattices. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Chambers, G. P.
All Authors: Chambers, G. P., Hubler, G. K., Grabowski, K. S.
Keywords: Ti, ion implantation, gas discharge, particle emission


678. Chambers, G.P., et al., Charged particle spectra of palladium thin films during low energy deuterium ion implantation. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 281.

First Author: Chambers, G. P.
All Authors: Chambers, G. P., Eridon, J. E., Grabowski, K. S., Sartwell, B. D., Chrisey, D. B.
Keywords: Pd, ion beam, particle emission, layer


679. Chambers, G.P., J.M. Eridon, and K.S. Grabowski, Upper limit on cold fusion in thin palladium films. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 41(8): p. 5388.

First Author: Chambers, G. P.
All Authors: Chambers, G. P., Eridon, J. M., Grabowski, K. S.
Keywords: Pd, ion beam, particle emission


680. Chambers, G.P., G.K. Hubler, and Y. Kucherov, Glow Discharge in Deuterium. 1995.

First Author: Chambers, G. P.
All Authors: Chambers, G. P., Hubler, G. K., Kucherov, Y.
Keywords: Gas Discharge, D2, ion bombardment, gamma


681. Champion, J., Explanation of Observed Nuclear Events Associated with Cold Fusion and Similar Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. 1994.

First Author: Champion, J.
All Authors: Champion, J.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation


682. Champion, J., History of Transmutation Research. 1994.

First Author: Champion, J.
All Authors: Champion, J.
Keywords: transmutation, theory


683. Chandler, D.L., et al., Fusion : Test Tube Yields More Questions Than Answers, in Boston Globe. 1989: BostonEditor. p. 29.

First Author: Chandler, D. L.
All Authors: Chandler, D. L., Saltus, R., Miller, W. G., Black, C.
Keywords: newspaper, history


684. Chang, C.P., et al., Hydrogen and deuterium in palladium. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1991. 16: p. 491.

First Author: Chang, C. P.
All Authors: Chang, C. P., Wu, J. K., Yao, Y. D., Wang, C. W., Lin, E. K.
Keywords: Pd, neutron, gamma emission, tritium, heat+, diffusion, lattice parameter, surface analysis


685. Chang, Y.F. and C.Z. Yu. The Physical-Chemical and Nuclear Multistage Reaction Mechanism and the Multistage Ignition Condition on Cold Fusion. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Chang, Y. F.
All Authors: Chang, Y. F., Yu, C. Z.
Keywords: theory


686. Chang, K., U.S. Will Give Cold Fusion Second Look, After 15 Years, in New York Times. 2004.

First Author: Chang, K.
All Authors: Chang, K.
Keywords: history, newspaper


687. Chao, J., et al. Three Dimensional Computer Simulation of an Isoperibolic Calorimeter for Cold Fusion Experiments. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Chao, J.
All Authors: Chao, J., Layman, W., Kang, C. M., Gur, T., Schreiber, M., Higgins, R., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J.
Keywords: heat, method, apparatus, ICCF-1


688. Chapnik, I.M., Possibility of induced beta radioactivity in PdD. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1990. 146: p. 273.

First Author: Chapnik, I. M.
All Authors: Chapnik, I. M.
Keywords: Theory


689. Chapnik, I.M., Possibility of electrochemically induced transmutation in PdD. Phys. Lett. A, 1991. 161: p. 111.

First Author: Chapnik, I. M.
All Authors: Chapnik, I. M.
Keywords: Theory, Pd, Oppenheimer-Phillips


690. Chatterjee, L., Could spectator electrons legalize cold fusion? Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 683.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L.
Keywords: Theory


691. Chatterjee, L., On a weak flavor for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 358.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L.
Keywords: Theory, screening


692. Chatterjee, L., The two faces of the Coulomb barrier. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 365.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L.
Keywords: Theory


693. Chatterjee, L., A. Chakrabarty, and G. Das, Non-radiative exit channels in low energy d-d fusion. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys., 1991. 29: p. 781.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L., Chakrabarty, A., Das, G.
Keywords: Theory


694. Chatterjee, L. and G. Das, Sub-barrier nuclear fusion of amuonic and muonic flavour. Phys. Lett., 1991. A154: p. 5.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L., Das, G.
Keywords: Theory, screening


695. Chatterjee, L., S. Mandal, and A. Chakrabarty, Electron accumulation and reproducibility of cold fusion. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys., 1993. 31: p. 131.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L., Mandal, S., Chakrabarty, A.
Keywords: Theory, screening, TiO2


696. Chatterjee, L., Electrolysis in thin-film nickel coatings: mimicking supernova physics? Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 147.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L.
Keywords: Theory, swimming electron, virtual neutron


697. Chaudhary, I. and P.L. Hagelstein. Four-body RST General Nuclear Wavefunctions and Matrix Elements. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Chaudhary, I.
All Authors: Chaudhary, I., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory

The inclusion of phonon exchange in a nuclear reaction is accomplished most easily when the associated matrix elements are written explicitly as a function of the spatial coordinates. We report on the wavefunctions and matrix elements for the special case of a T = 0 4-body deuteron-deuteron fusion reaction.

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698. Chauvin, N. LENR Powered Electrict Vehicles. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Chauvin, N.
All Authors: Chauvin, N.
Keywords: Commercialization

Current electric vehicles (EV) and fuel cell vehicles (FCEV) suffer from several limitations that prevent them from becoming a true commercial success.

When available, kilowatt class LENR generators combined with modern thermoelectric conversion technology could enable designing new type of automobiles, being low cost, maintenance free and zero emission at the same time.

In the present talk, we will discuss what are to current limitations of electric vehicles and battery technology, how LENR technology can propose an alternative to large battery storage on EV, what are the available compact solutions for energy harvesting and thermoelectric conversion from LENR thermal energy, what are the longer term design alternatives and finally what is the expected timeline to develop prototypes and commercial products.

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699. Chechin, V.A., et al. Fracto-Acceleration Model of Cold Nuclear Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Chechin, V. A.
All Authors: Chechin, V. A., Tsarev, V. A., Golubnichyi, P. I., Philonenko, A. D., Tsarik, A. A.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion


700. Chechin, V.A. and V.A. Tsarev, On the nonstationary quantum-mechanical origin of nuclear reactions in solids. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 469.

First Author: Chechin, V. A.
All Authors: Chechin, V. A., Tsarev, V. A.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion


701. Chechin, V.A., et al., Critical review of theoretical models for anomalous effects in deuterated metals. Int. J. Theo. Phys., 1994. 33: p. 617.

First Author: Chechin, V. A.
All Authors: Chechin, V. A., Tsarev, V. A., Rabinowitz, M., Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Review, theory critique

We briefly summarize the reported anomalous effects in deuterated metals at ambient temperature, commonly known as "Cold Fusion" (CF), with an emphasis on important experiments as well as the theoretical basis for the opposition to interpreting them as cold fusion. Then we critically examine more than 25 theoretical models for CF, including unusual nuclear and exotic chemical hypotheses. We conclude that they do not explain the data.

From: http://arxiv1.library.cornell.edu/vc/nucl-th/papers/0303/0303057v1.pdf

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702. Cheek, G.T. and W.E. O'Grady, Measurement of hydrogen uptake by palladium using a quartz crystal microbalance. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 277: p. 341.

First Author: Cheek, G. T.
All Authors: Cheek, G. T., O'Grady, W. E.
Keywords: loading, method, Pd


703. Cheek, G.T. and W.E. O'Grady, Measurement of H/D uptake characteristics at palladium using a quartz crystal microbalance. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 368: p. 133.

First Author: Cheek, G. T.
All Authors: Cheek, G. T., O'Grady, W. E.
Keywords: loading, method, D, H, diffusion, film


704. Chemla, M., J. Chevalet, and R. Bury, Heat evolution involved with the electrochemical discharge of hydrogen and deuterium on palladium. C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. 2, 1989. 309: p. 987 (in French).

First Author: Chemla, M.
All Authors: Chemla, M., Chevalet, J., Bury, R.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat, D2O, H2O


705. Chemla, M., et al., Experimental investigation of thermal and radiation effects induced by deuterium discharge at the palladium electrode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 277: p. 93.

First Author: Chemla, M.
All Authors: Chemla, M., Chevalet, J., Bury, R., Perie, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat-, tritium-, D2O, H2O, method, loading, negative


706. Chen, M., et al., Measurements of neutron emission induced by muons stopped in metal deuteride targets. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 155.

First Author: Chen, M.
All Authors: Chen, M., Steadman, S. G., Gaudreau, M. P. J., Luckhardt, S. C., Parker, R. R., Albagli, D., Cammarata, V., Schloh, M., Wrighton, M. S., Kwok, K., Thiee, C., Lowenstein, D. I., Debbe, R., Reilly, J. J.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, Y, muon, D2, neutron, tritium


707. Chen, S.H., et al. The Sensitizing Phenomenon of X-ray Film in the Experiment of Metals Loaded with Deuterium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Chen, S. H.
All Authors: Chen, S. H., Wang, D. L., Chen, W. J., Li, Y. J., Fu, Y. B., Zhang, X.-W.
Keywords: film, autoradiograph, method, ICCF-3

The sensitizing phenomenon of x-ray film was studied, in metals loaded with deuterium, by a cycle method of temperature and pressure (CMTP). The experimental results showed that the sensitizing and of x-ray film was derived from the chemical reaction and the anomalous effect of metals loaded with deuterium.

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708. Chen, X. and J. Yang, Studies on dineutron model of cold fusion (I). Hunan Shifan Daxue Ziran Kexue Xuebao, 1993. 16((1)): p. 42 (in Chinese, Eng. abstr).

First Author: Chen, X.
All Authors: Chen, X., Yang, J.
Keywords: Theory, dineutron, review


709. Chen, C.L. and J.K. Wu, Electrolytic hydrogen transport in palladium. J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 1994. 13: p. 84.

First Author: Chen, C. L.
All Authors: Chen, C. L., Wu, J. K.
Keywords: loading, Pd, H2O, electrolysis


710. Chen, Y.P. and S.D. Cai, Dynamic screening effect from acoustic plasmons. Science in China A, 1994. 37((1)): p. 62.

First Author: Chen, Y. P.
All Authors: Chen, Y. P., Cai, S. D.
Keywords: Theory, shielding


711. Chen, S., et al., X-ray diagnostics in gas discharge. Trends Nucl. Phys., 1995. 12((3)): p. 58 (in Chinese).

First Author: Chen, S.
All Authors: Chen, S., Wang, D., Cui, G., Wang, M., Fu, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, D2, H2, ion bombardment


712. Chen, S.K., et al., The microstructure of electrocatalytically deuterium-loaded palladium rods". Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 302.

First Author: Chen, S. K.
All Authors: Chen, S. K., Wan, C. M., Liu, E. H., Chu, S. B., Liang, C. Y.
Keywords: surface analysis, electrolysis, LiD, loading, structure, Pd, D2O, molten salt


713. Chen, B.R., et al., Theoretical studies of the effect of hydrogen-hydrogen interactions on the structural and dynamical properties of metal/hydrogen clusters. J. Chem. Phys., 1996. 105(21): p. 9686.

First Author: Chen, B. R.
All Authors: Chen, B. R., Gomez, M. A., Doll, J. D., Freeman, D. L.
Keywords: theory


714. Chen, S.K. and C.Y. Liaug. Observations of Cell Temperature Drops and High Vapor Temperatures in H2O Electrolysis of Ni and in D2O Electrolysis of Pd. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chen, S. K.
All Authors: Chen, S. K., Liaug, C. Y.
Keywords: H2O, D2O, electrolysis, Pd, Ni, heat, ICCF-7


715. Chen, L., X. Qiu, and S. Song, Experimental research of excess heat under high pulse current. High Power Laser Part. Beams, 1998. 10(2): p. 312 (in Chinese).

First Author: Chen, L.
All Authors: Chen, L., Qiu, X., Song, S.
Keywords: Pd, gas discharge, neutron, heat


716. Chen, S. and X.Z. Li. Tritium production and selective resonant tunneling model. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chen, S.
All Authors: Chen, S., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: tritium, theory, ICCF-9

ABSTRACT             Two principles of the selective resonant tunneling model are recapitulated, and applied to the case of tritium production. The model can explain the tritium production in condensed matter nuclear reaction with no neutron and gamma radiation semi-quantitatively. A similar model may excess heat with no commensurate neutron and gamma radiation. Some experiments are suggested to test our explanation.

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717. Chen, S. and X.Z. Li. The Application Of Multiple Scattering Theory (Mst) In Calculating The Deuterium Flux Permeating The Pd Thin Film. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Chen, S.
All Authors: Chen, S., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: theory

The multiple-scattering theory is applied to the de Broglie wave of deuterons inside the palladium film. The formalism for band structure calculation and the reflection and transmission calculations for finite slices is presented. The latter is based on a double-layer scheme which obtains the reflection and transmission matrix elements for the multiplayer slice from those of a single layer. With a relative simple model for the potential of palladium crystal lattice, we calculate the band structures of probability wave of deuterons propagating in the palladium, as well as the transmission coefficients through finite periodic slices. Selective resonant tunneling theory is adopted when obtaining the scattering matrix T. Our calculations consist with experimental results which can not be explained by diffusion theory.

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718. Chene, J. and A.M. Brass, Tritium production during the cathodic discharge of deuterium on palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 280: p. 199.

First Author: Chene, J.
All Authors: Chene, J., Brass, A. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, tritium, D2O


719. Cheng, Y.C., W.Y.P. Hwang, and S.N. Yang. Thoughts on Warm Fusion Versus Cold Fusion. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Cheng, Y. C.
All Authors: Cheng, Y. C., Hwang, W. Y. P., Yang, S. N.
Keywords: theory, cluster, ICCF-1


720. Chernov, I.P., et al. Charge Isotopic Composition of Metals at Deuterium Charge. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chernov, I. P.
All Authors: Chernov, I. P., Nikitenkov, N. N., Puchkareva, L. N., Kolobov, Yu. R.
Keywords: diffusion, transmutation, theory, ICCF-7


721. Chernov, I.P., et al., Yield of nuclear reaction products from deuterium-saturated composite materials and layered structures. Russ. Phys. J., 1998. 41: p. 642.

First Author: Chernov, I. P.
All Authors: Chernov, I. P., Mel'nikova, T. N., Cherdantsev, Yu. P., Kreining, M., Baumbakh, Kh.
Keywords: Ni-WC, electrolysis, gamma emission, neutron Titanium, Pd layer, surface, fractofusion


722. Chernov, I.P., et al. Excitation of Hydrogen Subsystem in Metals by External Influence. in 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Chernov, I. P.
All Authors: Chernov, I. P., Koroteev, V., Silkin, V., Tyurin, Y.
Keywords: hydrogen exitation,


723. Chiba, M., et al., Measurement of neutron emission from LiNbO3 fracture process in D2 and H2 atmosphere. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1995. 108: p. 1277.

First Author: Chiba, M.
All Authors: Chiba, M., Shirakawa, T., Fujii, M., Ikebe, T., Yamaoka, S., Sueki, K., Nakahara, H., Hirose, T.
Keywords: fractofusion, superconductivity, neutron, D2, H2


724. Chicea, D. About nuclear coulomb barrier and electron over-concentration. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: theory, electron, ICCF-6


725. Chicea, D., Electron Clusters- Possible Deuterium Fusion Catalyzers. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(1): p. 37.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: theory, electron cluster

Abstract Simple calculations concerning the behaviour of the deuterons trapped in an electron cluster are presented. The kinetic energy achieved by a deuteron accelerated from the edge to the center of an electron cluster is sufficient for the coulomb barrier to be penetrated in the traditionally known manner. The results are discussed in connection with the published experimental data concerning the impact of the electron clusters on a metal target.

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726. Chicea, D. About Deuterium Nuclear Reaction Rate in Condensed Matter. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7

Abstract The Coulomb barrier penetrability of two approaching nuclei is computed in the frame of the W.K.B approximation. A simple model for describing the screening effect of the Coulomb nuclear barrier by the high electron concentration in condensed matter is  presented. The nuclear reaction rate of the hydrogen isotope nuclei, trapped in a metallic lattice is assessed, both for the unscreened and for the screened Coulomb barrier, averaged by the Maxwell distribution. The model predicts that, in certain circumstances, for porous or grainy samples, which are subject to a negative electric potential and are heavily loaded with deuterium, very low nuclear radiation level might be detected. The results are discussed in connection with some of the very successful experiments like Miley's metal-coated spheres.

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727. Chicea, D. The Role of the Energy Fluctuations in the Possibility of Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7

Abstract In many experimental papers concerning experiments of loading certain metals like nickel, palladium with hydrogen isotopes low radiation levels have been reported. A simple model to describe the energy fluctuation of a deuteron trapped in a lattice, considering elastic collisions in one dimension with the ions is presented. The energy fluctuations, combined with the increase of the Coulomb barrier penetration probability produced by the electron screening effect, might lead to a very small and unsteady rate of low energy nuclear reactions produced by the hydrogen isotopes in condensed matter.

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728. Chicea, D., A Note on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(1): p. 30.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: theory,


729. Chicea, D., D. Lupu, and I. Cheregi, Experimental evidence of neutron emission from TiDx samples. Hadronic J., 1998. 21: p. 567.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D., Lupu, D., Cheregi, I.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2


730. Chicea, D. and D. Stoicescu. Experimental Evidence of Nuclear Reactions in Deuterated Titanium Samples Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions Induced by Temperature Variation. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D., Stoicescu, D.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, ICCF-8

ABSTRACT Several experiments of loading Titanium samples with Deuterium from the gas phase, of changing the temperature of the samples over a wide range and of monitoring the neutron emission were done. Neutron emissions in very low intensity bursts, still significantly above the background were recorded, revealing that low energy nuclear reactions in condensed matter can be produced with a very low rate, which occasionally can be high enough to become detectable.

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731. Chicea, D. and D. Lupu, Low-intensity neutron emission from TiDx samples under nonequilibrium conditions. Fusion Technol., 2001. 39: p. 108.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D., Lupu, D.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2

ABSTRACT Several experiments of loading Titanium samples with Deuterium from the gas phase, of changing the temperature of the samples over a wide range and of monitoring the neutron emission were done. Neutron emissions in very low intensity bursts, still significantly  above the background were recorded, revealing that low energy nuclear reactions in condensed matter can be produced with a very low rate, which occasionally can be high enough to become detectable.

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732. Chicea, D. On New Elements on Cathode Surface after Hydrogen Isotopes Absorption. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: neutron

Several experiments of loading Hydrogen and Deuterium into different metals foils and thin film metal layers by using them as cathodes in prolonged electrolysis experiments were performed. Before and after experiments the cathode surface was analyzed by the Scanning Electron Microscopy technique. Results reveal that different elements that were not present in the surface layer before the experiment could be identified in the system after the experiment, with an accuracy considerable above the experimental errors.

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733. Chicea, D. On Current Density and Excess Power Density in Electrolysis Experiments. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: Excess heat, electrolysis

Abstract Results of a study of an electrolytic device that can produce excess power are presented. The power calibration procedure used for the experiments and the data analysis procedure is briefly described in this paper. Different combinations of cathode and electrolyte were investigated. Thin foils of different pure metals were and thin spattered layers of different pure metals on different substrates were used as cathodes. Excess power results, the power density and details on the combinations of cathode and electrolyte are also presented. The results reveal that a higher excess power density was obtained using thin film metal cathodes than thin foils. Another interesting result is that the excess power density appears to be correlated with the current density along the cathode. Although the data points are in ranges that are different of each other with orders of magnitude, the slopes of the lines that are fitted on the data points comparable, within the experimental errors.

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734. Chicea, D. Comment On Carbon Production In Deuterium-Metal Systems. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: transmutation

Several electrolysis experiments of loading deuterium into different metals foils and thin film films are described. Before and after loading the cathode surface was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and by Energy Dispersive Spectrometry. High magnification images of the surface of several metals were taken. A control experiment was conducted to make sure that the experimental setup is not accidentally contaminating the samples. A surprising amount of carbon was found on the cathode surface after each D loading experiment. The result is discussed in connection with other experimental results on low energy nuclear transmutations.

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735. Chidambaram, R. and V.C. Sahni, Materials Issues in the So-Called 'Cold Fusion' Experiments, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. C 1.

First Author: Chidambaram, R.
All Authors: Chidambaram, R., Sahni, V. C.
Keywords: theory,


736. Chidambaram, R. and V.C. Sahni, Materials issues in the so-called 'cold fusion' experiments. Curr. Sci., 1989. 58: p. 597.

First Author: Chidambaram, R.
All Authors: Chidambaram, R., Sahni, V. C.
Keywords: loading, thermodynamic, Pd, D2, H2, critique


737. Chien, C.C. and T.C. Huang, Tritium production by electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 391.

First Author: Chien, C. C.
All Authors: Chien, C. C., Huang, T. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, tritium, D2O, surface


738. Chien, C.C., et al., On an electrode producing massive quantities of tritium and helium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 338: p. 189.

First Author: Chien, C. C.
All Authors: Chien, C. C., Hodko, D., Minevski, Z., Bockris, J.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, tritium, Helium, D2O, surface analysis

A Pd electrode has been examined which produced a concentration of tritium in a 0.1 M LiOD solution around 10^3 times above background. Tritium production at a given potential ceased after a few days, but could be restarted by a small increase of the deuterium overpotential. Correspondingly, He4 was found in 9-10 pieces of the Pd electrode at 2-100 times background. Addition of fresh amounts of D2O quenched the T production which began again spontaneously after 1-2 days. If the T had come from contamination, 3He would have been found in the electrode: it was absent. Loss of charge by the nucleus lakes place when the fugacity of D in voids exceeds 10^17 atm (Lifshitz and Pitaevskii, 1963). Sporadicity of function arises from the state of the surface, which is difficult to reproduce. The surface state controls the mechanism of D- evolution: only some mechanisms give a fugacity high enough to cause fusion. Only one electrode out of four examined produced T and 4He. The surface of this electrode contained a Cu-mosaic structure, not seen on the inactive electrodes.

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739. Chindarkar, A.R., et al., Observation of Anomalous Emissions of High Energy (=1 MeV) Charged Particles When 5 keV Protons Impinge on Palladium and Titanium Foils. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 197.

First Author: Chindarkar, A. R.
All Authors: Chindarkar, A. R., Paithankar, A. S., Bhagwat, A. M., Naik, G. R., Iyyengar, S. K., Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, H2, ion implantation, Ti


740. Cho, Y. and R.G. Leisure, Novel ultrasonic attenuation peak in a'-PdDx. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1988. 38: p. 5748.

First Author: Cho, Y.
All Authors: Cho, Y., Leisure, R. G.
Keywords: phonon, PdD, structure


741. Choi, E., H. Ejiri, and H. Ohsumi. Limit on Fast Neutrons from DD Fusion in Deuterized Pd by Means of Ge Detector. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Choi, E.
All Authors: Choi, E., Ejiri, H., Ohsumi, H.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma emission ICCF-3 electrolysis

Search for fast neutrons from the electrochemistry loaded Pd-D system at room temperature was made in order to study the possible d-d fusion there. A low-background high-resolution Ge detector surrounded by neutron scatterers was used to investigate the fast (1 ~ 5 MwC neutrons. The neutron flux was obtained by measuring rates of the gamma rays following inelastic scattering of the fast neutrons from nuclei in the scatterers. The observed spectrum shows no significantly significant excess of gamma rays above background. . . .

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742. Choi, E., H. Ejiri, and H. Ohsumi, Application of a Ge detector to search for fast neutrons from DD fusion in deuterized Pd. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 1993. 32A: p. 3964.

First Author: Choi, E.
All Authors: Choi, E., Ejiri, H., Ohsumi, H.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. We hope to make reprints of this and other cold fusion related papers available here.

The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:

A low-background high-resolution Ge detector surrounded by neutron scatterers was applied to investigate fast neutrons from the electrochemically loaded Pd-D system. The neutron flux was obtained by measuring the yields of the γ-rays following inelastic scattering of the fast neutrons from nuclei in the scatterers. The detector was shown to be very sensitive in the search for rare neutron events such as d-d fusion at room temperature. The observed spectrum shows no statistically significant excess of the γ-rays above the background. The upper limit on the fusion rate was obtained as λf<1.6·10^-24(ddn)fusions/(dd)pair/s.

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743. Choi, E., et al., Search for time-correlated fast neutrons from DD fusion at room temperature. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 1996. 35: p. 2793.

First Author: Choi, E.
All Authors: Choi, E., Ejiri, H., Ohsumi, H., Kishimoto, T.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, http://www.ipap.jp/jjap/index.htm. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. We hope to make reprints of this and other cold fusion related papers available here. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:

A time-correlated spectrum of fast neutrons from the electrochemically loaded Pd-D system was measured by a low-background high-resolution Ge detector surrounded by neutron scatterers. Time correlation of fast neutrons was obtained by measuring the time correlation of γ-rays following inelastic scattering of fast neutrons. The measurement shows no evidence for neutron burst during the electrolysis of the Pd-D system at room temperature.

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744. Choi, C., News Scan: Back to Square One, in Scientific American. 2005. p. 21.

First Author: Choi, C.
All Authors: Choi, C.
Keywords:


745. Chon, A. and M. Rabinowitz, Classical Tunneling. International J. Theoret. Phys., 1990. 29(3): p. 215.

First Author: Chon, A.
All Authors: Chon, A., Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory


746. Chou, I., Permeability of Precious Metals to Hydrogen at 2 KB Total Pressure and Elevated Temperatures. Am. J. Sci., 1986. 286: p. 638.

First Author: Chou, I
All Authors: Chou, I
Keywords: Pd-Ag, Pt, Ag, Au, H, diffusion


747. Chou, P. and M.A. Vannice, Calorimetric Heat of Adsorption Measurements on Palladium. I. Influence of Crystallite Size and Support on Hydrogen Adsorption. J. Catal., 1987. 104: p. 1.

First Author: Chou, P.
All Authors: Chou, P., Vannice, M. A.
Keywords: Pd, H2, thermodynamic, Pd-black, absorption


748. Christensen, O.B., et al., H-H Interactions in Pd. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40(3): p. 1993.

First Author: Christensen, O. B.
All Authors: Christensen, O. B., Ditlevsen, P. D., Jacobsen, K. W., Stoltz, P., Nielsen, O. H., Norskov, J. K.
Keywords: Pd, H, interaction, theory, structure, distance


749. Christensen, O.B., et al., Effective-Medium Calculations for Hydrogen in Ni, Pd, and Pt. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 41.

First Author: Christensen, O. B.
All Authors: Christensen, O. B., Stoltze, P., Jacobsen, K. W., Norskov, J. K.
Keywords: bonding, theory, PdH, NiH, PtH, thermodynamic


750. Christianto, V., Y. Umniyati, and V. Krasnoholovets, On Plausible Role of Classical Electromagnetic Theory and Submicroscopic Physics to understand and Enhance Low Energy Nuclear Reaction: A Preliminary Review. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 27-34.

First Author: Christianto, V.
All Authors: Christianto, V., Umniyati, Y., Krasnoholovets, V.
Keywords: Classical electromagnetic theory, Coulomb barrier suppression, Electronuclear potential, Nuclear Van der Waals force, Ponderomotive force, Subdeuterium, Submicroscopic physics, Vortex sound theory

In this paper, we discussed how we can study some effects associated with LENR/CMNS from the principles of classical electromagnetic theory, and also from a very new approach based on a submicroscopic concept of physics. Perhaps our considerations have their own risks because the majority of mainstream physicists consider nuclear fusion rather as a phenomenon associated with tunneling through a Coulomb barrier, which is a pure quantum effect. We will discuss that there are some aspects of classical electromagnetic theories which may have impact on our understanding on LENR/CMNS phenomena, including: (a) nonlinear electrostatic potential as proposed by Eugen Andreev, (b) vortex sound theory of Tsutomu Kambe, (c) nonlinear ponderomotive force, and (d) submicroscopic consideration.

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751. Christman, D.R., Cold fusion. Chem. Eng. News, 1990: p. 78.

First Author: Christman, D. R.
All Authors: Christman, D. R.
Keywords: tritium


752. Chrzan, D.C. and W.G. Wolfer, Helium Bubble Growth by the Dislocation Pipe Diffusion Mechanism. 1991.

First Author: Chrzan, D. C.
All Authors: Chrzan, D. C., Wolfer, W. G.
Keywords: 4He, PdT, bubble, swelling, dislocation,


753. Chu, C.W., et al., Search for the proposed cold fusion of D in Pd. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 3: p. 753.

First Author: Chu, C. W.
All Authors: Chu, C. W., Xue, Y. Y., Meng, R. L., Hor, P. H., Huang, Z. J., Gao, L.
Keywords: heat-, neutron-, electrolysis, Pd, D2O


754. Chu, L.Y. and D.-H. Lu, The estimation of nuclear fusion rate in crystal. Commun. Theor. Phys. (China), 1990. 13: p. 33.

First Author: Chu, L. Y.
All Authors: Chu, L. Y., Lu, D-H.
Keywords: Theory, PdD, periodic field


755. Chu, S.Y. and B. Shen, Can the color force be used to achieve fusion? Mod. Phys. Lett. A, 1991. A6: p. 237.

First Author: Chu, S. Y.
All Authors: Chu, S. Y., Shen, B.
Keywords: Theory, color force


756. Chu, L. and S. Wang, Coulomb screening of deuterium in metal crystal. Yuanzineng Kexue Jishu (Atomic Energy Science and Technology), 1992. 26(6): p. 80 (in Chinese).

First Author: Chu, L.
All Authors: Chu, L., Wang, S.
Keywords: Theory, screening


757. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb, Distributed bosonic states and condensed matter fusion. 1990, NRL: Washington.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

This paper presents a theory of condensed matter fusion in crystals based on the periodic potential provided by an ordered lattice and the approximate Bose statistics obeyed by bosons on length scales associated with electrostatic interactions. The resulting nuclear interaction proceeds in a manner that approximately preserves either the initial periodicity of the lattice or the periodicity of a commensurate lattice. Reaction reversibility over timescales associated with electrostatic interaction results in condensed matter fusion being dominated by interactions in which both the products and reactants obey Bose-Einstein statistics. As a result tritium release and 3He+ production should not appear as primary fusion products.

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758. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb, Nuclear Fusion in a Solid via a Bose Bloch Concentrate. 1990, NRL: Washington.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

We present a theory of solid state fusion based on the formation of a D+ bosonic Bloch condensate within a metal deuteride. The first step towards fusion is a coalescence reaction which converts a 4-fold occupation state of zero point motion size into a state of nuclear dimensions . Reaction rates for the coalescence reaction are calculated using the Fermi Golden Rule.

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759. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Lattice Induced Nuclear Chemistry. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ion band, wave


760. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Quantum Mechanics of "Cold and "Not-So-Cold" Fusion". in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-1, Quantum Machanics


761. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb, Bloch-symmmetric fusion in PdD(x). Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 710.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Theory


762. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. An Explanation of Cold Fusion and Cold Fusion By-products, based on Lattice Induced Nuclear Chemistry. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-2


763. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb, Cold fusion as an interaction between ion band states. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 93.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Theory

A theory of solid-state fusion based on the interaction between D+ and 4He++ ion band states within a host lattice is presented. Formation of ion band-state deuterium is thermo-dynamically favored when lattice strain energy is greater than the incremental chemical potential of the band state. The key fusion step is a coalescence fluctuation that converts a twofold occupation state of electrostatic zero-point-motion size into a state of nuclear dimensions. Rates are calculated using the Fermi Golden Rule. Fusion energy is shared between band-state members and subsequently transferred to the lattice.

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764. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Ion Band State Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ion band, wave, ICCF-3

Puska et al. and Astaldi et al. have provided experimental evidence for the existence of hydrogen ion band states in adsorption studies of H and D atoms on metallic surfaces. If a certain view of quantum reality is correct, an ion band state (IBS) D+ population has wave function overlap and will undergo cold fusion, unlike normal molecules and ionic and covalent solids. Arguments leading to this conclusion and a tabulation of likely IBS reactions are presented.

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765. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb, Ion band state fusion: reactions, power density, and the quantum reality question. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 403.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: Theory


766. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. Ion Band States: What They Are, and How They Affect Cold Fusion. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory


767. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb, The Role of Hydrogen Ion Band States in Cold Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 414.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ion band, wave


768. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb, Wave function overlap and nuclear reactions in D+ ion band state matter. 1995.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory, size, wave


769. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. The Ion Band State Theory. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory, band state, ICCF-5

We have previously explained how the occupation of ion band states by hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) in palladium deuteride PdD and possibly Ni can result in radiationless fusion. The explanation includes a number of assumptions about the governing conditions associated with the process. As a consequence of these assumptions we predicted1-3 important excess heat phenomena (loading requirements, by-products, etc.) of Cold Fusion (CF) that were subsequently observed4,5. Although the governing ideas are based on mainstream solid state physics ideas, the underlying theory "seems" to have "evaded" a number of potential problems that have bothered many people concerning CF. As we have explained recently6,7, as a result of these solid state physics effects, discontinuous changes in momentum and singularities in the effective kinetic energies associated with H or D that may occur through the occupation of ion band states provide a means for eliminating the phenomena that seemingly are omitted by the theory. In this paper we clarify the origin of these effects and their relationship to questions that have been raised associated with our treatment of the Coulomb barrier.

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770. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb, Fusion Reactions in Deuterided Palladium. The Why of Cold Fusion Heat. 1996.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory


771. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Hidden results of the ion band state theory. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, particle-wave, ion-band, ICCF-6


772. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. Radiationless Cold Fusion: Why Small "Crystals" Are Better, N(cell) Requirement, and Energy Transfer to Lattice. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory, particle-wave, ion-band, ICCF-6

The Ion Band State Theory describes Fleischmann and Pons cold fusion phenomena.  It is based on application of solid state band theory physics, many-body physics, and the known quantum behavior of hydrogen in metals.  Important assumptions are that charge neutrality exists in each unit cell and that the reactive quantum states, which are stationary Bloch states, are describable as symmetric sums over complete sets of non-stationary, particle-like Wannier states.  Consequences are that D+-D+ wave function overlap occurs for crystals possessing a sufficiently large number Ncell > ~10^4 of unit cells.  Once this condition is met, small crystals provide more power per cc than larger crystals.  Energy-transfer from the product state to the lattice electrons results from a change in the quantum of mass and resulting inelastic scattering due to charge distribution changes in the boundary region. The theory also predicts that the primary product is 4He, as observed.

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773. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Periodic Order, Symmetry, and Coherence in Cold Fusion. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory


774. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Really Cold, Cold Fusion. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7


775. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. Deuteride-Induced Strong Force Reactions. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7

ND band state D+ ions are treated as a sum over pairs.  The wave functions of a D+ pair is assumed to be a product of a Bloch function in lattice space times a Bloch function in separation space.  Overlap allows a strong force fusion reaction to 4He++.  A coupling between the nuclear change and the ion charge distribution in the lattice is described.  The change in ion charge distribution scatters Bloch electrons in a multistep nuclear de-excitation process.

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776. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Theoretical Framework for Anomalous Heat and 4He in Transition Metal Systems. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

Introduction Cold Fusion has been plagued with misconceptions about what is and is not possible, based on the "Laws" of Quantum Mechanics. An important reason for this is the seemingly impossibly large difference in length-scale between nuclear- and atomic- processes. In conventional fusion, these scales remain "so far apart" that they "effectively" don't "talk" to each other, usually. However, electromagnetic interactions (EMI's) have infinite range. For this reason, it is possible that EMI's "can" "explain" how this "apparent" problem can be eliminated.

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777. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. Deuteron Fluxing and the Ion Band State Theory. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

Abstract In Cold Fusion, confusion exists as a result of conflicting intuitive pictures, one based on local physics, the other on non-local physics. The local picture, based on particle-particle interaction, has played a dominant role. The non-local "less-intuitive" picture, based on the known behavior of solids, places greater emphasis on the behavior of matter distributions and their interaction with the associated environment. The resulting description is consistent with the known laws of physics and the behavior of hydrogen, deuterium (D+) and tritons in transition metals. In the non-local picture, we examine consequences of fluxes of deuterons passing through the surfaces of transition metals as associated with the occupation of D+ ion band states and possible nuclear energy release.

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778. Chubb, S.R., Introduction to the Special Issue of Accountability in Research Dealing With "Cold Fusion". Accountability Res., 2000. 8.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: history

Background During the 14th century, the noted theologian and philosopher William of Ockham identified and applied the "law of economy," as a fundamental postulate of logical thought. Subsequently, Galileo and others used this "law" as justification for the notion of "scientific parsimony." This idea, which is also often called "Ockham's Razor," states that simplicity should be the cornerstone of scientific logic: given a choice between competing theories of a particular phenomenon, the simpler explanation should be selected in preference to the more complicated ones.

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779. Chubb, T.A., Laboratory Evidence Demonstrating d-d Cold Fusion in Metals. 2002.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: d-d fusion

Since the initial announcement of the Fleischmann-Pons effect[1] there has been substantial laboratory progress in establishing the reality of excess heat produced by radiationless d-d nuclear reaction in the deuterium-palladium system.  Selected experimental achievements are listed below.

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780. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. Deuteron Fluxing and the Ion Band State Theory. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory bandstate, ICCF-9


781. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Relationship between microscopic and macroscopic interactions in low energy nuclear reactions: Lessons learned from D + D = 4He. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory

For a long time, Cold Fusion (CF) seemed to be at odds with conventional Physics both experimentally and theoretically.  A key reason for this involved confusion about the possibility that processes involving characteristic length scales of nuclear- and atomic- size dimensions could couple to each other without releasing high momentum particles.  As experiments have improved, this situation has changed.  In the paper, we identify and contrast a number of common themes associated with the manner in which five of the more refined theories have addressed this problem.

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782. Chubb, T.A. Modeling the 3He concentration in a Clarke et al. gas sample from an Arata-style cathode. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, Arata, review

The time history of 3He concentrations in gas samples collected and analyzed by Clarke et al. is modeled. A deficiency relative to expected helium suggests loss through microfractures identified by Farkas.

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783. Chubb, T.A. Production of excited surface states by reactant starved electrolysis. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory, fused salt

Starved reactant electrolysis can result in co-deposition of hydrogen and a higher voltage reactant. The hydrogen has the potential to be deposited in an excited state that is delocalized and wavelike. It is suggested that this occurred in the Liaw et al. study. Evidence for cathodic overpotential electrolysis in molten hydroxide electrolyte is presented.

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784. Chubb, T.A., Comments on 'Search for 3He and 4He in Arata-style Palladium Cathodes I: A Negative Result' and 'Seaerch for 3He and 4He in Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes II: Evidence for Tritium Production' (Lett. to Ed.). Fusion Sci. Technol., 2002. 41: p. 151.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: discussion, critique


785. Chubb, S.R. Nuts and Bolts of the Ion Band State Theory. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

The Nuts and Bolts of our Ion Band State theory of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR's) in palladium-deuteride (PdD) and palladium-hydride (PdH) are the electrons that hold together or tear apart the bonds (or lack of bonds) between deuterons (d's) or protons (p's) and the host material.  In PdDx and PdHx, this bonding is strongly correlated with loading.  In ambient loading conditions (x<~0.6), bonding inhibits Ion Band State occupation. . . .

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786. Chubb, S.R. Impact of Boundary Effects Involving Broken Gauge Symmetry on LENR's. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

Surfaces have a huge impact on the physics and chemistry of solids. Changes in surfaces (or other boundaries of a solid), in particular, can be related to changes in the local ("chemical") environment.  In the idealized limit, in which surfaces are defined as "boundaries" associated with a lack of, or accumulation of charge, dynamical effects at surfaces can be used and are required (by the associated coupling to external electromagnetic fields) to relate seemingly unrelated local and non-local effects.  Thus, counter-intuitive ideas about local and non-local effects can become dominant.  In particular, in PdH or PdD, provided external forces are applied uniformly, it is entirely possible for hydrogen (p) or deuterium (d) nuclei to acquire a common phase (a broken gauge symmetry1) and to "become wave-like" and interact coherently, through the electromagnetic field, simultaneously, but an-isotropically at the boundaries of a PdD or PdH substrate, or at isolated locations within either substrate.  Also, these effects can create coupling between localized and delocalized forms of interaction.  We use these and related effects as the basis for suggesting new experiments that have bearing on the findings of Iwamura et al, concerning the "apparent" transmutation of Cs to Pr.

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787. Chubb, T.A. The dd Cold Fusion-Transmutation Connection. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

LENR theory must explain dd fusion, alpha-addition transmutations, radiationless nuclear reactions, and 3-body nuclear particle reactions.   Reaction without radiation requires many-body D+Bloch periodicity in both location and internal structure dependencies.  Electron scattering leads to mixed quantum states. . . .

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788. Chubb, T.A. LENR: Superfluids, Self-Trapping and Non-Self-Trapping States. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

LENR ion band state models involve deuteron many-body systems resembling superfluids.  The physics of atom Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices teaches that superfluid behavior occurs when the potential barriers between adjacent potential wells permit high tunneling rates and the well potentials are shallow. These superfluids have fractional occupation of individual wells. Well periodic symmetry is not affected by the presence of the atoms.  This behavior suggests that deuterons in a lattice should be in non-self-trapping sites, which may indicate that D+Bloch occupies the Pd tetrahedral sites.

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789. Chubb, S.R. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

Conventional Condensed Matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR's) in solids.  In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact.  Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-Matrix theory).  In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENR's can proceed without the emission of high energy particles.  In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier Ion Band State (IBS) model by C&C.  The general model clarifies the origin of coherent processes that initiate LENR's, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nanoscale crystals. In the case of PdDx , these fluctuations begin to occur as x -> 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm.  The resulting LENR's are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals.  During the prolonged charging of PdDx , the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators.  But because the fluctuations are ionic, and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures , a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD.  Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. 

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790. Chubb, T.A. I. Bloch Ions. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

ABSTRACT    A Bloch ion has periodic symmetry and is distributed in space in a lattice array form.  Its spatial density distribution is neutralized within each unit cell by a metal's electrons.  The wave function repeats coherently modulo a Bravais lattice vector.  Paired Bloch deuterons partitioned over a sufficiently large number of unit cells become superposed and coherently mixed by coordinate exchange.  A Hamiltonian describing paired deuterons 2-D+Bloch is presented, and its nuclear self-interaction and coupling with the lattice are described.

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791. Chubb, T.A. II. Inhibited Diffusion Driven Surface Transmutations. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

ABSTRACT    This paper is the second of a set of 3 papers dealing with the role of coherent  partitioning as a common element in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), by which is meant cold-fusion related processes.  This paper discusses the first step in a sequence of 4 steps that seem to be necessary to explain Iwamura 2-alpha-addition surface transmutations.   Three concepts are examined:  salt-metal interface states, sequential tunneling that transitions D+ ions from localized interstitial to Bloch form, and the general applicability of 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional symmetry hosting networks. 

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792. Chubb, T.A. III. Bloch Nuclides, Iwamura Transmutations, and Oriani Showers. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

ABSTRACT    The Iwamura et al. 2-alpha addition transmutations1 and the Oriani-Fisher energetic particle showers2 demand an explanation.  They both depend on the same physics as responsible for cold fusion, namely the coherent partitioning of deuteron charge when the deuteron assumes a Bloch-like form and becomes distributed among a large number Nwell of potential wells.  As a result the work required to bring the 2 "nuclei" into contact is reduced by 1/Nwell.  In cold fusion 2 spin-zero paired deuterons fuse as per 2 D+Bloch --> 4He++Bloch + 23.8 MeV.   In the Iwamura process 2 4He++Bloch fuse as per 2 4He++Bloch --> 8Be4+Bloch + Enuc, in a Bloch-sensitive reaction where reaction energy Enuc is a function of Nwell. . . .

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793. Chubb, S.R. Why Particular Nano-Scale PdD Crystals Turn-on Faster. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

Two persistent questions have been: 1. Why is it often necessary to wait for a finite period of time before the Excess Heat effect is observed after palladium (Pd) has been sufficiently loaded with deuterium (D), that the near full-loading condition (PdDx, 0.85 ~< x→1) that is required for Excess Heat, has been achieved? 2. Is it possible to identify physical properties of the materials and/or crystals that are used that might be playing a role in the interval of time associated with this phenomenon? Recently, I generalized conventional energy band theory to address both questions. The new theory can explain these experimental results . . .

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794. Chubb, S.R. Context for understanding why particular nano-scale crystals turn-on faster and other LENR effects. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

Two persistent questions have been:  1. Why is it often necessary to wait for a finite period of time before the Excess Heat effect is observed after palladium (Pd) has been sufficiently loaded with deuterium (D), that the near full-loading condition (PdDx, 0.85 ~< x®1) that is required for Excess Heat, has been achieved? 2. Is it possible to identify physical properties of the materials and/or crystals that are used that might be playing a role in the interval of time associated with this phenomenon?   Recently, I generalized conventional energy band theory to address both questions.  The new theory can explain these experimental results but will be ignored by most scientists.  I suggest that this is expected:  The context of energy band and Ion Band State (IBS) theory is very different from the context of hot fusion theory. . . .

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795. Chubb, S.R. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory,


796. Chubb, T.A. Catalytic fusion and the Interface between Insulators and Transition Metals. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory


797. Chubb, T.A. Bloch-Sensitive Nuclides (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory,


798. Chubb, T.A., Three Types of dd Fusion. Trans. Amer. Nucl. Soc., 2005. 93: p. 895.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

There seem to be 3 different processes by which deuterons can be made to fuse so as to release nuclear energy. The conventional approach is thermonuclear fusion, which uses collisions between energized deuterons to create a transient 4He nucleus that decays by energetic particle emission. Deuteron-deuteron (dd) fusion is modeled by scattering theory. Quantum wave mechanics uses wave functions to describe the colliding particles as plane waves.  The waves are treated as if arriving from infinity, and as going away to infinity after scattering or reaction.  Gamow factors calculating the probability of transmission through the dd Coulomb barrier are used in calculating fusion rates.

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799. Chubb, S.R. Roles of Approximate Symmetry and Finite Size in the Quantum Electrodynamics of d+d -> 4He in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. in 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory,


800. Chubb, S.R. Resonant Electromagnetic Interaction in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

I Background about the importance of EMI in d+d -> 4He+gamma

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801. Chubb, S.R. Resonant Electromagnetic-Dynamics Explains the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Theory,


802. Chubb, S.R., Resonant Electromagnetic Interaction in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 99-123.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords:


803. Chubb, T.A. D2 Fusion in Ionic Solid + Nanometal Composite (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

Interfaces between Ionic Solids and Nanometals • Provides 2-dimension lattice symmetry • Promotes Bloch deuterium • Deuterium quasiparticles undergo fusion . . .

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804. Chubb, T.A. Interface Model of Cold Fusion. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

The interface theory of cold fusion is a variant of Ion Band State (IBS) Theory. It models Bloch symmetry deuterons in a 2-dimensional metal lattice instead of the 3-dimensional metal lattice first used. Both IBS variants recognize that the required lattice symmetry has limited extent, with the reactive deuterons being bound inside a closed volume like a box. The reactive deuterons are confined within classical turning point boundaries, while within the box their density distributions are modulated by a lattice array potential. Strictly speaking, the IBS fusion theory is a many-body theory. Nuclear dd fusion is one of several LENR processes. Some LENR processes do not require many-body ions and support room temperature nuclear reactions using light ions in single-particle Bloch geometry. For example, the decay of metastable single-body Bloch-function 8Be seems to be the source of MeV alphas in Oriani's light/heavy water electrolysis, and in several co-deposition electrolysis CR39 studies, as described in ICCF14 Abstracts. The Oriani MeV alphas are side products of both light water and heavy water electrolysis, using either Pd or Ni cathodes, as shown in highly repeatable tests. Bloch 8Be is likely the nuclearly reactive component in the final step of the Iwamura et al. transmutation studies. Despite differences, all LENR systems seem to share some essential physics.

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805. Chubb, T.A. In Honor of Yoshiaki Arata. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: review

This paper seeks to make readers aware that Arata and Zhang (A&Z) in 2007/8 demonstrated operation of an autonomous fusion "heater". The heater generated a steady outflow flow of heat at slightly above room temperature throughout a run lasting hundreds of hours. The steady nuclear heat occurred after a brief burst of chemical heat during D2 absorption. No other energy input was present.

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806. Chubb, S.R., Overcoming the Coulomb Barrier and Related Effects Through Resonant Electrodynamics and Quantum Mechanics in the Fleischmann-Pons Excess Heat Effect, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 177-192.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords:


807. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. Usefulness of Quasiparticle Ion Band States in Modeling LENR Processes (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Theory

Considerable confusion occurred from a speculative conjecture that we suggested in 1989, concerning the potential role of conventional energy band theory in the "cold fusion" claims suggested by Fleischmann and Pons. Two important reasons for this are related to: 1. Misconceptions about what was taking place in the experiments, and 2. Limitations of conventional energy band theory. In particular, we proposed the idea that deuterium nuclei (deuterons) could occupy energy band states (ion band states)--analogous to the kinds of energy band states that electrons occupy in ordered solids--with the possibility of nuclear fusion. But conventional energy band theory has limitations, associated with the underlying quantum mechanics. In particular, band theory involves single-particle quasi-particle wave functions.

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808. Chubb, T.A. Usefulness of Quasi-Particle Ion Band States in Modeling LENR Processes. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords:

The density of atoms with 3 or more electrons is determined by Pauli exclusion. Conduction electrons in a metal and reactant deuterium atoms are in Bloch function form, in which corresponding positions in a lattice are equivalent. 2-dimensional symmetry D-atoms are thin, flat, and have reduced Coulomb repulsion between pairs. Fusion takes place inside an interface between an ionic crystal and an epitaxy metal layer. 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional systems are different. Both are real, benefit from shock stimulation, and are Bloch systems; but they require different environments.

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809. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb, Overcoming the Coulomb Barrier in Cold Fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2009. 2.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

Schwinger pointed out that under some circumstances the Coulomb barrier between paired charged particles is replaced by a correlation factor in a two-body wave function. This paper shows how having two deuterons bound within a common volume having a multiplicity of potential wells can lead to an energy-minimized Schwinger form of wave equation with wave function overlap. Relevance to a situation in which a small number of deuterium atoms is forced into a fully loaded palladium deuteride (PdD) host is discussed.

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810. Chubb, S.R., The Rossi 10 kW Reactor. Infinite Energy, 2011(96): p. 31.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Excess heat

Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi held a public demonstration on January 14, 2011 of Rossi's ECat (energy catalyzer) boiler, a nickel-hydrogen fusion reactor, at the University of Bologna (Italy). A group of about 50 scientists from the university and the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN, the Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics) were on hand to examine the device. The experiment was organized by Dr. Giuseppe Levi and other faculty at the University of Bologna/INFN.

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811. Chubb, S.R., O Reator Rossi de 10kW. Infinite Energy, 2011(96): p. 31.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Excess heat

Andrea Rossi e Sergio Focardi realizaram uma demonstração pública em 14 de Janeiro de 2011 do ECat (catalisador de energia) aquecedor de água Rossi, um reator níquel-hidrogênio a fusão, na Universidade de Bolonha (Itália). Um groupo de cerca de 50 scientistas da  universidade e do Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN, o Instituto de Física Nuclear Italiano) onde se examinou o dispositivo. O experimento foi organizado pelo Dr. Giuseppe Levi e outros docentes da Universidaede de Bolonha/INFN.

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812. Chubb, S.R., Conventional physics can explain cold fusion excess heat. Physics Procedia, 2011.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Cold Fusion; Ion Band States; Nuclear Fusion in Solids; Energy Band States

solid, a firestorm of controversy erupted. Beginning in 1991, the Office of Naval Research began a decade-long study of the FP excess heat effect. This effort documented the fact that the excess heat that FP observed is the result of a form of nuclear fusion that can occur in solids at reduced temperature, dynamically, through a deuteron (d)+d4He reaction, without high-energy particles or gamma rays. A key reason this fact has not been accepted is the lack of a cogent argument, based on fundamental physical ideas, justifying it. In the paper, this question is re-examined, based on a generalization of conventional energy band theory that applies to finite, periodic solids, in which d's are allowed to occupy wave-like, ion band states, similar to the kinds of states that electrons occupy in ordinary metals. Prior to being experimentally observed, the Ion Band State Theory (IBST) of cold fusion predicted a potential d+d => 4He reaction, without high energy particles, would explain the excess heat, the 4He would be found in an unexpected place (outside heat-producing electrodes), and high-loading, x1, in PdDx, would be required.

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813. Chubb, S.R., Concerning the Role of Electromagnetism in Low-energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 213-224.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Energy band states, Ion band states, Quantum electrodynamics

Considerable confusion has resulted in the "debate" (and lack of "debate") about whether or not Low-Energy Reactions (LENR) can take place. A key reason for this has involved the lack of a cogent argument, based on fundamental physical ideas, involving electromagnetism. In this paper, I re-examine this question. In fact, a cogent argument does exist, based on resonant electrodynamics, and its more general formulation, involving quantum electrodynamics. Lessons learned from this and their relevance are key to understanding the most salient effects, including the Infra-Red (IR) results from the SPAWAR experiments, and Mitchell Swartz's experiments. The associated arguments suggest that magnetic effects that have only been indirectly applied may be used to trigger LENR in particular situations. A new experiment, based on this line of reasoning, is suggested.

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814. Chukanov, K.B. New Pulsed Gas Loading Cold Fusion Technology. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Chukanov, K. B.
All Authors: Chukanov, K. B.
Keywords: theory, SmCo5, heat, gas, H2, ICCF-4


815. Chulick, G.S., Y.E. Kim, and R.A. Rice, Low Energy D-D Fusion Experimental Cross-Sections. 1989.

First Author: Chulick, G. S.
All Authors: Chulick, G. S., Kim, Y. E., Rice, R. A.
Keywords: D2, fusion, Cross Section theory


816. Chulick, G.S., et al., Comment on "Cluster-Impact Fusion by P. M. Echenique et al. 1990.

First Author: Chulick, G. S.
All Authors: Chulick, G. S., Rice, R. A., Kim, Y. E., Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory, cluster,


817. Chulick, G.S., R.A. Rice, and Y.E. Kim. The Effect of Electron Screening and Velocity Distribution on Proton-Deuterium Fusion Rates in Jupiter. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Chulick, G. S.
All Authors: Chulick, G. S., Rice, R. A., Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory


818. Cirillo, D. and V. Iorio, Transmutation of metal to low energy in confined plasma in the water electrochemical plasma cell. 2004.

First Author: Cirillo, D.
All Authors: Cirillo, D., Iorio, V.
Keywords: Glow diacharge, transmutation

Abstract: Energetic emissions have been observed from an electrolytic cell when tungsten electrodes are used to generate a confined plasma close to the cathode immersed an alkaline solution. In addition, energy generation has been observed, always close to the cathode, along with the appearance of new chemical elements in the experimental apparatus. These elements were not present in the cell before the experiment. This observation is proof of nuclear transmutations occurring within the cell. The results of this research and a theoretical model of the phenomenon were shown for the first time on April 18, 2004 during the second Grottammare (Ap) ONNE meeting in Italy.

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819. Cirillo, D. and V. Iorio. Transmutation of metal at low energy in a confined plasma in water. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Cirillo, D.
All Authors: Cirillo, D., Iorio, V.
Keywords: plasma electrolysis, glow discharge


820. Cisbani, E., et al., Neutron Detector for CF Experiments. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 2001. 459: p. 247.

First Author: Cisbani, E.
All Authors: Cisbani, E., Urciuoli, G. M., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Guiliani, F., Gozzi, D., Gricia, M, Iodice, M., Lucentini, M., Santavenere, F.
Keywords: neutron, method

Abstract This paper describes a neutron detector designed by INFN-Sanita` group of Rome. The detector fulfills all the requirements of cold fusion experiments and, on the other hand, can operate in several kind of experiments involving neutron detection, even when significant, variable and not taggable background is present. As a matter of fact, it is suitable to detect every source emitting multi-MeV neutrons, correlated or not correlated, in burst or constant rate, isotropic or directional. It is a low-noise detector. The detector was used in cold fusion experiments demonstrating, with high sensibility, the absence of neutron emission in these phenomena.

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821. Clark, R.W., What ever happened to cold fusion? J. Chem. Ed., 1991. 68: p. 277.

First Author: Clark, R. W.
All Authors: Clark, R. W.
Keywords: review


822. Clarke, W.B., W.J. Jenkins, and Z. Top, Determination of Tritium by Mass Spectrometric Measurement of 3He. Int. J. Appl. Radia. Isot., 1976. 27: p. 515.

First Author: Clarke, W. B.
All Authors: Clarke, W. B., Jenkins, W. J., Top, Z.
Keywords: tritium,, Helium,, method


823. Clarke, B.W. and R.M. Clarke, Search for (3)H, (3)He, and (4)He in D2-loaded titanium. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 170.

First Author: Clarke, B. W.
All Authors: Clarke, B. W., Clarke, R. M.
Keywords: Ti, helium tritium, D2


824. Clarke, A.C., Transcript of interview for 'Cold Fusion, Fire from Water'. 1998.

First Author: Clarke, A. C.
All Authors: Clarke, A. C.
Keywords: History

Transcript of the interview shown in the video "Cold Fusion, Fire from Water"

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825. Clarke, A.C., 2001: The Coming Age of Hydrogen Power. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(22): p. 15.

First Author: Clarke, A. C.
All Authors: Clarke, A. C.
Keywords: Review

[F]our years ago, two scientists named Pons and Fleischmann claimed to have achieved "cold fusion" at room temperature in certain metals saturated with deuterium, the heavy isotope of hydrogen. Under these conditions, they reported that they were getting out more energy than they put into the system. This, of course, created a worldwide sensation, and many laboratories tried to repeat the experiments. They all failed, and Pons and Fleischmann were laughed out of court.

That was the last anyone heard of them for a couple of years. But meanwhile, there had been an underground movement of scientists who believed that there might be something in all this business, and started experiments of their own-often in defiance of their employers . . .

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826. Clarke, B.W., et al., Search for 3He and 4He in Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes II: Evidence for Tritium Production. Fusion Sci. & Technol., 2001. 40: p. 152.

First Author: Clarke, B. W.
All Authors: Clarke, B. W., Oliver, B. M., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Tripodi, P.
Keywords: Helium, tritium Arata


827. Clarke, W.B., Search for 3He and 4He in Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes I: A Negative Result. Fusion Sci. & Technol., 2001. 40.

First Author: Clarke, W. B.
All Authors: Clarke, W. B.
Keywords: Helium Pd, Arata


828. Clarke, W.B., Response to "Comments on 'Search for 3He and 4He in Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes I: A Negative Result'' (lett. to Ed.). Fusion Sci. Technol., 2002. 41: p. 152.

First Author: Clarke, W. B.
All Authors: Clarke, W. B.
Keywords: discussion,, critique


829. Clarke, W.B. and B.M. Oliver, Response to comments on 'Search for 3He and 4He in Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes II: Evidence for Tritium Production'' (Lett. to Ed;). Fusion Sci. Technol., 2002. 41: p. 153.

First Author: Clarke, W. B.
All Authors: Clarke, W. B., Oliver, B. M.
Keywords: critique, discussion


830. Clarke, T., Comment on the report "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel" by Levi et al. 2015, Imperial College London.

First Author: Clarke, T.
All Authors: Clarke, T.
Keywords: Review, excess heat

In a recent report titled "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel" and published by Bologna University, G. Levi and co-workers put forth several claims concerning the performance of the so-called E-Cat of inventor Andrea Rossi. High and sustained levels of anomalous heat production are reported in extended tests of a reactor device. These results are based on a calculated temperature of 1400C from infrared camera thermography measurements that assumes gray-body radiation from an alumina surface. We show that when the varying spectral emissivity of alumina is taken into account the calculated temperature is much lower, and estimated power out matches power in to within the experimental error, so resolving this anomaly. Claimed isotopic shift results in the same report derive from material handled by the inventor, and therefore are not independent.

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831. Claytor, T.N., et al. Tritium and neutron measurements of a solid state cell. in NSF/EPRI Workshop on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Materials. 1989. Washington, DC.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Seeger, P., Rohwer, R. K., Tuggle, D. G., Doty, W. R.
Keywords: tritium, neutron, Pd-Si, method, gas discharge


832. Claytor, T.N., et al., Solid State Fusion Update. 1990.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Tuggle, D. G., Seeger, P., Menlove, H. O., Rohwer, R. K., Doty, W. R.
Keywords: neutron, tritium, Pd, gas Discharge


833. Claytor, T.N., et al. Tritium and Neutron Measurements From Deuterated Pd-Si. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Tuggle, D. G., Menlove, H. O., Seeger, P., Doty, W. R., Rohwer, R. K.
Keywords: Pd, D, gas Discharge, neutron, tritium


834. Claytor, T.N., D.G. Tuggle, and H.O. Menlove. Tritium Generation and Neutron Measurements in Pd-Si Under High Deuterium Gas Pressure. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Ita: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Tuggle, D. G., Menlove, H. O.
Keywords: tritium, neutron, Pd-Si, method, gas discharge, ICCF-2

INTRODUCTION

This paper summarizes some of the methods applicable for low level tritium detection needed in the search for anomalous fusion in metal hydrides. It is also intended to further detail our tritium and neutron results that have been obtained with the Pd-Si-D system, originally presented at earlier workshops. A measure of reproducibility that was not evident in our previous work has been achieved partially due to the better detection sensitivity afforded by the use of low tritium deuterium and partially from the fact that the foil-wafer cells can be made with nearly identical electrical characteristics. This reproducibility has allowed us to narrow the optimum conditions for the experiment. While this experiment is rather different from the "standard" electrolytic cell or the Ti gas hydride experiment, similarities exist in that non equilibrium conditions are sought and the tritium generation levels are low and neutron emission is extremely weak. In contrast to many electrochemical cell experiments, the system used in these experiments is completely sealed during operation and uses no electrolyte.

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835. Claytor, T.N., D.G. Tuggle, and S.F. Taylor. Evolution of Tritium from Deuterided Palladium Subject to High Electrical Currents. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Tuggle, D. G., Taylor, S. F.
Keywords: Pd, tritium, D2, gas discharge, ICCF-3

An increase in the tritium level was detected in deuterium when various configurations of palladium foil or powder and silicon wafers or powder were subject to a high pulsed current. The deuterium, and over one atmosphere pressure, was circulated in a sealed loop containing the cell and an ionization chamber to measure the tritium increase as a function of time. After 4800 hours of data, spanning 10 cells (including deuterium and hydrogen controls), were collected with this system. Average tritium production has varied from 0.02 to 0.2 nCi/h. Due to experimental constraints we have not been able to measure neutron output with these cells while simultaneously measuring the tritium increase. The question of tritium contamination in the palladium has been primarily resolved by the development of techniques that allow the palladium powder or foil to be reused. Various methods for increasing the tritium production, such as, increased current density, surface modifiers, and higher deuterium loading, will be discussed.

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836. Claytor, T.N., Tritium Production from a Low Voltage Deuterium Discharge of Palladium and Other Metals. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 118.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N.
Keywords: gas discharge,, tritium,, D2,, Pd

Over the past year we have been able to demonstrate that a plasma loading method produces an exciting and unexpected amount of tritium from small palladium wires. In contrast to electrochemical hydrogen or deuterium loading of palladium, this method yields a reproducible tritium generation rate when various electrical and physical conditions are met. Small diameter wires (100 - 250 microns) have been used with gas pressures above 200 torr at voltages and currents of about 2000 V at 3-5 A. By carefully controlling the sputtering rate of the wire, runs have been extended to hundreds of hours allowing a significant amount (>10's nCi) of tritium to accumulate. We will show tritium generation rates for deuterium-palladium foreground runs that are up to 25 times larger than hydrogen-palladium control experiments using materials from the same batch. We will illustrate the difference between batches of annealed palladium and as received palladium from several batches as well as the effect of other metals (Pt, Ni, Nb, Zr, V, W, Hf) to demonstrate that the tritium generation rate can vary greatly from batch to batch.

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837. Claytor, T.N., D.D. Jackson, and D.G. Tuggle, Tritium production from low voltage deuterium discharge on palladium and other metals. Infinite Energy, 1996. 2(7): p. 19.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Jackson, D. D., Tuggle, D. G.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, gas discharge, D2


838. Claytor, T.N., et al. Tritium Production from Palladium Alloys. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Schwab, M. J., Thoma, D. J., Teter, D. F., Tuggle, D. G.
Keywords: tritium, gas, D2, Pd, gas discharge, ICCF-7

ABSTRACT A number of palladium alloys have been loaded with deuterium or hydrogen under low energy plasma bombardment in a system that allows the continuous measurement of tritium. Long run times (up to 200 h) result in an integration of the tritium and this, coupled with the high intrinsic sensitivity of the system (~ 0.1nCi/l), enables the significance of the tritium measurement to be many sigma (>10). We will show the difference in tritium generation rates between batches of palladium alloys (Rh, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Be, B, Li, Hf, Hg and Fe) of various concentrations to illustrate that tritium generation rate is dependent on alloy type as well as within a specific alloy, dependent on concentration.

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839. Claytor, T.N., et al. Search for Excess Heat and Tritium in Nickel Alloys Exposed to Pulsed H/D Plasmas (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Fowler, M., Tuggle, D. G., Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords: Nickel, tritium

Conclusions

Ni Alloy is reproducible, (this is a big deal!)

Tritium can be several sigma over background

Effect can be obtained in 1-2 days

Excess heat is small but not inconsistent with Helium data

If X-ray effect can be increased then might serve as a "CB" demo

Parameter space, effects of pressure, electrical driving conditions, temperature, etc. have only been partially explored.

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840. Close, F., Cold Fusion I: The Discovery That Never Was. New Scientist, 1991. 1752: p. 46.

First Author: Close, F.
All Authors: Close, F.
Keywords: critique, history


841. Close, F., Too Hot to Handle. The Race for Cold Fusion. 1992, New York: Penguin, paperback.

First Author: Close, F.
All Authors: Close, F.
Keywords: history, book,


842. Cohen, J.S. and J.D. Davies, The cold fusion family. Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 705.

First Author: Cohen, J. S.
All Authors: Cohen, J. S., Davies, J. D.
Keywords: theory, muon


843. Cohen, J.S. and J.D. Davies, Is cold fusion hot? Nature (London), 1989. 342: p. 487.

First Author: Cohen, J. S.
All Authors: Cohen, J. S., Davies, J. D.
Keywords: review, fractofusion


844. Cola, M., et al. A Simple Model of the "Coehn-Aharonov" Effect in a Peculiar Electrolytic Configuration. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Cola, M.
All Authors: Cola, M., Del Gindice, E., De Ninno, A., Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, gamma phase ICCF-8 Coehn


845. Collins, G.S., J.S. Walker, and J.W. Norbury, Deuteron tunnelling at electron-volt energies. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 409.

First Author: Collins, G. S.
All Authors: Collins, G. S., Walker, J. S., Norbury, J. W.
Keywords: Theory, tunnelling


846. Collins, G.S., et al., Electrolytic loading of hydrogen in metals studied by PAC. Hyperfine Interactions, 1990. 60: p. 663.

First Author: Collins, G. S.
All Authors: Collins, G. S., McGhee, G., Shropshire, S. L., Jang, H. J., Fan, J., Schuhmann, R. B.
Keywords: PtH, NiH, electrolysis, loading, structure


847. Collis, W.J.M.F., Oklo Isotope Anomalies and Cold Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 525.

First Author: Collis, W. J. M. F.
All Authors: Collis, W. J. M. F.
Keywords: Oklo


848. Collis, W.J.M.F. Nuclear Reactions of Cold Fusion-A Systematic Study. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Collis, W. J. M. F.
All Authors: Collis, W. J. M. F.
Keywords: Nuclear Reaction, theory, energy, ICCF-5

A computer is used make an exhaustive search for simple nuclear reactions between naturally occurring isotopes with a view to identifying possible primary cold fusion reactions and materials which might support theoretical models. We discuss the difficulties in producing neutrons and tritium in light water expe rime nts.

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849. Collis, W.J.M.F. ENSAP Software Tool to Analyse Nuclear Reactions. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Collis, W. J. M. F.
All Authors: Collis, W. J. M. F.
Keywords: theory, transmutation, energy, nuclear reaction, ICCF-7


850. Conte, E., A generalization of Schroedinger's equation using biquaternions: the possibility of fusion for particles. Phys. Essays, 1995. 8: p. 52.

First Author: Conte, E.
All Authors: Conte, E.
Keywords: Theory, biquaternion, quantum mechanics


851. Conte, E., Theoretical indications of the possibility of nuclear reactions at low energy. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(24): p. 49.

First Author: Conte, E.
All Authors: Conte, E.
Keywords: Theory neutron formation


852. Conway, B.E. and J.C. Currie, Significance of effects of pressure on electrode reactions.Part III.Equilibrium processes at reference electrodes and the volume of H in Pd. Canadian J. Chem., 1978. 56: p. 915.

First Author: Conway, B. E.
All Authors: Conway, B. E., Currie, J. C.
Keywords: Pd, H, overvoltage, molar volume


853. Conway, B.E. and J. Wojtowicz, Time-scales of electrochemical desorption and sorption of H in relation to dimensions and geometeies of host metal hydride electrodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 326: p. 277.

First Author: Conway, B. E.
All Authors: Conway, B. E., Wojtowicz, J.
Keywords: loading, Pd, diffusion


854. Cook, N. Toward an Explanation of Transmutation Products on Palladium Cathodes. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Cook, N.
All Authors: Cook, N.
Keywords: transmutation, theory,


855. Cook, N. and V. Dallacasa. The FCC Structure of the Nucleus and the Magnetic Interaction among Nucleons (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Cook, N.
All Authors: Cook, N., Dallacasa, V.
Keywords: Theory

The strongest objection to "cold fusion" research since 1989 has been the assertion by nuclear theorists that low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) "violate everything known about nuclear physics." We argue to the contrary that LENR are consistent with quantum mechanics (QM), and "violate" only various questionable assumptions of the 30+ established models of nuclear structure theory. In fact, these "models" are known to be mutually-contradictory (a liquid nuclear interior in the liquid-drop model [LDM], a gaseous-phase in the shell model; local cluster formations in the alpha-particle model, no local interactions in the Fermi-gas model; a short-range nuclear force in the LDM, a long-range "effective" force in the shell model; etc.) and clearly indicate that nuclear theory itself is unfinished business.

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856. Cook, N. and V. Dallacasa. The FCC Substructure of the Nucleus and the Magnetic Interaction among Nucleons. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Cook, N.
All Authors: Cook, N., Dallacasa, V.
Keywords:

The FCC lattice model of nuclear structure unifies the liquid-phase, gaseous-phase and cluster models within a self-consistent theoretical framework. By discarding the completely fictitious longrange "effective" nuclear force employed by the shell model and yet maintaining the nucleon build-up procedure in the independent-particle model, the FCC model retains the principal strengths of both the liquid-drop and the shell models. In place of the effective nuclear force, we employ the short-range magnetic attraction between suitably aligned nucleons to obtain nuclear binding.

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857. Cook, N. and V. Dallacasa. Simulation of Palladium Transmutation Products. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Cook, N.
All Authors: Cook, N., Dallacasa, V.
Keywords:

The build-up procedure for the Palladium isotopes is known from the independent-particle model and implies specific 3D structures for these isotopes in the nuclear lattice model [1]. Using those lattice structures, the favorable modes of fission have been simulated and the fission fragments compared with the transmutation products, as reported by Mizuno [2]. It is shown that (i) the changes in relative abundance of the Pd isotopes, and (ii) the main transmutation products in Mizuno-style LENR studies are consistent with the idea that the bulk of the energy released in such experiments is due to the fission of Palladium isotopes.

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858. Cook, N., Models of the Atomic Nucleus, Unification Through a Lattice of Nucleons. 2010: Springer.

First Author: Cook, N.
All Authors: Cook, N.
Keywords: Theory

Models of the Atomic Nucleus (2nd Edition, Springer, 2010) is an attempt to unify the diverse and mutually-contradictory models of traditional nuclear structure theory within the framework of a lattice of nucleons. At the level of nuclear "modeling", the lattice is rather successful at reproducing the major features of the historical models. To wit, the binding energies and nuclear radii predictions of the liquid-drop model [LDM] are reproduced in a close-packed lattice because the lattice is dominated by near-neighbor, two-body, nucleon-nucleon interactions, as in the LDM. The alpha particle substructure of nuclei, as postulated in the cluster models, is reproduced in a nucleon lattice with spin- and isospin-layering because a close-packed lattice inherently contains He4-like, tetrahedral nucleon clusters. Most importantly, the shells, subshells and "magic" numbers of the independent-particle model [IPM] are reproduced in the lattice on a purely geometrical basis - a direct consequence of nucleon build-up from a central tetrahedron. That fact was noted (and illustrated in Physical Review!) by Eugene Wigner in 1937 - who later won the Nobel Prize in Physics explicitly "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus [...], particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles". It is noteworthy that the exact same lattice described by Wigner achieves unification of the modern-day nuclear models using a realistic, short-range, nuclear potential - and not the purely-theoretical, quark-based fiction of a long-range, nuclear "mean field."

Models of the Atomic Nucleus goes beyond the traditional concerns of nuclear modeling in addressing the still-unexplained topics of the fragment asymmetry in fission, the millisecond instability of the so-called super-heavy nuclei, and the remarkable findings of transmutation of elements in low-energy nuclear reaction [LENR] studies. The book clearly illustrates the fact that, for resolution of any of these and other long-standing controversies in theoretical nuclear physics, it will be necessary to return to the many loose-ends and inconclusive qualitative arguments that have dominated nuclear structure theory since the 1930s.

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859. Cook, N. and V. Dallacasa, LENR and Nuclear Structure Theory. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Cook, N.
All Authors: Cook, N., Dallacasa, V.
Keywords: Theory

The significance of LENR research for understanding nuclear structure is discussed. In contrast to atomic-level Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), nuclear theory has remained a collection of mutually-exclusive "models" lacking a rigorous foundation. I argue that LENR indicates the way forward to a quantitative theory of nuclear structure, Quantum Nucleodynamics (QND).

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860. Corey, J., Trip Report: ICCF11. 2005, Sandia National Laboratories.

First Author: Corey, J.
All Authors: Corey, J.
Keywords: Review

Introduction On March 23, 1989, at the University of Utah, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced that they had caused fusion reactions between deuterium nuclei to occur at room temperature, creating a potentially endless and benign source of energy for the world. Of course, this flew in the face of conventional physics, and scientists all over the world hurried to reproduce the effect. The major institutes in the US were unable to do so, and a US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Research Advisory Panel (ERAB) declared that the effect was not real and that government funding for further research would essentially constitute waste, fraud, and abuse. Thus died the hope of cheap, endless energy through "cold fusion," at least as far as the regular scientific community was concerned.

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861. Corrigan, D.A. and E.W. Schneider, Tritium separation effects during heavy water electrolysis: implications for reported observations of cold fusion. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 281: p. 305.

First Author: Corrigan, D. A.
All Authors: Corrigan, D. A., Schneider, E. W.
Keywords: isotope separation, tritium, review, electrolysis, separation factor, T/D


862. Corrigan, D.A., B.K. Schwemmin, and E.W. Schneider, Radiochemical measurements of tritium during heavy water electrolysis at palladium cathodes in closed cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 312: p. 175.

First Author: Corrigan, D. A.
All Authors: Corrigan, D. A., Schwemmin, B. K., Schneider, E. W.
Keywords: tritium, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, negative


863. Cottingham, W.N. and D.A. Greenwood, The fusion rate of a confined deuteron pair. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 1989. 15: p. L157.

First Author: Cottingham, W. N.
All Authors: Cottingham, W. N., Greenwood, D. A.
Keywords: Theory, distance


864. Coupland, D.R., et al. Some Observations Related to the Presence of Hydrogen and Deuterium in Palladium. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Coupland, D. R.
All Authors: Coupland, D. R., Doyle, M. L., Jenkins, J. W., Notton, J. H. F., Potter, R. J., Thompson, D. T.
Keywords: Pd, analysis, surface, loading, overvoltage, ICCF-1


865. Coupland, D.R., et al. Some Observations Related to the Presence of Hydrogen and Deuterium in Palladium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Coupland, D. R.
All Authors: Coupland, D. R., Doyle, M. L., Jenkins, J. W., Notton, J. H. F., Potter, R. J., Thompson, D. T.
Keywords: Pd, surface analysis, loading, ICCF-3, NaOH, electrolysis

Surface and bulk analytical work carried out on palladium rod samples returned to Johnson Matthey by Fleischmann and Pons indicates that a number of elements, including platinum and lithium were deposited on the surface during electrolysis in D2O. Surface analysis via time of flight SIMS indicates that the Li6/Li7 isotope ratio is unusually low but no original reference is available.

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866. Cowley, C.R., et al., On the possible presence of promethium in the spectra of HD 101065 (Przybylski’s star) and HD 965. A & A, 2004(419): p. 1087â€â€"1093.

First Author: Cowley, C. R.
All Authors: Cowley, C. R., Bidelman, W. P., Hubrig, S., Mathys, G., Bord, D. J.
Keywords:


867. Cox, D.M., et al., Abnormally Large Deuterium Uptake on Small Transition Metal Clusters. Catalysis Lett, 1990. 4: p. 271.

First Author: Cox, D. M.
All Authors: Cox, D. M., Fayet, P., Brickman, R., Hahn, M. Y., Kaldor, A.
Keywords: PdD, absorption, loading


868. Cranberg, L., Cold fusion doubts and controls" (title given by section editor). Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 515.

First Author: Cranberg, L.
All Authors: Cranberg, L.
Keywords: review


869. Cravens, D. Factors Affecting Success Rate of Heat Generation in CF Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D.
Keywords: heat, method, Pd, D2O, ICCF-4, electrolysis

Abstract

A series of low cost, low precision experiments were conducted to screen for factors which may affect the successful observation of heat from palladium/ heavy water electrolytic cells. Critical factors include the selection of the palladium and the experimental protocol during the initial loading to the beta phase. It was found that bubble patterns, volume expansion, and surface appearance can be used as early predictors of ultimate success. Since large scale defects are detrimental, methods of avoiding cracking are discussed. These include alloying, preparing a uniform surface, loading at a slow rate at low temperatures, delaying use of additives to the electrolyte, and uniform loading techniques. Methods of achieving the later and larger heat releases were found to include: rapid increase in the current density above a threshold value and raising the temperature. A reflux calorimeter design is presented that allows for continuous studies at boiling temperatures of the electrolyte. Unexpected and unexplained occurrences of heat bursts by magnetic fields and radio frequency fields are reported.

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870. Cravens, D., Cold Fusion Testing at CET. 1995.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D.
Keywords: H2O, Patterson, test


871. Cravens, D. Flowing Electrolyte Calorimetry. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, beads, Li2SO4. ICCF-5, electrolysis

When the specific heat and flow rate of the electrolyte are known, the thennal output of cells using circulating electrolytes can be determined. An independent evaluation of the "Patterson Power Cell™" was conducted using the circulating electrolyte as a heat transfer medium. This allows for real time measurements and alteration of the electrolyte. The cell was found to give measurements consistent with claims of excess power. Suggestions for the improvement of the calorimetry are given. A simplified version of the system was demonstrated during the first 3 days o f the International Conference on Cold Fusion - 5 (ICCF-5) and made available to those requesting its examination.

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872. Cravens, D., A report on testing the patterson power cell. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(1): p. 21.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D.
Keywords: H2O, beads, heat+, Ni, CETI


873. Cravens, D. and D. Letts. Practical Techniques In CF Research - Triggering Methods. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D., Letts, D.
Keywords: laser stimulation, excess heat

A collection of useful techniques for triggering CF events is presented which are gleaned from 14 years of CF research and thousands of experiments by the authors.  Special attention is give to those techniques that trigger excess heat by dynamic conditions that are imposed upon CF systems.  These triggering techniques include changes in cell temperature, pulsing the current to electrolytic systems, acoustical stimulation of gas systems, chemical triggering of electrolytic system, pressure changes, radio frequency excitation, magnetic field variations and laser stimulation. Laser stimulation is found to be a potentially fruitful technique to trigger heat events, to probe the cathode surface by scanning for active locations and to compare products from at active and inactive regions.

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874. Cravens, D. and D. Letts. Practical Techniques In CF Research - Triggering Methods (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D., Letts, D.
Keywords: laser stimulation, excess heat

PowerPoint slides for this paper.

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875. Cravens, D. Search for Radiation Signals from Electrolytic Cells (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D.
Keywords: radiation,


876. Cravens, D. and D. Letts. The Enabling Criteria Of Electrochemical Heat: Beyond Reasonable Doubt. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D., Letts, D.
Keywords: review

One hundred sixty seven papers from 1989 to 2007 concerning the generation of heat from electrochemical cells were collected, listed, and digitally posted to a CD for reference, review and study. A review showed four criteria that were required for successful experiments attempting replication of the Fleischmann-Pons effect. All published negative results can be traced to researchers not fulfilling one or more of these criteria. Statistical and Bayesian studies show that observation of the Fleischmann-Pons effect is correlated with the criteria and that production of "excess heat" is a real physical effect "beyond a reasonable doubt."

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877. Cravens, D., Inhibition of LENR by Hydrogen within Gas-loaded Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 282-290.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D.
Keywords: Gas loading, Inhibition, Kinetics

This paper develops a model of reaction kinetics for Low-energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) for gas loaded systems. The method is patterned after mathematics used in Michaelis-Menten kinetic models, which are standard in enzyme catalytic studies. Hydrogen is found to inhibit the deuterium reaction rates and can be explained by mixed inhibition kinetics where the hydrogen both competes with deuterium at the active sites requiring higher concentrations of deuterium for a given reaction rate and it also undergoes noncompetitive inhibition, which alters the maximum rate of the reaction. This kinetic model predicts that hydrogen contamination would require ligher loading ratios for similar reaction rates or heat production and also such contamination may lower ultimate heat production due to hydrogen active site complex productions.

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878. Cravens, D. and R. Gimpel, Cold Fusion at NI Week 2013. Infinite Energy, 2013(111).

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D., Gimpel, R.
Keywords: Excess heat

National Instruments' annual NI Week hosts some of the most advanced electronic and instrumentation technologies on the planet. This yea-s event, held in Austin, Texas from August 5-8, was no exception. Electronically controlled robots roamed the aisles. Next yea-s auto electronics and advanced controls for cars, airplanes and missiles were displayed. There was even an 800 mph land speed car in the corner.

However, in our humble opinion, the most unique booth displayed two golden spheres resting in a bed of silver beads. But the left sphere is 4C warmer than the right one and the bed it rests in. Why is it warmer? Cold fusion keeps it warm and it has been warm for 2½ months now. . . .

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879. Cravens, D., M.R. Swartz, and B.S. Ahern, Condensed matter nuclear reactions with metal particles in gases. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D., Swartz, M. R., Ahern, B. S.
Keywords:


880. Crawford, O.H., Examination of a proposed phonon-coupling mechanism for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 161.

First Author: Crawford, O. H.
All Authors: Crawford, O. H.
Keywords: Theory, Schwinger


881. Crespo, C.L., R.F.C. Carvalhal, and C.A.C. Sequeira, Anomalous effects during electrolysis of aqueous solutions. Cienc. Tecnol. Mater., 1998. 10((1/2)): p. 43 [in Portuguese].

First Author: Crespo, C. L.
All Authors: Crespo, C. L., Carvalhal, R. F. C., Sequeira, C. A. C.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, electrolysis


882. Cribier, M., M. Spiro, and J. Favier, Conventional sources of fast neutrons in cold fusion experiments. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 228: p. 163.

First Author: Cribier, M.
All Authors: Cribier, M., Spiro, M., Favier, J.
Keywords: theory, neutron


883. Criddle, E.E. Implications ofIsoperibolic Electrode Calorimetry for Cold Fusion: The Silica Effect. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Criddle, E. E.
All Authors: Criddle, E. E.
Keywords: SiO2, heat, error, critique, ICCF-3

Isoperibolic electrode calorimetry has demonstrated that four times as much heat is generated at the anode then at the cathode in D2O. Experiments recognized that silica affected some results. Experiments in K2CO3 reported here identifies silica as both a contributor to excess heat generation and as a factor in modifying the cell calibration constant. Implications for cold fusion will be discussed.

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884. Criddle, E.E. Evidence of Agglomeration and Syneresis in Regular and Excess Heat Cells in Water. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Criddle, E. E.
All Authors: Criddle, E. E.
Keywords: Ni, D2O, heat+, electrolysis, ICCF-4


885. Crouch-Baker, S., M.C.H. McKubre, and F.L. Tanzella. Some Thermodynamic Properties of the H(D)-Pd System. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Crouch-Baker, S.
All Authors: Crouch-Baker, S., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: PdD, thermodynamic, enthalpy of formation, ICCF-5

In any discussion of the origin, measurement or description of the anomalous power prod ucing process which occurs in connection with the electrochemical loading of deuterium into palladium, knowledge of the thermodynamic behaviour of the system is clearly of importance. More particularly, since the formation of highly l oaded palladium is implicated as a necessary (but itself insufficient) condition for the observation of anomalous power, thermodynamic considerations relating to the attainment of high l oadings are of interest. Here, it is intended to review, at a general level , those aspects of the thermodynamic nature of the H(D)-Pd system, both equilibrium and non-equilibrium, which appear to bear most directly,on the question of excess power producti on in relati o n to the attai nment of high loadings.

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886. Crouch-Baker, S., M.C.H. McKubre, and F.L. Tanzella, Calorimetric study of two metallic samples. 1996.

First Author: Crouch-Baker, S.
All Authors: Crouch-Baker, S., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, electrolysis, D2O


887. Crouch-Baker, S., M.C.H. McKubre, and F.L. Tanzella, Variation of Resistance with Composition in the beta-Phase of the H-Pd System at 298k. Z. fur Phys. Chemie, 1998. 204: p. 247.

First Author: Crouch-Baker, S.
All Authors: Crouch-Baker, S., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: Hydrogen-palladium, Resistance ratio, Loading, Pressure-composition isotherm

Measurement of electrical resistance is a convenient method for the determination of composition in a number of metal-hydrogen systems. For the fi-phase of the H-Pd system, pertinent data from the literature are employed in order to construct a complete resistance-loading function at 298 K.

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888. Crowley, B.J.B., Nuclear Fusion in High Density Matter. Nucl. Fusion, 1989. 29(12): p. 2199.

First Author: Crowley, B. J. B.
All Authors: Crowley, B. J. B.
Keywords: theory


889. Crum, L. Sonoluminescence And Acoustic Inertial Confinement Fusion. in Fifth International Symposium on Cavitation (cav2003). 2003. Osaka, Japan.

First Author: Crum, L.
All Authors: Crum, L.
Keywords: Sonofusion


890. CSST, Hearing before the Committee on Science, Space and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives. 1989: Washington, DC.

First Author: CSST
All Authors: CSST
Keywords: History

U.S. House of Representatives, Hearing before the Committee on Science, Space and Technology on cold fusion, April 1989.

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891. Cuevas, F., et al. An Experimental System for "Cold Fusion" Experiments with Self-Produced Iodide Titanium Films. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Cuevas, F.
All Authors: Cuevas, F., Fernandez, J. F., Algueru, M., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2, layer, method, deposition, ICCF-5

An experimental system has been developed to grow pure titanium films on tungsten substrates. The physicochemical properties of these films have been widely studied and ad hoc samples can be used for Cold Fusion experiments avoiding their contact with atmosphere. Different Cold Fusion experiments are proposed in a new experimental setup that allows deuterium gas loading of the film whi le electrical current is applied through them. Thus, an experimental configuration similar to an electrochemical loading is attained.

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892. Cuevas, F., et al. An Experimental System for "Cold Fusion" Experiments with Self-Produced Iodide Titanium Films. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Cuevas, F.
All Authors: Cuevas, F., Fernandez, J. F., Algueru, M., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2, layer, method, deposition, ICCF-5


893. Cuevas, F., J.F. Fernandez, and C. Sanchez. Search for Neutron Emissions Induced by Electric Currents and Phase Transitions in Titanium Deuteride Films. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Cuevas, F.
All Authors: Cuevas, F., Fernandez, J. F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2, layer, ICCF-6


894. Cuevas, F., J.F. Fernandez, and C. Sanchez. Search for Neutron Emissions Induced by Electric Currents and Phase Transitions in Titanium Deuteride Films. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Cuevas, F.
All Authors: Cuevas, F., Fernandez, J. F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2, layer, ICCF-6


895. Cuevas, F., J.F. Fernandez, and C. Sanchez, A search for nuclear reactions in deuterated fresh iodide-titanium films. Fusion Technol., 1997. 32: p. 644.

First Author: Cuevas, F.
All Authors: Cuevas, F., Fernandez, J. F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Titanium, D2, neutron, gamma emission, layer, loading


896. Cunnane, V.J., R.A. Scannell, and D.J. Schiffrin, H2 + O2 recombination in non-isothermal, non-adiabatic electrochemical calorimetry of water electrolysis in an undivided cell. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 269: p. 163.

First Author: Cunnane, V. J.
All Authors: Cunnane, V. J., Scannell, R. A., Schiffrin, D. J.
Keywords: heat, recombination, critique, method


897. Czerski, K., et al., Enhancement of the electron screening effect for d + d fusion reactions in metallic environments. Europhys. Lett., 2001. 54(4): p. 449-455.

First Author: Czerski, K.
All Authors: Czerski, K., Huke, A., Biller, A., Heide, P., Hoeft, M., Ruprecht, G.
Keywords: theory, electron screening

Abstract. -- To study the electron screening of nuclear reactions in metallic environments, angular distributions and thick target yields of the fusion reactions 2H(d,p) 3H and 2H(d,n) 3He have been measured on deuterons implanted in three different metal targets (Al, Zr and Ta) for beam energies ranging from 5 to 60 keV. The experimentally determined values of the screening energy are about one order of magnitude larger than the value achieved in a gas target experiment and significantly larger than the theoretical predictions. A clear target material dependence of the screening energy has been established.

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898. Czerski, K., P. Heide, and A. Huke. Electron Screening Constraints for Cold Fusion. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Czerski, K.
All Authors: Czerski, K., Heide, P., Huke, A.
Keywords: theory


899. Czerski, K., et al., The 2H(d,p)3H reaction in metallic media at very low energies. Europhys. Lett., 2004. 68(3): p. 363-369.

First Author: Czerski, K.
All Authors: Czerski, K., Huke, A., Heide, P., Ruprecht, G.
Keywords: theory, electron screening

Abstract. -- Based on our experimental studies of the electron screening effect in the 2H(d, p) 3H reaction for five deuteron-implanted solid targets (C, Al, Zr, Pd, Ta), theoretical calculations have been performed within an improved dielectric function theory. The theory describes correctly the observed target material dependence of the screening energies, underestimating, however, the absolute values by about a factor of 2. Applying an effective screening energy approach, the theoretical cross-sections, thick-target yields as well as nuclear reaction rates have been calculated down to the energies corresponding to the conditions of so-called cold-fusion experiments. This allows for a comparison of the experimental results at higher energies with those achieved in the heavy-water electrolysis experiments.

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900. Czerski, K., et al., Experimental and theoretical screening energies for the 2H(d, p)3H reaction in metallic environments. Eur. Phys. J. A, 2006. 27(s01): p. 83-88.

First Author: Czerski, K.
All Authors: Czerski, K., Huke, A., Heide, P., Ruprecht, G.
Keywords: theory, electron screening,


901. Czerski, K. Enhanced Electron Screening and Nuclear Mechanism of Cold Fusion. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Czerski, K.
All Authors: Czerski, K.
Keywords:

The enhanced electron screening effect observed in accelerator experiments for the 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He reaction in deuterized metallic targets may be a breakthrough in understanding the phenomenon of cold fusion. The dielectric function theory enables an extrapolation of experimental cross sections determined at higher energies down to room temperature, leading to an enhancement of the fusion reaction rates by a factor of 1040 compared to the value predicted for the deuterium molecule. An additional enhancement can be obtained due to a 0+ resonance which should exist in the compound nucleus 4He very close to the D-D reaction threshold. Combination of both processes offers a simple explanation of high penetration probability through the Coulomb barrier and the reaction branching ratio preferring the 4He channel in heavy-water electrolysis experiments.

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902. Czerwinski, A., R. Marassi, and S. Zamponi, The absorption of hydrogen and deuterium in thin palladium electrodes. Part I. Acidic solutions. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 316: p. 211.

First Author: Czerwinski, A.
All Authors: Czerwinski, A., Marassi, R., Zamponi, S.
Keywords: Pd, loading, layer, OCV


903. Czerwinski, A. and R. Marassi, The absorption of hydrogen and deuterium in thin palladium electrodes. Part II: Basic solutions. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 322: p. 373.

First Author: Czerwinski, A.
All Authors: Czerwinski, A., Marassi, R.
Keywords: Pd, loading, layer, electrolysis, D2O, H2O


904. Czerwinski, A., Influence of lithium cations on hydrogen and deuterium electrosorption in palladium. Electrochim. Acta, 1994. 39: p. 431.

First Author: Czerwinski, A.
All Authors: Czerwinski, A.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, Li, loading, surface analysis


905. Czerwinski, A., et al., The absorption of hydrogen and deuterium in thin palladium electrodes. Part III: The influence of solution composition. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 386: p. 207.

First Author: Czerwinski, A.
All Authors: Czerwinski, A., Maruszczak, G., Zelazowska, M., Lancucka, M., Marassi, R., Zamponi, S.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, H2O, electrolysis


906. Czerwinski, A., et al., Influence of cesium cations on hydrogen and deuterium electrosorption in palladium. Electrochim. Acta, 1997. 42(1): p. 81.

First Author: Czerwinski, A.
All Authors: Czerwinski, A., Czauderna, M., Maruszczak, G., Kiersztyn, I., Marassi, R., Zamponi, S.
Keywords: Cs, Pd, loading, H2O, electrolysis


907. Czirr, J.B., G.L. Jensen, and J.C. Wang. High-Efficiency Neutron and Charged-Particle Detector. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Czirr, J. B.
All Authors: Czirr, J. B., Jensen, G. L., Wang, J. C.
Keywords: neutron, particle emission, apparatus, method


908. Daddi, L. Neutrons Observations in Cold Fusion Experiments. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Daddi, L.
All Authors: Daddi, L.
Keywords: neutron, review, ICCF-5

This report is a review of the most convincing observations of neutrons in Cold Fusion history up to recent experiments in which neutrons were so numerous and long lasting so as to allow activation of thermal detectors. Lately neutrons were observed also by using natural hydrogen. A more complete review is published elsewhere.

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909. Daddi, L. On a possible role of the virtual neutrons in cold fusion. in ASTI Workshop. 1999. Asti.

First Author: Daddi, L.
All Authors: Daddi, L.
Keywords: theory


910. Daddi, L., Proton-electron reactions as precursors of anomalous nuclear events. Fusion Technol., 2001. 39: p. 249.

First Author: Daddi, L.
All Authors: Daddi, L.
Keywords: virtual neutron theory


911. Dagani, R., Nuclear Fusion: Utah Findings Raise Hopes, Doubts, in Chem. Eng. News. 1989. p. 4.

First Author: Dagani, R.
All Authors: Dagani, R.
Keywords: critique, history,


912. Dagani, R., Advocates,Skeptics Alike Still Puzzled by Cold Fusion. Chem. Eng. News, 1990.

First Author: Dagani, R.
All Authors: Dagani, R.
Keywords: newspaper, review


913. Dagani, R., Cold Fusion Believer Turned Skeptic Crusades for More Rigorous Research. Chem. Eng. News, 1995.

First Author: Dagani, R.
All Authors: Dagani, R.
Keywords: history, critique


914. Dairaku, T., et al. Studies of nuclear-reactions-in-solid in titanium deuteride under ion implantation. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Dairaku, T.
All Authors: Dairaku, T., Katayama, Y., Hayashi, T., Isobe, Y., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, Ti, ion bombardment, D+, multibody, theory

In order to find the signature of multi-body fusion, experiments of ion-beam implantation were carried out using titanium deuteride target made by the gas-loading method. Up to now, charged particles that are not known in the ordinary beam-target interaction have been observed in the experiment.

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915. Dalard, F., et al., Electrochemical incorporation of lithium into palladium from aprotic electrolytes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 270: p. 445.

First Author: Dalard, F.
All Authors: Dalard, F., Ulmann, M., Augustynski, J., Selvam, P.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, Li, surface analysis, Pd-Li


916. Dalun, W., et al. Diagnosis of Neutrons from the Gas Discharge Facility. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Dalun, W.
All Authors: Dalun, W., Suhe, C., Yijiu, L., Rong, L., Mei, W., Yibei, F., Xinwei, Z., Wushou, Z.
Keywords: neutron, gas discharge ICCF-6


917. D'Amato, F., et al. Search for Nuclear Phenomena by the Interaction Between Titanium and Deuterium. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: D'Amato, F.
All Authors: D'Amato, F., De Ninno, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Zeppa, P., Pontorieri, C., Lanza, F.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, tritium, ICCF-1


918. Dan, C. The Role of the Energy Fluctuations in the Possibility of Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Dan, C.
All Authors: Dan, C.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7


919. Dandapani, B. and M. Fleischmann, Electrolytic Separation Factors on Palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1972. 39: p. 323.

First Author: Dandapani, B.
All Authors: Dandapani, B., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Pd, H2, D2, separation


920. Dannetun, H.M., et al., The H2-O2 Reaction on Palladium Studied Over a Large Pressure Range: Independence of the Microscopic Sticking Coefficients on Surface Condition. Sur. Sci., 1985. 152-153: p. 559.

First Author: Dannetun, H. M.
All Authors: Dannetun, H. M., Saderberg, D., Lundstram, I., Petersson, L. G.
Keywords: H, O, Pd, sticking Coefficient


921. Dannetun, H.M., et al., The H2-O2 Reaction on Palladium Studied Over a Large Pressure Range: Independence of the Microscopic Sticking Coefficients on Surface Condition. Sur. Sci., 1985. 152-153: p. 559.

First Author: Dannetun, H. M.
All Authors: Dannetun, H. M., Saderberg, D., Lundstram, I., Petersson, L. G.
Keywords: H, O, Pd, sticking Coefficient


922. Danos, M., Coulomb-assisted cold fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 413.

First Author: Danos, M.
All Authors: Danos, M.
Keywords: Theory


923. Danos, M., Coulomb-assisted cold fusion in solids. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 484.

First Author: Danos, M.
All Authors: Danos, M.
Keywords: Theory


924. Danos, M. and V.B. Belyaev, Estimate of the neutron transfer fusion rate. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 354.

First Author: Danos, M.
All Authors: Danos, M., Belyaev, V. B.
Keywords: Theory, neutron


925. Darby, M.I. and M.N. Read, Site Preference of Dilute Hydrogen in Palladium. J. Less-Common Met., 1983. 90: p. L41.

First Author: Darby, M. I.
All Authors: Darby, M. I., Read, M. N.
Keywords: Pd, H2, absorption


926. Dardik, I., et al. Intensification Of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Using Superwave Excitation. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I., Branover, H., El-Boher, A., Gazit, D., Golbreich, E., Greenspan, E., Kapusta, A., Khachatorov, B., Krakov, V., Lesin, S., Michailovitch, B., Shani, G., Zilov, T.
Keywords: excess heat, electrolysis, glow discharge

Energetics Technologies (ET) was recently established to investigate possibilities for inducing Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) using special wave excitation. Four experimental approaches are being pursued: electrolysis, glow-discharge, gas loading in catalyst cells and high-pressure high-temperature cell with ultrasonic wave excitation. The experimental setups developed by ET are described along with preliminary results obtained. A significant amount of excess heat was measured in the first glow discharge experiment. The power generated during the experiment was up to 3.9 times the input power. When driven with waves the excess heat was higher than when driven with DC. A significant amount of excess heat was also measured after the shutdown of the glow discharge; it lasted for approximately 10 hours. The total excess energy generated is estimated to be 6.7 times the input energy. The "heat-after-death" phenomenon was also observed in another glow discharge experiment. Excess heat up to approximately 80% was measured over a period of over 3 months in yet another glow discharge experiment. Driving the electrolytic cells with waves resulted in a faster loading than when driving them with DC of the same average current. The tritium concentration in the electrolyte measured at the end of the experiments was found to be up to more than 100% the pre-experiment level. No excess heat was measured, so far, in the catalyst cells. Successful loading of Pd target with D was obtained in the high-pressure high-temperature gas cell without going through the alpha+beta phase of the Pd-D system.

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927. Dardik, I., et al. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at Energetics Technologies (PowerPoint slides). in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I., Zilov, T., Branover, H., El-Boher, A., Greenspan, E., Khachatorov, B., Krakov, V., Lesin, S., Tsirlin, M.
Keywords: heat

PowerPoint slides describing research at Energetics Technology. Topic covered: SuperWaves;  glow discharge experiments; electrolytic cells; cathode pretreatment; excess heat obtained; tritium and material analysis.

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928. Dardik, I., et al. Progress in Electrolysis Experiments at Energetics Technologies (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I., Zilov, T., Branover, H., El-Boher, A., Greenspan, E., Khachaturov, B., Krakov, V., Lesin, S., Tsirlin, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat

ABSTRACT In last year we have succeeded obtaining significant Excess Heat (=100%) with seven different Pd foils, using Electrolytic cells, excited by Dardik's Super Wave. Several of the successful foils were provided by Dr. Vittorio Violante of ENEA Frascatti. Significant Excess Heat: The output power exceeded the input power (COP) by at least 100%. Maximum COP obtained is 600%, it lasted for 24.5 hours. The longest period of Excess Heat obtained was 134 hours at COP of 150%. A new type of experiments was initiated. Electrolytic loaded Pd cathode is exposed to Ultra Sonic waves (US), inducing cavitations in the vicinity of the cathode.

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929. Dardik, I., et al. Report on Electrolysis Experiments at Energetics Technologies. in The 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2007. Sochi, Russia.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I., Zilov, T., Branover, H., El-Boher, A., Greenspan, E., Khachatorov, B., Krakov, V., Lesin, S., Shapiro, A., Tsirlin, M.
Keywords:


930. Dardik, I. Preparata Prize acceptance speech. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I.
Keywords: review,


931. Dardik, I., et al. Ultrasonically-excited electrolysis Experiments at Energetics Technologies. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I., Zilov, T., Branover, H., El-Boher, A., Greenspan, E., Khachatorov, B., Krakov, V., Lesin, S., Shapiro, A., Tsirlin, M.
Keywords: ultrasonic, heat, review

Three electrolysis cells with built-in ultrasonic transmitters were developed by Energetics Technologies. The ultrasonic transmitters induce cavitation in the electrolyte in the vicinity of the palladium cathode for in-situ cleaning and activation of the cathode surface, generation of dislocations, assistance in loading and excitation of the Pd-D system. The ultrasonically assisted electrolysis cells are described and excess heat generating experiments using these cells are illustrated. All of these experiments used the Dardik's modified SuperWaves to drive the electrolysis. The reproducibility of excess heat generation obtained using the ultrasonically assisted electrolysis experiments approaches 80%, which is the highest of all types of electrolysis experiments performed at Energetics Technologies.

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932. Dardik, I. SuperWaves (TM) as the Natural Origin of Excess Heat. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I.
Keywords:

Energetics Technologies has had excellent reproducibility of its own experimental results on cold fusion; significantly, its work has been replicated at independent laboratories, at SRI and ENEA. We believe that one of the most important reasons for these results is the use t of complex fractally nested current excitation From this perspective, these results in replicating the production of excess heat are a further confirmation that natural phenomena, including the electrochemical processes for producing excess of heat, can be correctly described by these fractal dynamics. . In this paper I describe basic concepts of the SuperWaves™ theory, which is an original general approach to model and understand natural phenomena.

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933. Das, D. and M.K.S. Ray, Fusion in condensed matter - a likely scenario. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 115.

First Author: Das, D.
All Authors: Das, D., Ray, M. K. S.
Keywords: Theory


934. Dasannacharya, B.A. and K.R. Rao, Remarks on Cold Fusion, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. C 2.

First Author: Dasannacharya, B. A.
All Authors: Dasannacharya, B. A., Rao, K. R.
Keywords: theory,


935. Dash, J., G. Noble, and D. Diman. Surface Morphology and Microcomposition of Palladium Cathodes After Electrolysis in Acified Light and Heavy Water: Correlation With Excess Heat. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Noble, G., Diman, D.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, surface analysis, structure, transmutation, ICCF-4, electrolysis


936. Dash, J., G. Noble, and D. Diman. Changes in Surface Topography and Microcomposition of a Palladium Cathode Caused by Electrolysis in Acidified Light Water. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Noble, G., Diman, D.
Keywords: Ti, D2O, H2SO4, heat+, transmutation


937. Dash, J., G. Noble, and D. Diman, Surface Morphology and Microcomposition of Palladium Cathodes After Electrolysis in Acified Light and Heavy Water: Correlation With Excess Heat. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 299.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Noble, G., Diman, D.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, surface analysis, structure, transmutation


938. Dash, J. and S. Miguet, Microanalysis of Pd Cathodes after Electrolysis in Aqueous Acids. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 23.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Miguet, S.
Keywords: transmutation,, Pd, electrolysis,, D2O,, surface analysis

ABSTRACT The morphology and microcomposition of palladium after electrolysis in heavy water were studied. Fibers which appeared on the surface were observed to change with time. Evidence which supports the possibility of transmutation is presented.

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939. Dash, J., R. Kopecek, and S. Miguet. Excess Heat and Unexpected Elements from Aqueous Electrolysis with Titanium and Palladium Cathodes. in 32nd Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. 1997.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Kopecek, R., Miguet, S.
Keywords: Excess heat, transmutation

ABSTRACT Presented here are results of research performed at Portland State University during the period 1994 to 1996. Excess heat was produced at the rate of about 1.2 watts during electrolysis of heavy water with a titanium cathode weighing 0.0625g. Analysis of the electrodes before and after electrolysis with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) revealed that new surface topographical features with concentrations of unexpected elements (V, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn) formed during electrolysis. The morphology and microcomposition of palladium after electrolysis in heavy water were studied. Fibers which appeared on the surface were observed to change with time. Evidence which supports the possibility of transmutation is presented.

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940. Dash, J., Interaction of titanium with hydrogen isotopes, final progress report. 2001, U.S. Army Research Office.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J.
Keywords: heat, titanium

Attempts to achieve low temperature nuclear fusion can be traced to the work of Paneth, Peters, and Tanberg in 1927. Martin Fleischmann, who in his early career was a colleague of Paneth, teamed with Stanley Pons at the University of Utah to pursue this goal by the electrolysis of heaNy water with a palladium cathode. Palladium is a metal
which strongly absorbs hydrogen isotopes. The question they sought to answer was whether the internal pressure generated by this absorption would be sufficient to overcome the coulomb repulsion of deuterium nuclei. In 1989 they claimed success in fusing deuterium nuclei to form helium 2. Their main evidence for this claim was excess
heat which was orders of magnitude higher than could be explained by any known chemical reaction

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941. Dash, J., J. Freeman, and B. Zimmermann, Cold Fusion Research - Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. 2002, Portland State University: Porland, OR.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Freeman, J., Zimmermann, B.
Keywords:

PowerPoint slides describing cold fusion experiments conducted during Portland State University summer apprenticeship program in 2002.

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942. Dash, J., et al. Effects of Glow Discharge with Hydrogen Isotope Plasmas on Radioactivity of Uranium. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Savvatimova, I., Frantz, S., Weis, E., Kozima, H.
Keywords: glow discharge, radioactivity, gamma, transmutation

ABSTRACT Uranium foils were attached to the cathode of a glow discharge apparatus. A plasma of either hydrogen or deuterium ions was used to bombard the uranium. The rates of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation emissions were significantly greater for the bombarded uranium than for the original material.

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943. Dash, J. and D. Chicea. Changes In The Radioactivity, Topography, And Surface Composition Of Uranium After Hydrogen Loading By Aqueous Electrolysis. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Chicea, D.
Keywords: electrolysis, uranium, reduced radioactivity

ABSTRACT Hydrogen loading  of 99.98% pure natural uranium foils (0.18 mm thick) was performed by aqueous electrolysis in order to compare with glow discharge results. Alpha, beta, and gamma specific radioactivity were measured  after hydrogen loading and compared with the control. Some of the samples revealed an increase of the specific radioactivity of up to 20%. Gamma ray spectroscopy was also performed on the samples. Results reveal an increase of the specific counts for the peaks of Th234 and U235 and a decrease in the U Ka1 characteristic x-ray peak. The surface topography changed from granular before electrolysis to pitted afterward. The thorium concentration increased slightly after electrolysis compared with the original material. In summary, this work in progress reveals that loading hydrogen into uranium increases the uranium decay rate, in agreement with the glow discharge results.

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944. Dash, J., C. Lee, and S. Pedersen, The Quest for Excess. 2003, Portland State University: Porland, OR.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Lee, C., Pedersen, S.
Keywords:

PowerPoint slides describing cold fusion experiments conducted during Portland State University summer apprenticeship program in 2003.

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945. Dash, J. and A. Ambadkar. Co-Deposition Of Palladium With Hydrogen Isotopes. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Ambadkar, A.
Keywords: co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, heat+, film

ABSTRACT. Palladium was co-deposited with hydrogen isotopes on a Pd cathode. This resulted in enhanced production of excess thermal power. After electrolysis the Pd Lβ / Lα ratio was found to be increased in characteristic x-ray spectra from localized, microscopic areas on the surface of the Pd cathode. This suggests the possibility that appreciable amounts of silver are present in these areas.

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946. Dash, J., A. Ambadkar, and Q. Wang. ICCF11 Tutorial - Search for optimum conditions to produce excess heat from the electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode (PowerPoint slides). in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Ambadkar, A., Wang, Q.
Keywords: heat

Tutorial presented at ICCF-12.

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947. Dash, J. and D.S. Silver. Surface Studies After Loading Metals With Hydrogen And/Or Deuterium. in The 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2007. Sochi, Russia.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Silver, D. S.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

Surface studies of 40 μm thick Pd foils after electrolysis in D2O / H2SO4 electrolyte for six minutes found inversions in isotopic ratios. Anomalous isotopic ratios were also found on the surface of a 350 μm thick Pd foil after electrolysis in the same electrolyte for 74 hours.

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948. Dash, J., Q. Wang, and D.S. Silver, Excess Heat and Anomalous Isotopes and Isotopic Ratios From the Interaction of Palladium With Hydrogen Isotopes, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 61-80.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Wang, Q., Silver, D. S.
Keywords:


949. Dash, J. and Q. Wang. Anomalous Silver on the Cathode Surface after Aqueous Electrolysis. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Wang, Q.
Keywords:

The presence of localized concentrations of anomalous elements (gold and silver)on the surfaces of palladium cathodes after electrolysis in either light water or heavy water electrolyte was first reported in 1994 [1]. Similarly, anomolous elements in surface pits were reported for titanium cathodes after electrolysis in heavy water electrolyte [2]. More recently, off-the-shelf battery fluid (Sp.G. 1.26) was substituted for analytical-grade H2SO4 (Sp.G. 1.84) in the electrolyte. Silver was found in localized concentrations on palladium cathodes after electrolysis. These results are consistent with a thermal neutron mechanism proposed previously [1].

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950. Dash, J. and J. Solomon, Effect of Recrystallization on Heat Output and Surface Composition of Ti and Pd Cathodes. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Solomon, J.
Keywords: excess heat

The microstructure of Pd and Ti foils was altered by cold rolling followed by heating at temperatures up to ~700ÂÂC. The surface topography and microchemical composition of these foils was studied before and after electrolysis with heavy water electrolyte. Temperature measurements during electrolysis showed that Ti and Pd cathodes which had been heated to ~700ÂÂC gave about 1W excess power relative to a control.

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951. D'Aulerio, L., et al. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: D'Aulerio, L.
All Authors: D'Aulerio, L., Violante, V., Castagna, E., Fiore, R., Capobianco, L., Del Prete, P., Tanzella, F. L., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method,


952. David, F., Theorie de la diafluidite. Fusion, 1994. 49: p. 58 (in French).

First Author: David, F.
All Authors: David, F.
Keywords: Theory, fluidity, superconductivity, superfluidity


953. David, F. and J. Giles. Self-Polarisation of Fusion Diodes: From Excess Energy to Energy. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: David, F.
All Authors: David, F., Giles, J.
Keywords: Excess heat

Conventionally, the cold fusion reaction produces heat. The authors have sought a different approach, wherein the device has no input energy, relying on the energy produced by cold fusion in the device. The device consists of diodes fabricated as powder, with a large surface junction made up of a semiconductor in contact with palladium charged with deuterium.

The apparent fusion reactions take place in the junction between the semiconductor and the Palladium powder, which produces an excitation which is transmitted to the electrons. This excitation increases their energy and allows them to cross the bandgap of the semiconductor and pass into the conduction band, as in a photovoltaic cell. This energy very quickly appears as a spontaneous potential difference which can reach over 0.5 volt per junction.

The potential drop concentrates on the junction region, and at a nano scale the electric field reaches considerable values, higher than the megavolt per meter, which constrains the deuterium nuclei and increases the probability of deuterium fusion.

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954. David, F. and J. Giles. Self-Polarisation of Fusion Diodes: Nuclear Energy or Chemical Artefact? in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: David, F.
All Authors: David, F., Giles, J.
Keywords:

The authors discusses the results of the testing of a new fusion device : the "Fusion Diode".

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955. Davidonis, R., et al., An experimental evaluation of the probability of cold fusion. Litovskii Fiz. Sbornik, 1990. 30(6): p. 65.

First Author: Davidonis, R.
All Authors: Davidonis, R., Duskesas, G., Kalinauskas, R., Makarinunas, K., Petrauskas, J., Remeiskis, V., Ruzele, B.
Keywords: Pd, titanium, electrolysis, neutron, gamma emission, tritium, D2O, negative


956. Davidson, K., Cold Fusion Not Dead Yet, in San Francisco Examiner. 1989.

First Author: Davidson, K.
All Authors: Davidson, K.
Keywords: history


957. Davidson, M., Off-mass-shell Particles and LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Davidson, M.
All Authors: Davidson, M.
Keywords: Horwitz-Piron, LENR, Nuclear anomalies, Stueckelberg, Variable mass

A recent and somewhat radical theoretical explanation for LENR is reviewed. It is based on variable mass theories of relativistic quantum mechanics that date back to the 1930s in works by Fock and Stueckelberg, and up to the present by many others. It explains a large number of observed anomalous effects in LENR by positing that nuclear rest-masses can vary in "nuclear active environments" in condensed matter settings. The varying masses modify the kinematic constraints of the nuclear reactions. It also offers a mechanism for enhancing electron screening and-or quantum tunneling rates, for allowing for resonant tunneling, and for modified radioactive decay rates by mass changes in the decaying isotopes.

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958. Davies, J.D. and J.S. Cohen, More on the cold fusion family. Ettore Majorana Int. Sci. Ser.: Phys. Sci., 1990: p. 52.

First Author: Davies, J. D.
All Authors: Davies, J. D., Cohen, J. S.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion


959. Davies, J.D., A Direct Measurement of the Alpha-Muon Sticking Coefficient in Muon-Catalysed d-t Fusion. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 1990. 16: p. 1529.

First Author: Davies, J. D.
All Authors: Davies, J. D.
Keywords: muon, D-T fusion


960. Davies, J.D., et al., Search for 2.5 MeV neutrons from D2O (heavy water) electrolytic cells stimulated by high-intensity muons and pions. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1990. 103(1): p. 155.

First Author: Davies, J. D.
All Authors: Davies, J. D., Pyle, G. J., Squier, G. T. A., Bertin, A., Bruschi, M., Piccinini, M., Vitale, A., Zoccoli, A., Jones, S. E., Alper, B., Bom, V. R., Van Eijk, C. W. E., de Haan, H., Craston, D. H., Jones, C. P., Williams, D. E. G., Anderson, D. M., Eaton, G. H.
Keywords: PdD, TiD, muons, ion bombardment


961. Davis, L., Cold fusion: a learning curve? Aust. Phys., 1989. 26: p. 219.

First Author: Davis, L.
All Authors: Davis, L.
Keywords: review


962. Daviss, B., Reasonable Doubt, in New Scientist. 2003. p. 36.

First Author: Daviss, B.
All Authors: Daviss, B.
Keywords: Review


963. Davydov, A.S., Possible interpretation of cold nuclear fusion (Letter to the Editor). Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.), 1989. 34: p. 1295 (in Russian).

First Author: Davydov, A. S.
All Authors: Davydov, A. S.
Keywords: theory, superconductivity, muons


964. Davydov, A.S., Possible explanation of the cold fusion experiments". Sov. Phys. Dokl., 1990. 35(9): p. 811.

First Author: Davydov, A. S.
All Authors: Davydov, A. S.
Keywords: Theory


965. de Guerville, F., Proton Conductors: Nanometric Cavities, H2 Precipitates under Pressure, and Rydberg Matter Formation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 26-39.

First Author: de Guerville, F.
All Authors: de Guerville, F.
Keywords: H2 precipitates, Impurities, Large hydrogen flux, Nanometric cavities, Partial metallization of hydrogen, Pressure, Proton conductors, Rydberg states

Proton conductors (PC) are metal oxides often used as solid electrolyte with hydrogen above 400 K, in which anomalous presence increase of several chemical elements and excess heat would have been obtained from near-surface locations. Near the surface of other metal oxides, closely spaced hydrogen at a distance of only 2 pm at least during a fraction of the time has been detected, and has been proposed to be in the form of hypothetical ultradense Rydberg matter H(0). How can H(0) form in PC near the cathode interface? Nanometric cavities (NC) were observed in the PC near their cathode interfaces. These NC would contain H2 precipitates with impurities, under a pressure of the order of 0.1 GPa. Since PC are crossed by a large flux of protons, a simple mechanism is proposed to increase the H2 pressure in these NC rapidly and temporarily well above the PC tensile strength. A second mechanism is then described to turn this H2 into a metallic-molecular state, form a Rydberg matter H(1) and then H(0) with a pressure decrease. In NC, the presence of impurities and the entry of the hydrogen atoms in the form of Rydberg atoms are proposed to decrease the pressure required to form metallic-molecular hydrogen. Finally, different experiments are proposed to test this research approach, particularly by transmission electron microscopy and Raman micro-spectroscopy.

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966. De Marco, F., et al. Progress Report on the Research Activities on Cold Fusion at ENEA Frascati. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: De Marco, F.
All Authors: De Marco, F., De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., La Barbera, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, stress, D/Pd, ICCF-6


967. De Ninno, A., et al., Emission of neutrons from a deuterium-titanium system. Energ. Nucl. (Rome), 1989. 6: p. 9 (in Italian).

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Lollobattista, G., Martinis, L., Martone, M., Mori, L., Podda, S., Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, titanium


968. De Ninno, A., et al., Evidence of emission of neutrons from a titanium-deuterium system". Europhys. Lett., 1989. 9: p. 221.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Lollobattista, G., Martinis, L., Martone, M., Mori, L., Podda, S., Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, titanium


969. De Ninno, A., et al., Emission of neutrons as a consequence of titanium-deuterium interaction. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 101: p. 841.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Lollobattista, G., Martinis, L., Martone, M., Mori, L., Podda, S., Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, titanium


970. De Ninno, A., et al. Emission of Neutron Bursts From a Titanium-Deuterium Gas Ststem in a High-Effeciency Low-Background Experimental Setup. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Pontorieri, C., Zeppa, P.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, D2, titanium


971. De Ninno, A., et al. The Production of Neutrons and Tritium in the Deuterium Gas-Titanium Interaction. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Frattolillo, A., Migliori, S., Lanza, F., Scaglione, S., Zeppa, P., Pontorieri, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, tritium, ICCF-2, titanium


972. De Ninno, A. and V. Violante. "Quasi-Plasma" Transport Model in Deuterium Overloaded Cathodes. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Violante, V.
Keywords: theory

The Pd-D system has been described assuming a two-population model. A "quasi-plasma" delocalized boson gas picture has been used for the deuterons exceeding the sto ichiometric ratio in Pd-D compounds.

A mathematical model supported by a numerical computer code with distributed parameters has been developed in order to describe the evolution of the deuteron concentration profile inside a Pd cathode under pulsed electrolysis. Several boundary conditions have been taken into account.

A strong correlation has been found between the model system evolution and the experimental data .

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973. De Ninno, A. and V. Violante, Study of deuterium charging in palladium by electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 1304.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Violante, V.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2, diffusion, loading


974. De Ninno, A., A. La Barbera, and V. Violante. Selection of palladium metallurgical parameters to achieve very high loading rations. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., La Barbera, A., Violante, V.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2, preloading, ICCF-6, elecrolysis, D2O


975. De Ninno, A., A. La Barbera, and V. Violante, Deformations induced by high loading ratios in palladium-deuterium compounds. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 181.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., La Barbera, A., Violante, V.
Keywords: Pd, loading, resistivity, cracking


976. De Ninno, A., M.V. Antisari, and C. Giangiordano. Material Science Aimed at Improving the Reproducibility of Heat Excess Experiments. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Antisari, M. V., Giangiordano, C.
Keywords: Pd, structure, loading, grain size, layer, Ni, diffusion, resistivity, ICCF-7, electrolysis


977. De Ninno, A., et al. Cold Fusion at ENEA Frascati: Progress Report. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Violante, V., Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: film, D2, D2O, Pd, Ni, loading, diffusion, stress, ICCF-7

Abstract The resources dedicated by ENEA to Cold Fusion research in the last two years have been strongly reduced. Nevertheless, fruitful activity has been performed following two main lines. The first line attains to the effort for reaching high values of D/Pd ratio in Pd in order to obtain the best conditions for cold fusion phenomena, in particular power excess production in electrolytic cells. The outcome of this research is the definition of the starting characteristic of Pd (metallurgy), and the procedure for its loading with Deuterium. The calorimetry by now assessed at ENEA Frascati has been used for the detection of power excess. The second line concerns the attempt to detect in a clear way the production of 4He during the power excess episodes. A system aimed to the analysis of the gases evolving from the electrolytic cell is being realised and will be briefly described.

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978. De Ninno, A., et al. A New Method Aimed at Detecting Small Amounts of Helium in a Gaseous Mixture. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Franttolillo, A., Rizzo, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Alessandrini, C.
Keywords: Helium, method, ICCF-8


979. De Ninno, A., et al., Experimental Evidence of 4He Production in a Cold Fusion Experiment. 2002, ENEA - Unita Tecnico Scientfica Fusione Centro Ricerche Frascati, Roma.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Rizzo, A., Del Gindice, E., Preparata, G.
Keywords: Cold fusion, mass spectroscopy, non equilibrium calorimetry, nuclear reactions in condensed matter, helium-4

We report the simultaneous production of excess enthalpy and of 4He in a one dimensional Palladium (Pd) stripe cathode electrolytically loaded with Deuterium (D), occurring when the stoichiometric ratio x=[D]/[Pd] exceeds 1. The excess heat is signaled by the local temperature rise, measured by a commercial Peltier element in good thermal contact with the thin film cathode substrate. In order to detect the very small amount of 4He expected in the gas mixture exiting from the cell, we remove effectively all non inert components of the gas mixture (especially hydrogen isotopes) with a non-evaporable getter (NEG) pump. . . .

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980. De Ninno, A., et al. 4He Detection In A Cold Fusion Experiment. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Rizzo, A., Del Gindice, E.
Keywords:

Excesses enthalpy consistent only with a nuclear process (deuterium fusion) has been claimed since 1989, even though these results are considered inconsistent with modern nuclear science and have been discarded by the most of nuclear scientists. We started an experimental programme aimed at probing these issues: Thermal anomalies can be observed only when the concentration x= [D]/[Pd] overcomes a threshold (x=1) [1]; This threshold can be easily obtained in a suitably Pd geometry; The thermal anomalies can be started and stopped controlling the experimental procedure; 4He is simultaneously generated, commensurate with the level of the excess enthalpy [2], [3], [4].

Understanding a triple coincidence - the reaching of the threshold of the D concentration in Pd, the appearance of the excess of enthalpy, and the appearance of 4He - is the primary objective of this investigation . . .

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981. De Ninno, A., E. Del Giudice, and A. Frattolillo, Excess Heat and Calorimetric Calculation: Evidence of Coherent Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter at Room Temperature, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 127-152.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Del Giudice, E., Frattolillo, A.
Keywords:


982. De Ninno, A., Dynamics in Pd-H(D) Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 291-303.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A.
Keywords: Lattice dynamics, Low-energy nuclear reactions, Material science

PdH(D) showsmany peculiar aspects whichmake it unique both for solid state and forLENRphysics. Its most surprising characteristic is that it behaves like a stable dense plasma consisting of H(D) nuclei which can be well explained on the basis of an appropriate many-body model.

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983. De Ninno, A., et al., Nuclear Project: Preliminar Study of the Hydrogen Flux in Palladium Film under Electric Field. International J. of Heat and Technology, 2016. 34(1).

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Bassignana, A., Musumeci, F., Tudisco, S., Cammarata, G.
Keywords: palladium thin film


984. Deakin, M.R., et al., Search for cold fusion using x-ray detection. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1989. 40(5): p. R1851.

First Author: Deakin, M. R.
All Authors: Deakin, M. R., Fox, J. D., Kemper, K. W., Myers, E. G., Shelton, W. N., Skofronick, J. G.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, x-ray, D2O, negative


985. Dean, S.O., Fusion News: 2004. J. Fusion Energy, 2004. 23(3): p. 137.

First Author: Dean, S. O.
All Authors: Dean, S. O.
Keywords: review


986. DeChiaro, L., L. Forsley, and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Strained Layer Ferromagnetism in Transition Metals and its Impact Upon Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 17.

First Author: DeChiaro, L.
All Authors: DeChiaro, L., Forsley, L., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: DFT, Epitaxial, Ferromagnetism, LENR

Spin-polarized Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to model the lattice structures for the Transition Metal Group, Columns I and II, and a number of sp elements in the Periodic Table. Our results suggest that most of the transition metals can exhibit ferromagnetic ordering if the lattice is placed in sufficiently high tensile stress. These results are applied to the study of some layered structures employed by a number of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) research teams and may help to explain some of the anomalous results and the difficulty in reproduction of those results.

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987. Defkalion, Defkalion Green Technologies: Company Overview, Market Strategy, Global Positioning. 2011: Athens, Greece.

First Author: Defkalion
All Authors: Defkalion
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen NiH, loading, heat

Defkalion Green Technologies s.a. was established to manufacture and market products based on the E-Cat, which was invented by Andrea Rossi. We are undertaking a path from invention to industrialization on a global scale. There is no government financing involved.

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988. Degwekar, S.B. and M. Srinivasan, A simple dead time method for measuring the fraction of bunched neutronic emission in cold fusion experiments. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1990. 17: p. 583.

First Author: Degwekar, S. B.
All Authors: Degwekar, S. B., Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: neutron, method


989. Dekhtyar, I.Y. and V.S. Shevchenko, Positron Annihilation in the System Palladium-Hydrogen. Phys. Stat. Sol. B, 1972. 49: p. K11.

First Author: Dekhtyar, I. Ya.
All Authors: Dekhtyar, I. Ya., Shevchenko, V. S.
Keywords: positron, PdH


990. Del Giudice, E., et al. The Fleischmann-Pons Effect in a Novel Electrolytic Configuration. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Del Giudice, E.
All Authors: Del Giudice, E., De Ninno, A., Franttolillo, A., Preparata, G., Scaramuzzi, F., Bulfone, A., Cola, M., Giannetti, C.
Keywords: layer, Pd, Coehn, heat+, D2O, electrolysis, resistivity, loading, ICCF-8


991. Del Giudice, E., et al. Loading Palladium with Deuterium Gas while Lowering Temperature. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Del Giudice, E.
All Authors: Del Giudice, E., De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Preparata, G., Scaramuzzi, F., Tripodi, P.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2, ICCF-8, layer


992. Del Giudice, E., et al. Loading of H(D) in a Pd lattice. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Del Giudice, E.
All Authors: Del Giudice, E., De Ninno, A., Fleischmann, M., Frattolillo, A., Mengoli, G.
Keywords: ICCF-9, loading, electrolysis, D2O, Pd, theory, Preparata effect

The aim of the present contribution is to summarize what we have learnt in the last years about the ways and the means through which we are able to reach high loadings (x=D/Pd >1) in Pd-D systems.

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993. Del Giudice, E., et al. Production of excess enthalpy in the electrolysis of D2O on Pd cathodes. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Del Giudice, E.
All Authors: Del Giudice, E., De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Porcu, M., Rizzo, A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, heat, electrolysis, D2O, Pd, 4He

INTRODUCTION

We report the preliminary results of an experiment aimed at detecting the simultaneous production of excess heat and 4He in Palladium cathodes loaded with Deuterium up to a stoichiometric ratio x=D/Pd larger than 1.

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994. Del Giudice, E. and A. De Ninno. Are Nuclear Transmutations Observed At Low Energies Consequences Of Qed Coherence? in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Del Giudice, E.
All Authors: Del Giudice, E., De Ninno, A.
Keywords: theory

Nuclear transmutations have been reported to occur in matrices subjected to either electrochemical or gas loading at room temperature. To overcome the difficulties of the large Coulomb repulsion among nuclei a γ-ray electromagnetic field appears  as a suitable agent. It is discussed whether this e.m. excitation could emerge from cold fusion processes and induce nuclear reactions through the giant resonance coupling of this e.m. field with the closed shells present in the nuclei of the matrix.

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995. Delley, B., Effect of electronic screening on cold-nuclear-fusion rates. Europhys. Lett., 1989. 10: p. 347.

First Author: Delley, B.
All Authors: Delley, B.
Keywords: Theory, screening


996. Demanins, F., et al., Search for the neutron production in niobium deuteride. Solid State Commun., 1989. 71: p. 559.

First Author: Demanins, F.
All Authors: Demanins, F., Graziani, M., Kaspar, J., Modesti, S., Raicich, F., Rosei, R., Tommasini, F., Trovarelli, A.
Keywords: Nb, D2, neutron


997. Demidenko, V.S. and V.I. Simakov, The state of deuterium and probability of cold nuclear fusion in solids. Izv. Vysch. Uchebn. Zaved. Fiz., 1993. 36(10): p. 20 (in Russian).

First Author: Demidenko, V. S.
All Authors: Demidenko, V. S., Simakov, V. I.
Keywords: Theory


998. Derjaguin, B.V., et al., Titanium fracture yields neutrons? Nature (London), 1989. 341: p. 492.

First Author: Derjaguin, B. V.
All Authors: Derjaguin, B. V., Lipson, A. G., Kluev, V. A., Sakov, D. M., Toporov, Yu. P
Keywords: fractofusion, TiD, LiD


999. Derjaguin, B.V., et al., Excitation of nuclear reaction under mechanical effect (impact) on deuterated solids. Physica B, 1990. 167: p. 189.

First Author: Derjaguin, B. V.
All Authors: Derjaguin, B. V., Kluev, V. A., Lipson, A. G., Toporov, Yu. P.
Keywords: fractofusion, LiOD, neutron


1000. Deryagin, B.V., et al., Possibility of nuclear reactions during the fracture of solids. Colloid J. USSR, 1986. 48: p. 8.

First Author: Deryagin, B. V.
All Authors: Deryagin, B. V., Klyuev, V. A., Lipson, A. G., Toporov, Yu. P.
Keywords: fractofusion, D2O., H2O, ice, neutron


1001. Deryagin, B.V., et al., On the possibility of initiation of nuclear fusion in deuterated ferroelectrics by polarisation reversal waves at T < Tc. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Khim., 1994. 334(3): p. 291 (in Russian).

First Author: Deryagin, B. V.
All Authors: Deryagin, B. V., Andriankin, E. I., Lipson, A. G., Metelkin, E. V., Sakov, D. M., Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, ferroelectric, neutron


1002. Deryagin, B.V., et al., On the initiation of the nuclear fusion reaction in deuterated ferroelectric at its polarisation reversal induced by an electric field. Dokl, Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1994. 336: p. 753 (in Russian).

First Author: Deryagin, B. V.
All Authors: Deryagin, B. V., Andriankin, E. I., Kutikov, A. A., Lipson, A. G., Sakov, D. M., Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, ferroelectrics, polarisation reversal, fractofusion


1003. Di Giulio, M., et al., Analysis of Nuclear Transmutations Observed in D- and H-Loaded Films. J. Hydrogen Eng., 2002. 27: p. 527.

First Author: Di Giulio, M.
All Authors: Di Giulio, M., Filippo, E., Manno, D., Nassisi, V.
Keywords: transmutation., gas loading,, Pd,, D2,, laser,, H2


1004. Dickinson, J.T., et al., Fracto-emission from deuterated titanium: Supporting evidence for a fracto-fusion mechanism. J. Mater. Res., 1990. 5: p. 109.

First Author: Dickinson, J. T.
All Authors: Dickinson, J. T., Jensen, L. C., Langford, S. C., Ryan, R. R., Garcia, E.
Keywords: fractofusion, Ti, light, radio emisssion, particle emission


1005. Didenko, Y. and K. Suslick, The energy efficiency of formation of photons, radicals and ions during single-bubble cavitation. Nature (London), 2002. 418: p. 394-397.

First Author: Didenko, Y.
All Authors: Didenko, Y., Suslick, K.
Keywords: Sonofusion,


1006. Didyk, A. and R. Wisniewski, Changes Observed in the Elemental Composition of Palladium and Rhenium Specimens Irradiated in Dense Deuterium by gamma-Quanta with Boundary of Energy 23 MeV. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Didyk, A.
All Authors: Didyk, A., Wisniewski, R.
Keywords: Chain reaction of deuterium heating, Dense deuterium gas, Elastic and inelastic scattering, 2H-induced reactions, High pressure, Photon absorption and scattering

We have studied the elemental composition of palladium and rhenium specimens irradiated in dense gaseous deuterium by gamma-quanta of a continuous spectrum with the threshold energy of 23 MeV. Significant anomalies are found in the structure and elemental composition of the irradiated specimens. At both ends of the palladium wire considerable changes are observed in the form of blowouts (resembling congealed "Solar protuberances") of molten metal with complex elemental composition. The palladium surface proved to be covered with small particles, approximately 1-2 ìm in size, composed of rhenium oxide Re2O7 , while near the cracks and fractures the surface was covered with rhenium, carbon and oxygen crystallites of hexagonal symmetry. The entire surface of the rhenium sample became cracked and coated with a thick layer of carbon compounds with rhenium as RexCy . The phenomenological model of nuclear reactions leading to the observed elemental composition of rhenium and palladium is discussed.

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1007. Dienes, J.K., On nuclear reactions in defects. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 543.

First Author: Dienes, J. K.
All Authors: Dienes, J. K.
Keywords: Theory, distance


1008. Dignan, T.G., et al., A search for neutrons from fusion in a highly deuterated cooled palladium thin film. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 469.

First Author: Dignan, T. G.
All Authors: Dignan, T. G., Bruington, M. C., Johnson, R. T., Bland, R. W.
Keywords: Pd-Ir ion bombardment, loading, neutron, gamma emission, D+


1009. Dillon, C.T. and B.J. Kennedy, The electrochemically formed palladium-deuterium system. I. Surface composition and morphology. Aust. J. Chem., 1993. 46: p. 663.

First Author: Dillon, C. T.
All Authors: Dillon, C. T., Kennedy, B. J.
Keywords: electrolysis, surface analysis D2O transmutation loading Pd


1010. Dillon, C.T., B.J. Kennedy, and M.M. Elcombe, The electrochemically formed palladium-deuterium system. II. In situ neutron diffraction studies. Aust. J. Chem., 1993. 46: p. 681.

First Author: Dillon, C. T.
All Authors: Dillon, C. T., Kennedy, B. J., Elcombe, M. M.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, crystal structure, neutron diffraction, surface, D2O, loading


1011. Ding, Y. and B.Y. Liaw. Electrochemical Characterization of Ni in Hydride-containing Molten Salts. in 9th International Conf. on Solid State Ionics. 1993. The Hague, The Netherlands.

First Author: Ding, Y.
All Authors: Ding, Y., Liaw, B. Y.
Keywords: Ni, molten Salt, LiCl-KCl, Fused Salt


1012. Dini, D. Why "Cold" and "Warm" Fusion Reaction Plants for Producinbg Useful Energy are Very Far From Now. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Dini, D.
All Authors: Dini, D.
Keywords: Commercialization


1013. Divisek, J., L. Fuerst, and J. Balej, Energy balance of D2O electrolysis with a palladium cathode. Part II. Experimental results. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 278: p. 99.

First Author: Divisek, J.
All Authors: Divisek, J., Fuerst, L., Balej, J.
Keywords: Pd, heat, recombination, surface analysis, electrolysis, D2O, loading, transmutation


1014. Dmitrenko, V.N., I.P. Dryapachenko, and M.V. Sokolov, On the possibility of the study of electron screening in three-particle nuclear reactions. Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.), 1991. 36: p. 993 (in Russian).

First Author: Dmitrenko, V. N.
All Authors: Dmitrenko, V. N., Dryapachenko, I. P., Sokolov, M. V.
Keywords: Theory, screening


1015. Dmitriyeva, O., et al. Mechanisms for heat generated during deuterium loading of alumina-based Pd nanoparticle material (PowerPoint slides). in ACS National Meeting. 2011. Anaheim, CA.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Cantwell, R., McConnell, M., Moddel, G.
Keywords: heat

Recent studies on gas-loading of Pd nanoparticle materials have demonstrated consistent and repeatable anomalous heat production in the presence of deuterium gas [1-4]. Our group has confirmed anomalous heat production in zeolite and alumina powders containing Pd nanoparticles and found additional features. Investigations at low pressure and slow loading showed a clear association between exothermic and endothermic features and the presence of specific chemical species. These provide insight into the underlying mechanisms and the crucial question as to the origins of the anomalous heat.

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1016. Dmitriyeva, O., et al., Control of excess heat production in Pd-impregnated alumina powder (PowerPoint slides), in 10th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals. 2012.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Cantwell, R., McConnell, D., Moddel, G.
Keywords: Excess heat

We carried out an experimental study of excess heat production during deuterium loading of Pd-impregnated alumina.  Earlier studies [1,2] have shown that a hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange chemical reaction can account for at least some of excess heat observed during gas-loading experiments. In this work we show that excess heat contributed by H/D exchange can be eliminated by prebaking the material in vacuum at 390C, due to the removal of residual water from the material. After the material is given the opportunity to reabsorb water from air the reaction and excess heat production in the presence of deuterium resumes. Our calculations on the energy available from H/D exchange show that all the excess heat observed during our experiment can be accounted for by this chemical reaction.

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1017. Dmitriyeva, O., et al., Effect of temperature gradient on calorimetric measurements during gas-loading experiments (PowerPoint slides), in 10th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals. 2012.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Cantwell, R., McConnell, D., Moddel, G.
Keywords: Excess heat

We studied the influence of the temperature gradient on heat measurements during gas-loading experiments. The quasi isothermal chamber that we conducted our experiments in is built to keep the inside temperature uniform. However, when experimenting at the elevated temperatures above 200C nonuniformities induced by the air flow inside the chamber produce local hot and cold spots.

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1018. Dmitriyeva, O., R. Cantwell, and M. McConnell, Mechanisms for Heat Generation during Deuterium and Hydrogen Loading of Palladium Nanostructures. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords: Excess heat, Gas-loading, Isotope effect, Nanoparticles, Palladium

Our group has confirmed excess heat production and isotope effects in alumina and zeolite powders containing highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles. Varying the pressures and loading rates produced correlations between the exothermic and endothermic aspects of the experiments. It was shown that the generated power is proportional to the pressurization rate times a quantity Φ, which is the energy content of what we called "fuel". There are two types of fuels, both of which can trigger the reaction that can be either exothermic or endothermic depending on the gas used in the experiment (deuterium or hydrogen). Observed heat generation during the pressurization phase is most likely of a chemical nature.

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1019. Dmitriyeva, O., et al., Using Bakeout to Eliminate Heat from H/D Exchange During Hydrogen Isotope Loading of Pd-impregnated Alumina Powder. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 13-17.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Moddel, G., Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords: Excess heat, Gas-loading, H/D Exchange, LENR, Pd

Earlier studies [1,2] have shown that a hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange chemical reaction initiated in Pd-impregnated material can account for at least some of the excess heat observed during gas-loading experiments. We report on using in-situ material bakeout for an extended time to assess and eliminate the chemical heat contribution.

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1020. Dmitriyeva, O., R. Cantwell, and G. Moddel, Measurement Artifacts in Gas-loading Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Cantwell, R., Moddel, G.
Keywords: Calibration, Gas-loading, Heat, Measurement, Palladium

Numerous reports on gas loading of hydrogen isotope into powdered materials indicate excess heat generation that could be the result of a low energy nuclear reaction (LENR). When the amount of generated heat is small, it is important to characterize the calorimeter to account for possible measurement errors, or artifacts, which can result in long-term apparent excess heat. In this paper we investigate one of those possible measurement artifacts applicable to the gas loading systems that (1) use thermometry as a proxy for energy flow measurements, and (2) run at elevated temperatures. When loading gas into Pd-impregnated alumina, we have found that thermal gradients inside the system result in apparent heating or cooling of the measuring system. We experimentally magnified this effect and confirmed that it was due to temperature nonuniformity inside the calorimetric system. We quantified the effect using a numerical simulation tool to show that a temperature gradient as small as 0.5 K/m might result in 50 mW of apparent excess heat
"generation". We suggest a simple approach for investigators to account for this measurement artifact by calibrating their systems with helium gas either prior to, or at the end of, the experimental sequence.

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1021. Dmitriyeva, O., et al. Role of dopants in deuterium loading during electrochemical experiment (PowerPoint slides). in ICCF19 conference. 2015.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Knies, D., Hamm, S., Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords:

Density functional theory was applied to study the hydrogen/deuterium evolution reaction on the palladium surface. High deuterium loading ratio ( > 0.9 ) has been identified as a necessary condition for initiating low energy nuclear reaction in palladium material. However, electrochemical loading of deuterium to the concentrations above 0.75 has its own challenges. While loading concentrations above 0.95 have been reported, the mechanism responsible for such elevated loading levels is still unknown. Our recent experiments gave an indication that the use of certain dopants modifies the process of deuterium adsorption on palladium surfaces. Such modifications promote deuterium loading to higher concentrations. We provide a detailed explanation on how the presence of dopants changes the activation overpotential and alter the deuterium escape kinetics during the evolution reaction.

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1022. Dmitriyeva, O., et al. Machine learning to analyze deuterium loading patterns during electrochemical experiments (PowerPoint slides). in ICCF19 conference. 2015.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., McConnell, M., Goulet, E., Cantwell, R.
Keywords:

Machine learning is an effective and powerful computational approach that can be successfully applied towards a vast variety of engineering and scientific problems. The key to the approach is to generalize from the observed data to predict the behavior of the system and recognize the correlations and patterns.

We discuss the implementation of machine learning algorithms to analyze experimental electrochemical data obtained in our lab. We use the supervised and unsupervised learning approaches to train the algorithms to recognize patterns in deuterium loading in palladium electrodes. Our analysis reveals important material parameters and experimental conditions that alter loading ratio. Open-source Python-based implementation along with the use of MongoDB relational database makes the data manipulation fast and effective.

More than two decades of collective efforts resulted in significant LENR experimental data pool. Applying learning algorithms for data analysis can provide some important insight to what the nature of the phenomenon is.

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1023. Dmitriyeva, O., R. Cantwell, and D. McConnell, Numerical Modeling of H2 Molecule Formation within Near-surface Voids in Pd and Ni Metals in the Presence of Impurities. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Cantwell, R., McConnell, D.
Keywords: DFT, Impurities, LENR, Palladium, Surface, Vacancy

We have used density functional theory (DFT) to investigate crucial material parameters that can promote a low energy nuclear reaction (LENR). This approach significantly decreases the experimental burden involved into material fabrication and testing. It also provides the foundation for systematical study and optimization of important material properties. We focused on three characteristics to describe the LENR environment: (1) a high hydrogen isotope loading ratio, (2) the presence of dopants or impurities, and (3) material morphology. We chose two figures of merit to characterize those environments: hydrogen adsorption energy on metal surface and H2 bond length. We showed that high hydrogen loading and the presence of impurities in Pd and Ni can lower the adsorption energy, thus increasing hydrogen surface mobility potentially improving the reaction rate. Another factor that would increase the fusion probability is the distance between two hydrogen atoms. We demonstrated that a hydrogen molecule can be formed in a near-surface void in Pd and Ni at the bond length of 0.70-0.74 Å.

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1024. DOE, Report of the Review of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. 2004, Department of Energy, Office of Science.

First Author: DOE
All Authors: DOE
Keywords: Review

Introduction

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science (SC) was approached in late 2003 by a group of scientists who requested that the Department revisit the question of scientific evidence for low energy nuclear reactions. In 1987 Pons and Fleischman first reported the production of "excess" heat in a Pd electrochemical cell, and postulated that this was due to D-D fusion (D=deuterium), sometimes referred to as "cold fusion." The work was reviewed in 1989 by the Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB) of the DOE. ERAB did not recommend the establishment of special programs within DOE devoted to the science of low energy fusion, but supported funding of peer-reviewed experiments for further investigations. Since 1989, research programs in cold fusion have been supported by various universities, private industry, and government agencies in several countries. . . .

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1025. DOE, 2004 U.S. Department of Energy Cold Fusion Review Reviewer Comments. 2004, Department of Energy, Office of Science.

First Author: DOE
All Authors: DOE
Keywords:

Eighteen anonymous reviews of cold fusion gather by the DoE for the 2004 Report of the Review of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions.

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1026. Dolan, T.J. An outsider's view of cold fusion. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Dolan, T. J.
All Authors: Dolan, T. J.
Keywords: review, ICCF-9

An outside-s views are presented on ICCF-9, on cold fusion research issues, and on suggestions for improvement.

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1027. Dolan, T.J., Notes from the 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Sciences. 2005: Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Dolan, T. J.
All Authors: Dolan, T. J.
Keywords: Review

The following brief summary refers to only some of the 60 papers presented at the conference.

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1028. Dominguez, D.D., P.L. Hagans, and M.A. Imam, A Summary of NRL Research on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Palladium Electrochemical Systems. 1996: Washington.

First Author: Dominguez, D. D.
All Authors: Dominguez, D. D., Hagans, P. L., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, heat+, neutron, gamma

Claims of excess power produced in electrochemical cells have been made by many investigators including those from two Navy laboratories. The excess power reportedly occurs in palladium electrodes highly loaded with deuterium. Other anomalous effects such helium-4, tritium and low energy radiation production have also been reported. This report summarizes the experimental results from a number of electrochemical loading/calorimetric experiments on palladium electrodes run at NRL. The experiments were carried out with the purpose of replicating the published excess power results obtained at the other Navy laboratories and with the goal of identifying the experimental conditions necessary to produce anomalous effects. Most of the experiments described were attempts to electrolytically load pure palladium or palladium alloy cathodes with deuterium (or hydrogen) and then to measure the power produced in the electrolytic cells. Loading was monitored in situ by measuring the change in the axial resistance of the cathode and comparing the measure values with the known relationship between resistance and the D(H)/Pd atomic ratios. While attaining high levels of deuterium loading in palladium cathodes was difficult we found that using materials with a large grain microstructure facilitated the loading. Calorimetric measurements on the highly loaded cathodes were initially made in isoperibol calorimeters that had a sensitivity of 10%. No excess power (200 mW) and no radiation above the background were measured in any of the experiments described. Highly sensitive heat conduction calorimeters were evaluated for their use with the electrochemical cells. Results showed that measurements at the 10 mW level were possible in the heat conduction calorimeters when data were collected frequently and signal averaging was used. Another experiment that was investigated was the electrochemical codeposition of palladium and deuterium on cathodes. Again, no radiation above background levels was detected in these experiments.

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1029. Dominguez, D.D., P.L. Hagans, and M.A. Imam. The effect of microstructure on deuterium loading in palladium cathodes. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Dominguez, D. D.
All Authors: Dominguez, D. D., Hagans, P. L., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: Pd, loading, grain-size, electrolysis, ICCF-6

The effect of micro structure on deuterium loading in palladium cathodes was investigated. Cathode micro structure is determined by thermomechanical processing that includes electrode deformation (swaging) and the annealing conditions (time and temperature). Results will be presented on the extent of deuterium loading in rod-shaped (0.4 cm in diameter and 3.5 cm long) cathodes with controlled microstructure produced at The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Loading on NRL cathodes will be compared with that attained on commercially available electrodes routinely used at other laboratories.

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1030. Dominguez, D.D., et al. Anomalous Results in Fleischmann-Pons Type Electrochemical Experiments (PowerPoint slides). in 17th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2012.

First Author: Dominguez, D. D.
All Authors: Dominguez, D. D., Kidwell, D., Hubler, G. K., Cheng, S-F., Imam, M. A., Grabowski, K. S., Knies, D., DeChiaro, L., Moser, A. E., He, J., Violante, V.
Keywords: excess heat

Presentation Outline: Generation of FPE * The addition of metals/metal salts to shorten time to onset of effect * Focus on Pd 90% Rh 10% cathode material Steps taken to confirm results * Improved electrochemical cell design to eliminate the possibility of shorts to ground being mistaken for excess heat * Implemented many additional cell diagnostics (Used redundant measurements for independent verification) * Attempted to "crash" the VSP and initiate excess heat and

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1031. Dominguez, D.D., et al., Are Oxide Interfaces Necessary in Fleischmann-Pons-type Experiments? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Dominguez, D. D.
All Authors: Dominguez, D. D., Kidwell, D., Knies, D., Grabowski, K. S., Hubler, G. K., He, J., Violante, V.
Keywords: Chemical additives, Deuterated palladium cathodes, Electrochemical, Excess power

The generation of excess power in a palladium deuteride electrochemical system is often difficult and time consuming. Long incubation times, on the order of weeks or months, are necessary presumably for the basic electrolyte to dissolve and redeposit essential impurities onto the cathode surface. To accelerate this process, we added chemical additives to the electrolyte once the palladium was loaded with deuterium. Chemicals that produce oxide interfaces on the palladium surface seemed to occasionally produce apparent excess power. A single Pd90Rh10 cathode generated a total apparent excess energy on the order of 10 kJ after a series of additions in an experiment that only took one week. The results are encouraging and may lead to an understanding of what triggers excess power production in Fleischmann-Pons-type experiments. A hypothetical model describing the possible role of oxide interfaces is described.

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1032. Dominguez, D.D., A.E. Moser, and J. He, Evidence for Excess Energy in Fleischmann-Pons-Type Electrochemical Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Dominguez, D. D.
All Authors: Dominguez, D. D., Moser, A. E., He, J.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Deuterium , Excess energy, Palladium

The production of excess energy in palladium cathodes electrochemically loaded with deuterium (the Fleischmann-Pons Experiment) has been debated in the literature since its first publication in 1989. In a subset of 61 trials, we electrochemically loaded palladium-rhodium foil cathodes with deuterium from alkaline solutions of heavy water in specially designed closed calorimeter cells. We observed excess energy bursts in the range 2.4-44.3 kJ in 6% of these experiments. Additionally, a conservative estimate of the total integrated output energy is greater than the total integrated input energy in these experiments. This paper documents the steps taken to examine these results thoroughly for calibration/measurement errors and instrumental artifacts. A 2.4 kJ energy burst is at least four times greater than the energy released by oxidizing deuterium in the cell headspace. The data and subsequent elimination of alternative explanations for excess energy production lead us to conclude that the excess energy is real and of yet unknown origin.

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1033. Dong, S.Y., et al., Precursors to 'cold fusion' phenomenon and the detection of energetic charged particles in deuterium/solid systems. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 330.

First Author: Dong, S. Y.
All Authors: Dong, S. Y., Wang, K. L., Feng, Y., Chang, L., Luo, C. M., Hu, R. Y., Zhou, P. L., Mo, D. W., Zhu, Y. F., Song, C .L., Chen, Y. T., Yao, M. Y., Ren, C., Chen, Q. K., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, D2, emr, UV, x-ray, theory, CR-39, particle emission


1034. Dong, Q., et al., Studies on behavior of deuterium and hydrogen in palladium". Chem. J. Chin. Univ, 1992. 13(6): p. 847 (in Chinese).

First Author: Dong, Q.
All Authors: Dong, Q., Qiu, W., Gan, F., Cai, N.
Keywords: positron,, diffusion, loading


1035. Dong, Z.M., et al., Studies on Anomalous Phenomena of D/Pd Systems using a Gas-loading Process - A Stride Towards Neutrino Detection. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 119-131.

First Author: Dong, Z. M.
All Authors: Dong, Z. M., Liang, C. L., Liu, B., Wei, Q., Tian, J., Zheng, S., Yu, J. Z., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Deuterium/Palladium system, Gas-loading, Neutrino detection, Pumping effect

A brief reviewof 20 years of experiments at Tsinghua University confirms anomalous phenomena during gas loading in D/Pd systems. A scale-up of the experiment would make it feasible to test the hypothesis that neutrinos are emitted during these phenomena (the "neutrino conjecture").

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1036. Dong, Z.M., C.L. Liang, and X.Z. Li, Condensed matter nuclear science research status in China. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Dong, Z. M.
All Authors: Dong, Z. M., Liang, C. L., Li, X. Z.
Keywords:


1037. Donne, A.J.H. and A.A.M. Oomens, Zon op Aarde (Sun on Earth). Natuur en Technik, 1990. 58(2): p. 118 (in Dutch).

First Author: Donne, A. J. H.
All Authors: Donne, A. J. H., Oomens, A. A. M.
Keywords: history


1038. Donohue, D.L. and M. Petek, Isotopic measurements of palladium metal containing protium and deuterium by glow discharge mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem., 1991. 63: p. 740.

First Author: Donohue, D. L.
All Authors: Donohue, D. L., Petek, M.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, isotope change, D2O, surface analysis H/D


1039. Dougar-Jabon, V.D., V.I. Kariaka, and N.V. Samsonenko. Study of the Neutron and g-Emission from the Palladium-Deuterium System in the Process of the Transformation of the Crystalline Structure. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Dougar-Jabon, V. D.
All Authors: Dougar-Jabon, V. D., Kariaka, V. I., Samsonenko, N. V.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission Pd, PdD, phase transition ICCF-8


1040. Dragan, G., Topoenergetic evidence of cold fusion phenomena. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 361.

First Author: Dragan, G.
All Authors: Dragan, G.
Keywords: theory, critique, Fleischmann


1041. Dragic, A. and Z. Maric, Comment on 'On the Barut-Vigier model of the hydrogen atom' by Samsonenko et al. Phys. Lett. A, 1997. 229: p. 130.

First Author: Dragic, A.
All Authors: Dragic, A., Maric, Z.
Keywords: theory


1042. Dragic, A., Z. Maric, and J.P. Vigier, New quantum mechanical tight bound states and 'cold fusion'. Phys. Lett. A, 2000. 265: p. 163.

First Author: Dragic, A.
All Authors: Dragic, A., Maric, Z., Vigier, J. P.
Keywords: Theory


1043. Drexler, J. Electrodeless, Multi-Megawatt Reactor for Room-Temperature, Lithium-6/Deuterium Nuclear Reactions. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Drexler, J.
All Authors: Drexler, J.
Keywords: heat, lithium

This paper describes a reactor design to facilitate a room-temperature nuclear fusion/fission reaction to generate heat without generating unwanted neutrons, gamma rays, tritium, or other radioactive products.
The room-temperature fusion/fission reaction involves the sequential triggering of billions of single-molecule, Li6D "fusion energy pellets" distributed in lattices of a palladium ion accumulator that also acts as a catalyst to produce the molecules of Li6D from a solution comprising D2O, Li6OD with O2 gas bubbling through it. The D2 gas is the source of the negative deuterium ions in the Li60 molecules.

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1044. Drexler, J., Self-catalyzed nuclear fusion of lithium-6 and deuterium using alpha particles. 1994: World WO 94/16446.

First Author: Drexler, J.
All Authors: Drexler, J.
Keywords: method, patent,


1045. Driscoll, J., et al., Issues Related to Reproducibility in a CMNS Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 34-41.

First Author: Driscoll, J.
All Authors: Driscoll, J., Horton, M., Kowalski, L., Lohstreter, P.
Keywords: Cold Fusion, CMNS, LENR, Nuclear Reactions

Unexplained emission of charged nuclear projectiles due to electrolysis has been reported by Richard Oriani. Experimental results were said to be highly reproducible. Working independently, we were not able to observe emission of charged nuclear particles (in a chemical process similar to Oriani's) and therefore are unable to provide supporting evidence that the effect is reproducible.

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1046. Droege, T.F., A Discussion of an H2O run which followed Operation with D20. 1990.

First Author: Droege, T. F.
All Authors: Droege, T. F.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, H2O, heat+, effect of H2O


1047. Droege, L.J. and T.F. Droege. A Zero Gradient Calorimeter for the Measurement of Anomalous Heat from the Electrolysis of Deuterated Metals. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Droege, L. J.
All Authors: Droege, L. J., Droege, T. F.
Keywords: heat, method, ICCF-1


1048. Droege, T.F. and L.J. Droege. An Improved Zero Gradient Calorimeter For the Investigation of Cold Fusion Phenomena. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Droege, T. F.
All Authors: Droege, T. F., Droege, L. J.
Keywords: heat, apparatus, method, ICCF-2


1049. Duan, S.Y., et al. Fusion Neutron Emission Induced by Injection of Deuterium Into Titanium Target in a Mirror Plasma. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Duan, S. Y.
All Authors: Duan, S. Y., Guan, W. S., Cheng, S. Q., Zhang, J., Hao, S. L., Gu, B., Li, J. Q., Liang, W. X., Zhsang, G. Y., Pei, S. X., Huang, J. C., Chen, K. W., Liu, R., Liu, X. R., Li, Y. J.
Keywords: titanium, gas discharge, ion implantation D2, neutron, gamma emission ICCF-2


1050. Dubinko, V.I., Low-energy Nuclear Reactions Driven by Discrete Breathers. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Dubinko, V. I.
All Authors: Dubinko, V. I.
Keywords: Anharmonic lattice vibrations, Discrete breathers, Nuclear fusion, Quantum tunneling

A new mechanism of LENR in solids is proposed, which is based on the large amplitude anharmonic lattice vibrations, a.k.a. intrinsic localized modes or "discrete breathers" (DBs). In particular, so called gap DBs, which can arise in diatomic crystals such as metal hydrides, are argued to be the LENR catalyzers. The large mass difference between H or D and the metal atoms provides a gap in phonon spectrum, in which DBs can be excited in the H/D sub-lattice resulting in extreme dynamic closing of adjacent H/D atoms (" 0.01 Å) required for the tunneling through the nuclear Coulomb barrier. DBs have been shown to arise either by thermal activation at elevated temperatures or by knocking atoms out of equilibrium positions under non-equilibrium gas loading conditions, employed under radiolysis or plasma deposition methods. The DB statistics in both cases are analyzed, and an attempt is made to quantify part of the vibrational problem in terms of electrochemical current or ion flux, connecting them with external excitation of DBs that act as nano-colliders of deuterons, triggering LENR. Resulting analytical expressions (under a selected set of material parameters) describe quantitatively the observed exponential dependence on temperature and linear dependence on the electric (or ion) current. Possible ways of engineering the nuclear active environment based on the present concept are discussed.

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1051. Dubinko, V.I., Quantum Tunneling in Breather ‘Nano-colliders'. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Dubinko, V. I.
All Authors: Dubinko, V. I.
Keywords: Correlation effects, Discrete breathers, Low energy nuclear reactions, Nuclear active sites

In many crystals with sufficient anharmonicity, special kinds of lattice vibrations, namely, discrete breathers (DBs) can be excited either thermally or by external triggering, in which the amplitude of atomic oscillations greatly exceeds that of harmonic oscillations (phonons). Coherency and persistence of large atomic oscillations in DBs may have drastic effect on quantum tunneling due to correlation effects discovered by Schrodinger and Robertson in 1930. These effects have been applied recently to the tunneling problem by Vysotskii et al:, who demonstrated a giant increase of sub-barrier transparency during the increase of the correlation coefficient at special high-frequency periodic action on the quantum system. In the present paper, it is argued that DBs present the most natural and efficient way to produce correlation effects due to time-periodic modulation of the potential well width (or the Coulomb barrier width) and hence to act as breather ‘nano-colliders' (BNC) triggering low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) in solids. The tunneling probability for deuterium (D-D) fusion in ‘gap DBs' formed in metal deuterides is shown to increase with increasing numbers of oscillations by 190 orders of magnitude, resulting in the observed LENR rate at extremely low concentrations of DBs. Possible ways of engineering the nuclear active environment based on the present concept are discussed.

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1052. Dubinko, V.I., Nuclear Catalysis Mediated by Localized Anharmonic Vibrations. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 23: p. 45-61.

First Author: Dubinko, V. I.
All Authors: Dubinko, V. I.
Keywords: Correlation effects, Discrete breathers, Localized anharmonic vibrations, Low energy nuclear reactions, Nuclear active sites

In many-body nonlinear systems with sufficient anharmonicity, a special kind of lattice vibration, namely, Localized Anharmonic Vibrations (LAVs) can be excited either thermally or by external triggering, in which the amplitude of atomic oscillations greatly exceeds that of harmonic oscillations (phonons) that determine the system temperature. The coherency and persistence of LAVs may have a drastic effect on quantum tunneling due to correlation effects discovered by Schrodinger and Robertson in 1930. These effects have been applied to the tunneling problem by a number of authors, who demonstrated a giant increase of sub-barrier transparency during the increase of the correlation coefficient at a special high-frequency periodic action on the quantum system. Recently, it has been proposed that discrete breathers (a sub-class of LAVs arising in periodic systems) present the most natural and efficient way to produce correlation effects in regular crystals due to time-periodic modulation of the potential well (or the Coulomb barrier) width and hence to act as breather ‘nano-colliders' catalyzing low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) in solids. It has been shown that the tunneling probability for D-D fusion under electrolysis of heavy water increases enormously with increasing number of oscillations resulting in the fusion rates comparable with those observed experimentally. In the present paper, we discuss possible ways of engineering the nuclear-active environment (NAE) and catalyzing LENR in NAE based on the LAV concept. We propose some practical ways of catalyzing LENR that are based on a special electro-magnetic treatment or electron and gamma irradiation, which could trigger LAVs in crystals and clusters.

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1053. Dudu, D., et al., Nuclear effects in the electrolysis of heavy water. Rev. Roum. Phys., 1989. 34: p. 229.

First Author: Dudu, D.
All Authors: Dudu, D., Molea, M., Pascalau, I., Piticu, I., Vata, I.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, Ti, neutron, D2O


1054. Dufour, J., Energy Source System (Patent). 1991: World Patent, WO 91/01036 (1991).

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords:


1055. Dufour, J., J. Foos, and J.P. Millot. Cold Fusion by Sparking in Hydrogen Isotopes. Energy Balances and Search for Fusion By-products. A Strategy to Prove the Reality of Cold Fusion. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Foos, J., Millot, J. P.
Keywords: H2, D2, gas discharge, heat+, tritium, ICCF-4

The idea of transmuting hydrogen isotopes into heavier species (helium), at room temperature, with the aid of palladium acting as a kind of catalyst can be traced back as early as 1926. In 1989, a rebirth was given to the concept. By electrolysing heavy water with a palladium cathode, Jones, Fleischmann and Pons claimed to obtain significant energy production, in excess of the electrical energy introduce into the apparatus to carry out the electrolysis. . . .

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1056. Dufour, J., Cold fusion by sparking in hydrogen isotopes. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 205.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords: spark discharge, heat+, Pd, stainless steel, D2, H2, theory


1057. Dufour, J., J. Foos, and J.P. Millot. Measurement of Excess Energy and Isotope Formation in the Palladium-Hydrogen System. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Foos, J., Millot, J. P.
Keywords: H2, heat+, theory, gas discharge, ICCF-5

A search for the products of fusion reactions that could be triggered by sparking in hydrogen isotopes was carried out. No signatures above background were found. On the contrary, the excess energy production was confirmed in the simple hydrogen/palladium system. The formation of a tightly bound state of the hydrogen (deuterium) atom is hypothesized to explain these results.

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1058. Dufour, J., et al. From "Cold Fusion" to "Hydrex" and "Deutex" States of Hydrogen. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Foos, J., Millot, J. P., Dufour, X.
Keywords: theory, hydrex, heat+, gas, hydrogen, deuterium, ICCF-6


1059. Dufour, J., et al., Interaction of palladium/hydrogen and palladium/deuterium to measure the excess energy per atom for each isotope. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 198.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Foos, J., Millot, J. P., Dufour, X.
Keywords: gas discharge, Pd, deuterium, heat+, hydrex


1060. Dufour, J., J. Foos, and X.J.C. Dufour. Formation and Properties of Hydrex and Deutex. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Foos, J., Dufour, X. J. C.
Keywords: hydrex, transmutation, theory, UH3, gas diacharge, ICCF-7


1061. Dufour, J., J. Foos, and X.J.C. Dufour, Formation and properties of hydrex and deutex. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(20): p. 53.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Foos, J., Dufour, X. J. C.
Keywords: hydrex deutex theory heat transmutation


1062. Dufour, J., Response to 'Comments on 'Interaction of palladium/hydrogen and palladium/ deuterium to measure the excess energy per atom for each isotope'. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 385.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords: theory


1063. Dufour, J., et al. Hydrex Catallyzed Transmutation of Uranium and Palladium: Experimental Part. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Murat, D., Dufour, X., Foos, J.
Keywords: transmutation, Pd, U, hydrex, gas discharge, heat+, ICCF-8


1064. Dufour, J., et al. The Hydrex Concept-Effect on Heavy Nuclei. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Murat, D., Dufour, X., Foos, J.
Keywords: theory, transmutation, hydrex, ICCF-8


1065. Dufour, J., et al., Hydrogen triggered exothermic reaction in uranium metal. Phys. Lett. A, 2000. 270: p. 254.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Murat, D., Dufour, X., Foos, J.
Keywords: theory, transmutation, hydrex

An exothermal reaction has been observed when submitting metallic uranium to the combined action of a magnetic field and an electrical current. The set-up used to study the phenomenon is described and results are given. A tentative explanation is given, based on the possible existence of a still hypothetical proton/electron resonance.

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1066. Dufour, J., et al., Experimental observation of nuclear reactions in palladium and uranium -- possible explanation by hydrex mode. Fusion Technol., 2001. 40: p. 91.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Murat, D., Dufour, X., Foos, J.
Keywords: hydrex, U, Pu, heat, transmutation

Experiments with uranium are presented that show a highly exothermal reaction, which can only be of nuclear origin. One striking point of these results is that they clearly show that what is being observed is not some kind of fusion reaction of the deuterium present (only exceedingly small amounts of it are present). This is a strong indication that hydrogen can trigger nuclear reactions that seem to involve the nuclei of the lattice (which would yield a fission-like pattern of products). Confronted with a situation where some experiments in the field yield a fusion-like pattern of products (CF experiments) and others a fissionlike one (LENR experiments), one can reasonably wonder whether one is not observing two aspects of the same phenomenon. . . .

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1067. Dufour, J., et al. Synthesis Of A Copper Like Compound From Nickel And Hydrogen And Of A Chromium Like Compound From Calcium And Deuterium. in 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Murat, D., Dufour, X., Foos, J.
Keywords: transmutation,


1068. Dufour, J., Very Sizeable Increase of Gravitation at Picometer Distance: A NovelWorking Hypothesis to Explain Anomalous Heat Effects and Apparent Transmutations in Certain Metal/Hydrogen Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 47-61.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Gravity, Isotopic shift, LENR, Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

Since more than 15 years, unexplained heat effects have been reported in systems involving hydrogen isotopes (hydrogen and deuterium) and certain metals like palladium. The most studied system (palladium/deuterium) has given birth to the "Cold Fusion" concept: a special kind of DD fusion reaction, only occurring in a metallic lattice, which yields heat and helium-4 as the main reaction product. Other systems have also been studied (nickel hydrogen and caesium/deuterium for instance), showing shifts in isotopic ratio of the products of reaction and leading to the more generalized concept of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR). A novel conjecture (the pico-gravity conjecture) is presented here, that may explain all the anomalies observed in this so-called "Cold Fusion" field. According to this conjecture, the main part of the energy produced in Low Energy Nuclear Reaction could be the result of a very special kind of chemical reactions (pico-chemical reactions), induced by a considerable increase of gravity at pico-meter distances (pico-gravity). True nuclear signatures (α-particles emission for instance) could also occur according to the pico-gravity conjecture. But they should be many orders of magnitude lower than would be expected from the energy produced (which is observed experimentally). This conjecture will be tested by analysing the products of the reaction of hydrogen isotopes with selected metals.

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1069. Dufour, J., et al. A simple calorimetric method to avoid artifacts in a controversial field: The ice calorimeter. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Dufour, X., Murat, D., Foos, J.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method

The idea of the ice calorimeter is rather old. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) developed in 1783 a calorimetric method based on the measurement of the mass of the ice that melts when heated. Robert Bunsen (1811-1899) improved this method in 1870 and designed a calorimeter based on the measurement of the volume rather than the mass of ice melted. Nowadays this method is still used [1] because it is simple, accurate, sensitive and most of all rather insensible to interference, which is a key point in order to have convincing experiment in a controversial field. Moreover, an ice calorimeter is adiabatic and isotherm (0C) thus suppressing the problem of heat transfer in wires and tubing connecting the experiment to the outside of the calorimeter. It is an integrating calorimeter that measures enthalpy.

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1070. Dufour, J., et al. An Experimental Device To Test the YPCP ("Yukawa Pico Chemistry And Physics") Model: Implications for the CF-LENR Field. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Dufour, X., Murat, D., Foos, J.
Keywords: Theory,


1071. Dufour, J. The CMAF Window (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords: Theory

Possible sizeable energy production from 500/1000 eV deuterons.

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1072. Dufour, J., X. Dufour, and D. Murat. A Practical Way to Generate Protons (Deuterons) of Energy Between 500 and 1000 eV. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Dufour, X., Murat, D.
Keywords:

Research tools used in the field of d/d fusion are protons (deuterons) accelerators producing ion beams of energies between 10 keV up to several MeV . Another source of protons (deuterons) are low pressure electrical discharge, yielding ions of energies between 1 to some tens of eV. Based on this second source, a way to generate protons (deuterons) in the range 500 to 1000 eV is described.

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1073. Dufour, J. and X. Dufour. Evaluation of d/d Reaction Rates in Metallic Lattices as a Function of the Deuteron Energy. A Phenomenological Model of Nuclear Fusion in Solids. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Dufour, X.
Keywords:

Recently, unexplained enhancements of d/d reaction rates in solids were observed. This enhancement is lower than a factor of 10 at low energies of the deuteron (a few keV) and as high as a factor of 1018 for extremely low energies (0,025 eV). Based on the calculation of d/d reaction rates in a lattice, a phenomenological model is proposed to infer the enhancement that can be expected for deuterons of energies in between these two extremes. A potentially interesting zone (between 500 and 2000 eV) has been identified.

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1074. Dufour, J., Nuclear Signatures to be Expected from Rossi Energy Amplifier. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords: Energy production, Hydrogen, Nickel, Nuclear reaction, Radiations

The nuclear signatures that can be expected when contacting hydrogen with fine nickel powders are derived from thermal results recently obtained (Rossi energy amplifier). The initiation of the reactions (either by proton or neutron capture) is not discussed and considered as true. Proposals are made to check the process either by radiation emission measurements or by elemental analysis (ICP-MS)

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1075. Dufour, J., An Introduction to the Pico-chemistry Working Hypothesis. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 10: p. 40-45.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords: Enthalpy of formation, Hydrogen, Nickel, Nickel hydride, Nickel pico-hydride

The nuclear signatures that can be expected when contacting hydrogen with nickel were derived from thermal results recently obtained (Rossi energy amplifier), using the type of reaction paths proposed as the explanation of the energy produced. The consequences of either proton or neutron capture have been studied. It was shown that these consequences are not in line with the experimental observations. A novel tentative explanation is thus described. Should this explanation be true? It is proposed to call pico-chemistry the novel field thus opened.

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1076. Duncan, R. An Outsider's View of the Fleischmann - Pons Effect (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Duncan, R.
All Authors: Duncan, R.
Keywords: review

A Long History of ‘Cold Fusion' * First report of a possible nuclear fusion in palladium loaded with heavy hydrogen: Berlin, Germany, September 17, 1926 by Professors Paneth and Peters, later retracted. (83 years old) * Some patent activity in and after 1927 . . .

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1077. Duncan, R. Search for the Origins of the Anomalous Heat Effect (AHE) in Deuterium-loaded Palladium Driven Far From Equilibrium (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Duncan, R.
All Authors: Duncan, R.
Keywords: Review

Discovery is Creatively Disruptive

"If we all worked on the assumption that what is accepted as true is really true, there would be little hope of advance."

- Orville Wright

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1078. Duncan, R., Preface. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Duncan, R.
All Authors: Duncan, R.
Keywords: review

My thanks to everyone who attended ICCF-18, which was held at the University of Missouri. We had a total of 215 registered participants, of whom 125 submitted original work that was presented within the scientific program. This was the first time in many years that ICCF has been held on the campus of a major research university, and we were delighted to have the opportunity to host this important conference.

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1079. Dunlap, B.I., et al., Linear combination of Gaussian-type orbitals - local-density-functional cluster studies of D-D interactions in titanium and palladium. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 41: p. 9683.

First Author: Dunlap, B. I.
All Authors: Dunlap, B. I., Brenner, D. W., Mowrey, R. C., Mintmire, J. W., White, C. T.
Keywords: Theory, PdD, structure


1080. Dunn, J. LENR Market Development Technology of the (near) Future? (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Dunn, J.
All Authors: Dunn, J.
Keywords: Commercialization

LENR Technology overview

* Sporadic development since Pons & Fleishman's famous Cold Fusion announcement in 1989 * Replication/Scale limited -- Many reports of excess heat; several groups planning to market LENR systems in 2013 * Many scientists & efforts -- recent progress -- great hope * Promising efforts of Rossi, Defkalion, Piantelli, others * R&D rekindled, but still mostly small level efforts * Increasing interest and growing media attention * Huge anticipation and potential partners & customers * New formal efforts by U-Missouri + energy co's, others

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1081. Durocher, J.J.G., et al., A search for evidence of cold fusion in the direct implantation of palladium and indium with deuterium. Can. J. Phys., 1989. 67: p. 624.

First Author: Durocher, J. J. G.
All Authors: Durocher, J. J. G., Gallop, D. M., Kwok, C. B., Mathur, M. S., Mayer, J. K., McKee, J. S. C., Mirzai, A., Smith, G. R., Yeo, Y. H.
Keywords: In, ion bombardment, ion implantation, D+, neutron


1082. Durup, J., Comment on: Deuterium nuclear fusion at room temperature: a pertinent inequality on barrier penetration. J. Chem. Phys., 1990. 93: p. 6120.

First Author: Durup, J.
All Authors: Durup, J.
Keywords: theory


1083. Eagleton, R.D. and R.T. Bush, Design considerations for palladium electrodes as suggested by a deuteron cluster model for cold nuclear fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 359.

First Author: Eagleton, R. D.
All Authors: Eagleton, R. D., Bush, R. T.
Keywords: Theory, cluster, method, heat


1084. Eagleton, R.D. and R.T. Bush, Calorimetric experiments supporting the transmission resonance model for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 239.

First Author: Eagleton, R. D.
All Authors: Eagleton, R. D., Bush, R. T.
Keywords: Theory, resonance, heat+, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, current density


1085. Eagleton, R.D. Experimental Details for Light Water Cold Fusion Research at Cal. Poly.- Pomona. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Eagleton, R. D.
All Authors: Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, electrolysis, method


1086. Early, J.G., Hydrogen diffusion in palladium by galvaostatic charging. Acta Metall., 1978. 26: p. 1215.

First Author: Early, J. G.
All Authors: Early, J. G.
Keywords: diffusion, Pd, H2


1087. Eberhard, V., et al., Neutron limits from gas-loaded titanium-deuterium systems. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1989. 334: p. 357.

First Author: Eberhard, V.
All Authors: Eberhard, V., Heeringa, W., Klages, H. O., Maschuw, R., Voelker, G., Zeitnitz, B.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2


1088. Echenique, P.M., J.R. Manson, and R.H. Ritchie, Cluster-Impact Fusion. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1990. 64(12): p. 1413.

First Author: Echenique, P. M.
All Authors: Echenique, P. M., Manson, J. R., Ritchie, R. H.
Keywords: theory, cluster Impact


1089. Editorial, Cold Confusion, and Cold Results from Utah. Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 361, 364.

First Author: Editorial
All Authors: Editorial
Keywords: history


1090. Eggers, H.C. and J. Rafelski, Strangeness and Quark Gluon Plasma: Aspects of Theory and Experiment. 1990.

First Author: Eggers, H. C.
All Authors: Eggers, H. C., Rafelski, J.
Keywords: theory,


1091. Ehrlich, A.C., et al., A search for neutrons in single-phase palladium-deuterium Kold fusion? Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 529.

First Author: Ehrlich, A. C.
All Authors: Ehrlich, A. C., Gillespie, D. J., Kamm, G. N., Elbek, B.
Keywords: D2, electrolysis, neutron, high temperature, loading neutron, electrolysis, Pd, D2O


1092. El-Boher, A., et al., Final Report on Calorimetry-based Excess Heat Trials using Celani Treated NiCuMn (Constantan) Wires. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: El-Boher, A.
All Authors: El-Boher, A., Isaacson, W., Azizi, O., He, J., Pease, D., Hubler, G. K.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Gas loading, Hydrogen, Micro-nano surface, Nickel, Nickel hydride

Sensitive mass flow calorimetry was used in a series of tests to evaluate eight treated NiCuMn (Constantan) wires in a gas loading cell. The goal of this testing was to reproduce and confirm the production of excess heat when using an experimental setup similar to that demonstrated in 2013 by Dr. Francesco Celani at National Instrument's NI week and ICCF 17. Six of the eight Constantan wires used in the SKINR tests were provided by Dr. Celani and the remaining two were obtained from Mathieu Valat. Initial tests in the series closely followed the set-up, operation, and heating protocols used by Dr. Celani with a significantly modified stainless test cell to enable the use of mass flow calorimetry. Later tests used the same modified test cell but added additional heating protocols using pulsed or highly modulated electric currents (SuperWaves) to enhance hydrogen loading and create additional thermal gradients within the Constantan wires. No excess heat was observed in a calorimeter of a sensitivity <10 mW when running either the initial or later test protocols during  200 days of testing.

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1093. Ellison, C.H. and J.A. Mahaffey, An investigation of reports of fusion reactions occurring at the cathode in glow discharges. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 178.

First Author: Ellison, C. H.
All Authors: Ellison, C. H., Mahaffey, J. A.
Keywords: gas discharge, neutron, polemic, D2, Pd, ion implantation, theory, review


1094. ENEA. Abstracts. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy.

First Author: ENEA
All Authors: ENEA
Keywords:

Abstracts from the ICCF-15 conference held in Rome, Italy, October 5-9, 2009.

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1095. ENEA, COLD FUSION The History of Research in Italy. 2009, Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: ENEA
All Authors: ENEA
Keywords: History

The present volume represents the historical development of the research carried on in Italy in the field of the so-called "Cold Fusion" during the last twenty years.

This 2009 year marks the 20th anniversary of the announcement of the results of an experiment conducted in the University of Utah, USA, by Martin Fleishmann and Stanley Pons. . To commemorate the "birth" of
Cold Fusion, the International Advisory Committee of ICCF-14, the Conference held last August in Washington D.C., USA has decided to hold the 2009 ICCF-15 Conference in Italy. It will take place in Rome at
the Angelicum University, on October 5-9, under the Chairmanship of one of us (V.V.).

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1096. ENEA, FUSIONE FREDDA Storia Della Ricerca in Italia. 2009, Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: ENEA
All Authors: ENEA
Keywords: history

Sono trascorsi circa venti anni dall'annuncio, da parte dei due Accademici Martin Fleishmann e Stanley Pons, dell'ottenimento di reazioni nucleari in reticoli metallici a temperatura ambiente.

Durante questi anni si sono svolte numerose conferenze nazionali ed internazionali e a Washington DC si svolgerà l'International Conference on Cold Fusion, giunta alla sua quattordicesima edizione. In occasione del Convegno verrà presentata la raccolta di volumi dedicata alla Storia della Fusione Fredda in tutti i Paesi che hanno contribuito allo sviluppo di questa disciplina dal 1989 ad oggi. Oltre ad Italia e Stati Uniti, anche Cina, India, Russia, Francia e Giappone hanno lavorato intensamente in questo campo. All'ENEA, ed in particolare al Presidente del Consiglio Scientifico dell'Ente, è stato affidato il compito di curare l'edizione della storia di questa ricerca in Italia, attraverso la raccolta dei racconti delle attività svolte dai singoli gruppi o laboratori che hanno operato nel settore.

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1097. Engvild, K.C., Nuclear reaction by three-body recombination beteween deuterons and the nuclei of lattice-trapped D2 molecules. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 253.

First Author: Engvild, K. C.
All Authors: Engvild, K. C.
Keywords: Theory


1098. Engvild, K.C. and L. Kowalski. Triple Deuterium Fusion Between Deuterons And The Nuclei Of Lattice Trapped Deuterium Molecules. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Engvild, K. C.
All Authors: Engvild, K. C., Kowalski, L.
Keywords: Theory, multibody

A hypothesis is proposed where low energy nuclear reactions involve three-body recombination of deuterons injected between the nuclei of D2 molecules trapped in a dense lattice of a chemical compound of transition metal and impurity. Two D's fuse to 4He, and the energy is converted by expulsion of the third deuteron. Measurable fusion occurs when two D's are confined within 0.1 angstrom of each other. Three boson (efimov) interactions can have longer range than two boson interactions. The best known example is triple alpha fusion to carbon-12 in stars. Triple deuterium interaction could perhaps be possible in the 0.5-1.0 angstrom range; the distance between D's in a D2 molecule are 0.74 angstrom. The hypothesis accounts for the low reproducibility and short duration of the effect because of rapid destruction of the active structure by sputtering, radiation damage, bubble formation and chemical reduction of the impurities to compounds like D2O, ND3, CD4, or BD3. The hypothesis also accounts for the observed prevalence of 4He >> tritium >> neutrons.

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1099. Enyo, M., Is the cold fusion reaction possible? Kagaku to Kogyo (Tokyo), 1991. 44: p. 47 (in Japanese).

First Author: Enyo, M.
All Authors: Enyo, M.
Keywords: Review


1100. Enyo, M., Key points in the evaluation of experimental results (the excess heat). Oyo Butsuri, 1991. 62: p. 716 (in Japanese).

First Author: Enyo, M.
All Authors: Enyo, M.
Keywords: Discussion


1101. Enyo, M. Hydrogen/Deuterium Concentration in Pd under Cathodic Polarization. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Enyo, M.
All Authors: Enyo, M.
Keywords: overvoltage, poison, electrolysis, OCV, loading, electrolysis, ICCF-3, Pd, D2O

Effective hydrogen pressure at hydrogen evolving cathode is discussed in connection with the mechanism of the hydrogen electrode reaction. A Nernst type expression involving hydrogen overpotential is not generally applicable. Experimental results on Pd and Pd-Ag alloy cathodes with and without addition of catalytic poison are presented. The highest pressure observed was ca. 106 atm at 0.25 A cm^-2, 30C.

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1102. Enyo, M. and P.C. Biswas, Hydrogen absorption in palladium electrodes in alkaline solutions. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 335: p. 309.

First Author: Enyo, M.
All Authors: Enyo, M., Biswas, P. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, Li deposition, fugacity, OCV, loading


1103. Enyo, M. and P.C. Biswas, Hydrogen pressure equivalent to overpotential on Pd + Ag alloy electrodes in acidic solutions in the presence of thiourea. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 357: p. 67.

First Author: Enyo, M.
All Authors: Enyo, M., Biswas, P. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, loading, fugacity, OCV, H2, thermodynamic


1104. EPRI. NSF/EPRI Workshop on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Metals. 1989. Washington, D.C.: Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

Attempts to confirm Fleischmann and Pons's observations of cold fusion phenomena have met with inconsistent results. This second workshop on this topic brought together skeptics and advocates to facilitate communication, to examine closely the experimental results, and to identify research issues.

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1105. EPRI. Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion Volume 1: Plenary Session Papers, TR-104188-V1. 1994. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii: Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

ICCF-4 conference proceedings, Volume 1. From:

http://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?Abstract_id=TR-104188-V1

This meeting was the latest in a series of conferences devoted to a new area of scientific endeavor, variously called, "Deuterated Metals Research," "Anomalous Nuclear Phenomena in Solids," and "New Hydrogen Energy."

A number of new experimental approaches were presented including the use of ceramic proton conductors at high temperature and the use of ultrasonic cavitation in heavy water to load palladium and titanium foils with deuterium.

The 125 papers that were presented were divided so that Volume 1 contains all the papers received from authors who participated in the four plenary sessions, Volume 2 includes contributed papers on calorimetry and materials, Volume 3 has contributions on nuclear particle detection and measurement, and Volume 4 contains the papers contributed on theory and special topics.

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1106. EPRI. Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion Volume 2: Calorimetry and Materials Papers, TR-104188-V2. 1994. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii: Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

ICCF-4 conference proceedings, Volume 2. From:

http://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?Abstract_id=TR-104188-V2

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1107. EPRI. Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion Volume 3: Nuclear Measurements Papers, TR-104188-V3. 1994. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii: Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

ICCF-4 conference proceedings, Volume 3. From:

http://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?Abstract_id=TR-104188-V3

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1108. EPRI. Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion Volume 4: Theory and Special Topics Papers, TR-104188-V4. 1994. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii: Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

ICCF-4 conference proceedings, Volume 4. From:

http://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?Abstract_id=TR-104188-V4

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1109. EPRI, Development of Energy Production Systems from Heat Produced in Deuterated Metals, Volume 1, TR-107843-V1. 1998, Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

EPRI sponsored an experimental program to investigate the idea that heat, and possibly nuclear products, could be created electrolytically in palladium lattices. Observations using high precision mass flow calorimetry revealed that excess heat could be produced in electrochemical cells with palladium cathodes and a heavy water electrolyte in a more or less reproducible manner, when a number of criteria were satisfied. This excess heat generated is far too large to be a chemical or metallurgical transformation. By inference, a nuclear reaction of some as yet undetermined nature is the hypothesized heat source. This report details the observation of excess powers documented in calorimetry experiments.

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1110. EPRI, Development of Energy Production Systems from Heat Produced in Deuterated Metals, Volume 2, TR-107843-V2. 1998, Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

EPRI sponsored an experimental program to investigate the idea that heat and possibly nuclear reaction products could be created electrolytically in palladium lattices. Excess heat-which occurred in a number of cases when certain criteria were satisfied-was too large to result from any chemical or metallurgical transformation in so small a mass of material. By inference, some type of nuclear reaction was the hypothesized heat source. This report details the search for "signature" emissions of possible nuclear reactions associated with heat production.

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1111. EPRI, Cavitation-Induced Excess Heat in Deuterated Metals, TR-108474. 1998, Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:


1112. EPRI, Trace Elements Added to Palladium by Electrolysis in Heavy Water, TP-108743. 1999, Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

EPRI sponsored an experimental program to investigate the trace element changes brought about in palladium after extensive electrolysis in heavy water electrolytes. Of particular interest were cathodes which had experienced episodes of excess heat production beyond all electrical and other inputs. This report details the careful analysis of a particular cathode by neutron activation (NAA) as compared with the identical simultaneous analysis of virgin palladium material from which the cathode was fabricated.

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1113. ERAB, Report of the Cold Fusion Panel to the Energy Research Advisory Board. 1989: Washington, DC.

First Author: ERAB
All Authors: ERAB
Keywords: ERAB, review history

A copy of the ERAB report has been prepared by the National Capital Area Skeptics (NCAS) organization (www.ncas.org). It is available here: http://www.ncas.org/erab/ This library contains a brief introduction to the report and a copy of the NCAS version of the ERAB report.

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1114. Escarpizo, B., et al. Solid State and Electrochemical Phenomena Related to Cold Fusion in Titanium. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Escarpizo, B.
All Authors: Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, F., Sevilla, J., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2O, loading, electrolysis, ICCF-2


1115. Escarpizo, B., et al. Solid State and Electrochemical Phenomena Related to Cold Fusion in Titanium. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Escarpizo, B.
All Authors: Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, F., Sevilla, J., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2O, loading, electrolysis, ICCF-2


1116. Escarpizo, B., et al. Deuterium Concentration Profiles and Crystallization Anomalies in Electrolytically Deuterated Titanium Plates. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Escarpizo, B.
All Authors: Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, J. F., Cuevas, F., Tornero, J., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2O, lattice parameter, loading, electrolysis, ICCF-3

Deuterium concentration and distribution profiles in electrolytically deuterated Ti plates have been obtained by Elastic Recoil Detection (E.R.D. ) , Rutherford Back Scattering (R.B.S. ) and X-ray diffraction (XRD ) . It has been found that D/Ti ratio remains constant (~ 1.65) up to a penetration which depends on the electrolysis time and then it goes down steeply to ~0. 05. The formed deuteride (TiDx, x ~1.65) exhibits some preferred orientations and its texture depends on that of the original Ti plate. The relevance of these data in relation to electrolytic cold fusion experiments is discussed.

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1117. Esko, E., Anomalous Metals in Electrified Vacuum. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Esko, E.
All Authors: Esko, E.
Keywords: Transmutation

Independent analysis of Quantum Rabbit (QR) vacuum arc test samples from an experiment conducted on Sept. 27, 2011 revealed the anomalous appearance of potassium (K) and gold (Au). These anomalies appeared in a prior QR vacuum arc test and raise the possibility of low energy transmutation.

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1118. Essen, H. and S. Kullander, Experimental test of a mini-Rossi device at the Leonardocorp, Bologna 29 March 2011, in NyTeknik. 2011.

First Author: Essen, H.
All Authors: Essen, H., Kullander, S.
Keywords: heat

We gathered in the Leonardo Corporation building where the 10 kW apparatus for anomalous energy production by nickel and hydrogen was demonstrated during a press conference on 14th of January.  References [1] to [4] for the original papers describing the innovation are listed at the end. In the same building, two CHP facilities were located, based on biodiesel from waste which Andrea Rossi, prior to his present Ni-H activity, had developed.

The present test was done on a smaller device [5] than the 10 kW device that has been used earlier during the January press conference. One of the reasons for going to smaller dimensions is safety according to Rossi.

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1119. Evan, D. and S. Szpak, Note on the release of nH1 from cathodically polarized Pd electrodes. 1998.

First Author: Evan, D.
All Authors: Evan, D., Szpak, S.
Keywords: Pd, loading, PdH, reaction


1120. Evans, P., Reply to patent office. 1996.

First Author: Evans, P.
All Authors: Evans, P.
Keywords: patent, Pons, Fleischmann


1121. Evans, A.B., 4-Space Dirac Theory and LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2009. 2.

First Author: Evans, A. B.
All Authors: Evans, A. B.
Keywords: theory

A 4-space Dirac theory, which gives the same transition energies as the standard model, predicts specific distributions of virtual electrons and positrons accompanying bound electrons. If potential barriers are viewed stochastically, it seems possible that this has implications for LENR.

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1122. Ewing, R.I., et al., Negative results and positive artifacts observed in a comprehensive search for neutrons from 'cold fusion'. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 404.

First Author: Ewing, R. I.
All Authors: Ewing, R. I., Butler, M. A., Schirber, J. E., Ginley, D. S.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2, Pd, Ti, neutron, D2O, Pd, method


1123. Ewing, R.I., High-sensitivity neutron detectors used at Sandia National Laboratories to monitor and diagnose 'cold fusion' experiments: negative results. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 473.

First Author: Ewing, R. I.
All Authors: Ewing, R. I.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2, Pd, Ti, neutron


1124. Ewing, R.I., et al., A sensitive multi-detector neutron counter used to monitor 'cold fusion' experiments in an underground laboratory: negative results and positive artifacts. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 1990. 37: p. 1165.

First Author: Ewing, R. I.
All Authors: Ewing, R. I., Butler, M. A., Ginley, D. S., Schirber, J. E.
Keywords: neutron, method


1125. Fallavier, J., et al., Srearch for Nuclear Fusion in Deuterated Targets under Cluster-Beam Impact. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1990. 65(5): p. 621.

First Author: Fallavier, J.
All Authors: Fallavier, J., Kemmler, J., Kirsch, R., Poizat, J. C., Remillieux, J., Thomas, J. P.
Keywords: cluster, ion bombardment, D2


1126. Faller, S.H., R.W. Holloway, and S.C. Lee, Investigation of cold fusion in heavy water. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1989. 137(1): p. 9.

First Author: Faller, S. H.
All Authors: Faller, S. H., Holloway, R. W., Lee, S. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, tritium, gamma emission, D2O, negative


1127. Fan, G.Y., et al. Production of Neutron and Tritium from D2O Electrolysis with Palladium Cathode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Fan, G. Y.
All Authors: Fan, G. Y., Wang, X. F., Huang, G. S., Zhou, H. Y., Han, Z. E., Wu, Z. D.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium, electrolysis, ICCF-3

Anomalous neutron burst and an increase in tritium concentration were observed simultaneously from heavy water electrolysis with palladium cathode. Consider with previous experimental results, we presumed that production of neutrons and tritium from D2O electrolysis depends heavily on the Constitution and the state of each cathode.

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1128. Fang, P.H., An Investigation of Interactions Between Deuterium and Palladium Related Crystalline and Amorphous Alloys. 1989.

First Author: Fang, P. H.
All Authors: Fang, P. H.
Keywords: theory, structure


1129. Fang, P.H., Deuterium fusion through nonequilibrium induction. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 369.

First Author: Fang, P. H.
All Authors: Fang, P. H.
Keywords: ultrasonic, Pd, powder


1130. Farkas, A., On the electrolytic separation of the hydrogen isotopes on a palladium cathode. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1937. 33: p. 552.

First Author: Farkas, A.
All Authors: Farkas, A.
Keywords: loading, H, Pd, crack, separation


1131. Farley, F.J.M., Cold fusion. New Scientist, 1991. 129(1756): p. 3.

First Author: Farley, F. J. M.
All Authors: Farley, F. J. M.
Keywords: recombination, theory


1132. Farrell, J.J., R.L. Mills, and W.R. Good, An Alternative Explanation of Extreme UltraViolet Emission From Dark Matter. 1993.

First Author: Farrell, J. J.
All Authors: Farrell, J. J., Mills, R. L., Good, W. R.
Keywords: theory, dihydrino


1133. Fateev, E.G., Possibilities for establishing the mechanism of neutron generation in deuterated materials under mechanical loading. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1995. 21(5): p. 373.

First Author: Fateev, E. G.
All Authors: Fateev, E. G.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion


1134. Fauvarque, J., P. Clauzon, and G. Lalleve. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Fauvarque, J.
All Authors: Fauvarque, J., Clauzon, P., Lalleve, G.
Keywords: glow discharge

A simple calorimeter has been designed that works at constant temperature; that of boiling water. Heat losses can be estimated accurately with an ohmic heater. As expected, losses are independent of the electric power input to the heater and the amount of evaporated water is linearly dependant on the power input. The device has been used to determine the heating power of a plasma electrolysis (the Ohmori-Mizuno experiment). We confirm that in this experiment, the heat output from electrolysis is greater than the electrical power input. The excess energy increases as the electrolysis voltage is increased from 200 V up to 350 V (400 W input). The excess energy may be as high as 120 W.

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1135. Fauvarque, J., et al. Abnormal excess heat measured during Mizuno-type experiments: a possible artefact? in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Fauvarque, J.
All Authors: Fauvarque, J., Clauzon, P., Lalleve, G., Le Buzit, G.
Keywords:

Recently performed Mizuno-type experiments confirmed generation of excess heat but not at the rate reported in ref. 2 (Sotchi -ICCF13). The main reason for the discrepancy is now clear; the bandwidth of our Unigor wattmeter, used in old experiments, was insufficient for correcting measurements of highly fluctuating electric energies.

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1136. Fayet, P., A. Kaldor, and D.M. Cox, Palladium Clusters: H2, D2, N2, CH4, CD4, C2H4, and C2H6 Reactivity and D2 Saturation Studies. J. Chem. Phys., 1990. 92: p. 254.

First Author: Fayet, P.
All Authors: Fayet, P., Kaldor, A., Cox, D. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2, adsorption, loading


1137. Featherstone, S., Can Andrea Rossi's Infinite-Energy Black Box Power The World--Or Just Scam It?, in Popular Science. 2012.

First Author: Featherstone, S.
All Authors: Featherstone, S.
Keywords: excess heat


1138. Feder, T., DOE Warms to Cold Fusion. Physics Today, 2004. April: p. 27.

First Author: Feder, T.
All Authors: Feder, T.
Keywords: Polemic

This is a short summary of Feder, T., DOE Warms to Cold Fusion. Physics Today, 2004. April: p. 27. The full article is available at the Physics Today website: http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-57/iss-4/p27.html

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1139. Fedorovich, G.F., Coulomb interaction in a radiation defect of a hydride crystal. Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1990. 16(12): p. 911.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. F.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. F.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion, LiD


1140. Fedorovich, G.V., Coulomb interaction in an E-cell. Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys., 1991. 36: p. 847.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion, E-cell


1141. Fedorovich, G.V., The Coulomb interaction in the E-cell. Physica B, 1991. 172: p. 491.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, E-cell


1142. Fedorovich, G.V., Quantum-mechanical screening. Phys. Lett. A, 1992. 164: p. 149.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, E-cell, screening


1143. Fedorovich, G.V., Nuclear fusion in crystal hydrides of light elements. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 442.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion, E-cell, screening


1144. Fedorovich, G.V., A possible way to nuclear fusion in solids. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 288.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion, E-cell


1145. Fedorovich, G.V., Parametric excitation of crystalline structures as a possible cause of high-energy emissions. Tech. Phys., 1993. 38(10): p. 866.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion, PdD


1146. Fedorovich, G.V., Screening of the Coulomb potential in a nondegenerate hydrogen isotope gas. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 120.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, screening


1147. Fedorovich, G.V., Ferroelectrics for Cold Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 474.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion


1148. Fedorovich, G.V., The possible nature of cold fusion in the Earth's mantle. Fusion Technol., 1995. 28: p. 1749.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, geological, fractofusion


1149. Feenstra, R., et al., Critical Point Lowering in Thin Pd-H Films. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1983. 13: p. L13.

First Author: Feenstra, R.
All Authors: Feenstra, R., de Bruin-Hordjik, G. J., Bakker, H. L. M., Griessen, R., De Groot, D. G.
Keywords: Pd, H, phase Diagram thin layer


1150. Feenstra, R., et al., Gravimetrical Determination of Pressure-Composition Isotherms of Thin Pd-H Films. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1986. 16: p. 1953.

First Author: Feenstra, R.
All Authors: Feenstra, R., de Groot, D. G., Rector, J. H., Salomons, E. M., Griessen, R.
Keywords: Pd, hydrogen, phase Diagram, thin layer, enthalpy


1151. Feenstra, R., R. Griessen, and D.G. de Groot, Hydrogen Induced Lattice Expansion and Effective H-H Interaction in Single Phase PdHc. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1986. 16: p. 1933.

First Author: Feenstra, R.
All Authors: Feenstra, R., Griessen, R., de Groot, D. G.
Keywords: PdH, Lattice Parameter, excess Volume


1152. Fehn, T. and C.A. Schiller, Cold nuclear fusion and electrochemical measuring techniques. Chem.-Tech. (Heidelberg), 1989. 18: p. 72, 75, 77 (German).

First Author: Fehn, T.
All Authors: Fehn, T., Schiller, C. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron


1153. Felici, R., et al., In situ measurement of the deuterium (hydrogen) charging of a palladium electrode during electrolysis by energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. Rev. Sci. Instr., 1995. 66(5): p. 3344.

First Author: Felici, R.
All Authors: Felici, R., Bertalot, L., De Ninno, A., La Barbera, A., Violante, V.
Keywords: lattice Parameter, Pd, loading, PdD


1154. Feng, S., Enhancement of cold fusion rate by electron polarization in palladium deuterium solid. Solid State Commun., 1989. 72: p. 205.

First Author: Feng, S.
All Authors: Feng, S.
Keywords: Theory, tunneling, screening


1155. Fernandez, F., et al. Nuclear Effects in Electrolytically Deuterated Ti and Pd Electrodes. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Fernandez, F.
All Authors: Fernandez, F., Sevilla, J., Escarpizo, B., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: tritium, neutron, Ti, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, negative


1156. Fernandez, J.F., et al. Cubic-Tetragonal Phase Transition in TiDx (X> or = 1.7) and its Possible Relation to Cold Fusion Reactions. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Fernandez, J. F.
All Authors: Fernandez, J. F., Cuevas, F., Alguera, M., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, phase diagram, TiD, ICCF-4


1157. Fernandez, J.F., F. Cuevas, and C. Sanchez, Deuterium concentration profiles in electrochemically deuterated titanium and their evolution after electrolysis. J. Alloys Comp., 1994. 205: p. 303.

First Author: Fernandez, J. F.
All Authors: Fernandez, J. F., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Ti, loading, D2O, backscatterung, surface analysis


1158. Fernandez, J.F., F. Cuevas, and M. Alguero, Experimental investigation of neutron emissions during thermal cycling of TiDx (x = ca. 2.00). Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 237.

First Author: Fernandez, J. F.
All Authors: Fernandez, J. F., Cuevas, F., Alguero, M.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron


1159. Ferrari, C., et al., A calorimeter for the electrolytic cell and other open systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D, 1996. 18: p. 1333.

First Author: Ferrari, C.
All Authors: Ferrari, C., Papucci, F., Salvetti, G., Tognoni, E., Tombari, E.
Keywords: heat, method.


1160. Feugeas, J., Comments on "Evidence of micrometre-sized plasmoid emission during electrolysis cold fusion. Fusion Sci. & Technol., 2001. 40: p. 109.

First Author: Feugeas, J.
All Authors: Feugeas, J.
Keywords: plasmoids electrolysis, theory


1161. Filimonov, V.A., Mechanism of cold nuclear fusion. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1990. 16(20): p. 29 (in Russian).

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A.
Keywords: Theory, cluster


1162. Filimonov, V.A., On the probability of cold nuclear fusion. Pis`ma Zh. Teor. Fiz., 1990. 16(19): p. 42 (in Russian).

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A.
Keywords: Theory, vibration


1163. Filimonov, V.A., Cold nuclear fusion: Its possibility in principle and means of realization. Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys., 1992. 37(6): p. 689.

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A.
Keywords: Theory, vibration


1164. Filimonov, V.A., On the probability of cold nuclear fusion implementation: Synergetic hypothesis. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1992. 162: p. 99.

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A.
Keywords: Theory, vibration, defects


1165. Filimonov, V.A. and V.A. Lishnevskii. Cold Fusion and Superfast Low-Temperature Chemical Processes in Solids: Common Basis for Understanding. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A., Lishnevskii, V. A.
Keywords: review


1166. Filimonov, V.A., Synergetic Activation Model: Key to Intense and Reproducible Cold Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 455.

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A.
Keywords: theory


1167. Filimonov, V.A. Neutrino-Driven Nuclear Reactions Of Cold Fusion And Transmutation. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A.
Keywords: theory, transmutation


1168. Filippov, D., et al. On the possible magnetic mechanism of shortening the runaway of RBMK-1000 reactor at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Filippov, D.
All Authors: Filippov, D., Lochak, G., Rukhadze, A., Urutskoev, L.
Keywords: accident


1169. Filippov, D., A. Rukhadze, and L.I. Urutshoev. Effects of atomic electrons on nuclear stability and radioactive decay. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Filippov, D.
All Authors: Filippov, D., Rukhadze, A., Urutshoev, L. I.
Keywords: transmutation, theory

1.         The only valid (necessary and sufficient) condition for b-stability of a nucleus is the minimum value of the mass of the atom (not of the nucleus) on the isobar line (that is, atomic weight = const). This condition holds true for all known isotopes without exception. 2.         The condition of nuclear stability and the decay schemes of unstable nuclei depend on the state of the electron shells. Atom ionization and other perturbations in electron shells (caused, for example, by magnetic fields) not only changes the decay periods of unstable nuclei [1, 2], but also alters decay schemes [3] and modifies the stability condition. . . .

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1170. Fimin, N.N., Quantum-interference effects and the mechanism of cold nuclear fusion. Pis`ma Zh. Teor. Fiz., 1996. 22(5): p. 17 (in Russian).

First Author: Fimin, N. N.
All Authors: Fimin, N. N.
Keywords: theory, QM, Bose condensate, fractofusion


1171. Fischer, U., H. Jâger, and W. Lochte-Holtgreven, Neutron Emission Observed During the Electrical Explosion of Deuterated Liquids of Metallic Conductivity. Phys. Lett. B, 1973. 44(2): p. 161.

First Author: Fischer, U.
All Authors: Fischer, U., Jâger, H., Lochte-Holtgreven, W.
Keywords: neutron, ND3, explosion


1172. Fischer, U., H. Jâ€Âger, and W. Lochte-Holtgreven, Neutron Emission Observed During the Electrical Explosion of Deuterated Liquids of Metallic Conductivity. Phys. Lett. B, 1973. 44(2): p. 161.

First Author: Fischer, U.
All Authors: Fischer, U., J‰ger, H., Lochte-Holtgreven, W.
Keywords: neutron, ND3, explosion


1173. Fisher, A., Much Ado About. MOSAIC, 1990. 21(2): p. 13.

First Author: Fisher, A.
All Authors: Fisher, A.
Keywords: review, history


1174. Fisher, J.C., Polyneutrons as agents for cold nuclear reactions. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 511.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: Theory, polyneutron


1175. Fisher, J.C., Liquid-drop model for extremely neutron rich nuclei. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 66.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: Theory, polyneutron


1176. Fisher, J.C. Theory of Low-Temperature Particle Showers. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: theory

A theoretical basis is offered for the remarkable observation by Oriani and Fisher [1] of a shower of about 250,000 energetic charged particles that occurred in the vapor of oxygen and hydrogen evolved from electrolysis. The shower was localized in space and in time, originating a few millimeters above the surface of a plastic detector chip and lasting for a few seconds. The responsible nuclear reactions must have been sustained by the vapor constituents.

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1177. Fisher, J.C. Polyneutron Theory of Transmutation. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: theory

Polyneutron theory postulates that large clusters of neutrons are bound and stable against strong decay and that their interactions with ordinary nuclei are responsible for a new class of low-temperature nuclear phenomena. It is postulated that these clusters, also termed polyneutrons or neutron isotopes, grow to include hundreds of neutrons in chain reactions fueled by isotopes such as 2H, 18O, and 7Li.

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1178. Fisher, J.C. Outline of Polyneutron Theory. in 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: Theory

I suggest that neutron clusters of sufficient size are bound and stable against strong decay; and that they can react with ordinary nuclei by transferring neutrons to them, accepting neutrons from them, and binding with them to form composite nuclei. Implications of this enlarged scope of nuclear physics are explored, including a chain reaction with nuclear fuel 2H that produces energy, 4He, 3H, and a wide range of nuclear transmutations. Natural explanations emerge for these and other nuclear phenomena for which evidence has been accumulating over the past two decades.

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1179. Fisher, J.C. External Radiation Produced by Electrolysis -- A Work in Progress. in 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission


1180. Fisher, J.C., Palladium Fission Triggered by Polyneutrons. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 1-5.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: Fission, LENR reaction, Liquid drop model, Palladium, Polyneutron

Polyneutron theory is applied to experiments of Iwamura et al. that show evidence for titanium and for an anomalous iron isotope ratio in palladium cathodes following electrolysis. Theory and experiment are in reasonable agreement. Experiments are suggested for additional testing of the theory.

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1181. Fisher, J.C., Neutron Isotope Theory of LENR Processes. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: LENR, Neutron Isotope, Nuclear reaction, Theory

Neutron isotopes are characterized and their reactions with ordinary isotopes are described. A theory of LENR processes emerges.

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1182. Fishman, R.S. and G.D. Mahan, Binding of charged particles in lattice defects. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40(17): p. 11493.

First Author: Fishman, R. S.
All Authors: Fishman, R. S., Mahan, G. D.
Keywords: Theory, jellium


1183. Fitzpatrick, T., Cold Fusion Meet Ends Without Agreement, in Salt Lake City Tribune. 1990: Salt Lake CityEditor.

First Author: Fitzpatrick, T.
All Authors: Fitzpatrick, T.
Keywords: newspaper, history


1184. Flanagan, T.B. and F.A. Lewis, Hydrogen Absorption by Palladium in Aqueous Solution. Faraday Soc. Trans., 1959. 55: p. 1401.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, H, resistivity, loading


1185. Flanagan, T.B. and F.A. Lewis, Electrode Potentials of the Palladium + Hydrogen System. Faraday Soc., 1959. 55: p. 1409.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, H, overvoltage, thermodynamic, solubility


1186. Flanagan, T.B., Absorption of Deuterium by Palladium. J. Phys. Chem., 1961. 65: p. 280.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, D, resistivity, overvoltage, pressure


1187. Flanagan, T.B. and J.W. Simon, Consequences of the Proton Model for Hydrogen Adsorption in the b Phase of the Hydrogen-Palladium System. J. Phys. Chem., 1966. 70: p. 3750.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Simon, J. W.
Keywords: Pd, H2, PdH, adsorption, theory, thermodynamic


1188. Flanagan, T.B., et al., The Effect of Lattice Defects on Hydrogen Solubility in Palladium, I. Experimentally Observed Solubility Enhancements and Thermodynamics of Absorption. J. Less-Common Met., 1979. 49: p. 13.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Lynch, J. F., Clewley, J. D., Turkovich, B. V.
Keywords: Pd, H, excess Volume, vacancy, phase diagram, solubility PdH


1189. Flanagan, T.B., et al., Isobaric and Isothermal Hysteresis in Metal Hydrides and Oxides. J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans., 1982. 82: p. 2589.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Clewley, J. D., Kuji, T., Park, C. N., Everett, D. H.
Keywords: phase Diagram, theory, PdH


1190. Flanagan, T.B. and W.A. Oates, The Effect of Hysteresison the Phase Diagram of Pd-H. J. Less-Common Met., 1983. 92: p. 131.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Oates, W. A.
Keywords: PdH, hydrogen, phase Diagram


1191. Flanagan, T.B., et al., Hydrogen Solubility in Ordered and Disordered Palladium alloys. NATO ASI Ser., Ser. B, 1986: p. 341.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Biehl, G. E., Clewley, J. D., Kuji, T., Sakamoto, Y.
Keywords: solubility, hydrogen, PdCe, resistance, thermodynamic


1192. Flanagan, T.B. and W.A. Oates, The Palladium-Hydrogen System. Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci., 1991. 21: p. 269.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Oates, W. A.
Keywords: PdH, Phase Diagram, diffusion, Lattice Parameter bonding thermodynamic, review


1193. Flanagan, T.B., W. Luo, and J.D. Clewley, Calorimetric enthalpies of absorption and desorption of protium and deuterium by palladium. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 172-174: p. 42.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Luo, W., Clewley, J. D.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, thermodynamic, heat, PdD


1194. Flanagan, T.B. and H. Noh, Thermodynamics and hysteresis for hydrogen solution and hydride formation in Pd-Ni alloys. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1995. 50: p. 475.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Noh, H.
Keywords: Pd-Ni-H, phase diagram, pressure, thermodynamic


1195. Flanagan, T.B., D.L. Wang, and H. Noh, The effect of cycling through the hydride phase on isotherms for fcc Pd-rich alloys. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 216.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Wang, D. L., Noh, H.
Keywords: PdH, Phase diagram, Pd-Ni-H, Pd-Cr-H, Pd-Mo-H, Pd-Au-H, Pd-Ag-H


1196. Flannigan, D.J. and K. Suslick, Plasma formation and temperature measurement during single-bubble cavitation (letter). Nature (London), 2005. 434.

First Author: Flannigan, D. J.
All Authors: Flannigan, D. J., Suslick, K.
Keywords: Sonoluminescence, accustic,


1197. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, The behavior of microdisk and microring electrodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1987. 222: p. 107.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S.
Keywords: theory, electrolysis


1198. Fleischmann, M., S. Pons, and M. Hawkins, Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 261: p. 301 and errata in Vol. 263.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S., Hawkins, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, neutron, tritium, 4He, D2O

The strange behaviour of electrogenerated hydrogen dissolved in palladium has been studied for well over 100 years, and latterly these studies have been extended to deuterium and tritium [1]. For discharge of deuterium from alkaline solutions of heavy water we have to consider the reaction steps

The strange behaviour of electrogenerated hydrogen dissolved in palladium has been studied for well over 100 years, and latterly these studies have been extended to deuterium and tritium. For discharge of deuterium from alkaline solutions of heavy water we have to consider the reaction steps

D2O + e- → Dads + OD (i)
Dads + D2O + e- → D2 + OD   (ii)
Dads → Dlattice                                                                            (iii)
Dads + Dads → D2                                              (iv)

It is known that at potentials negative to + 50 mV on the reversible hydrogen scale, the lattice is in the β-phase, hydrogen is in the form of protons (as shown by the migration in an electric field) and is highly mobile (D  = 10-7 cm2 s-1 for the α-phase at 300 K).

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1199. Fleischmann, M., et al., Measurements of gamma-rays from cold fusion. Nature (London), 1989. 339(622): p. 667.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S., Hawkins, M., Hoffman, R. J.
Keywords: critique, history, gamma emission


1200. Fleischmann, M. An Overview of Cold Fuson Phenomena. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: theory, history, ICCF-1

The present position of research in the field of Cold Fusion has already been outlined in two papers presented at this meeting. This report will therefore emphasize the early work and general considerations which led us to investigate the possibility of inducing nuclear reactions of D+ in palladium electrodes . . . This is followed by a brief assessment of the position reached at the end of the first year of research in this field as summarized by the papers presented at this conference.

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1201. Fleischmann, M., et al., Calorimetry of the palladium-deuterium-heavy water system. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 287: p. 293.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S., Anderson, M. W., Li, L. J., Hawkins, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+, Pd, D2O, tritium

It is shown that accurate values of the rates of enthalpy generation in the electrolysis of light and heavy water can be obtained from measurements in simple, single compartment Dewar type calorimeter cells. This precise evaluation of the rate of enthalpy generation relies on the non-linear regression fitting of the "black-box" model of the calorimeter to an extensive set of temperature time measurements. The method of data analysis gives a systematic underestimate of the enthalpy output and, in consequence, a slightly negative excess rate of enthalpy generation for an extensive set of blank experiments using both light and heavy water. By contrast, the electrolysis of heavy water at palladium electrodes shows a positive excess rate of enthalpy generation; this rate increases markedly with current density, reaching values of approximately 100 W cm^-3 at approximately 1 A cm^-2. It is also shown that prolonged polarization of palladium cathodes in heavy water leads to bursts in the rate of enthalpy generation; the thermal output of the cells exceeds the enthalpy input (or the total energy input) to the cells by factors in excess of 40 during these bursts. The total specific energy output during the bursts as well as the total specific energy output of fully charged electrodes subjected to prolonged polarization (5-50 MJ cm^-3) is 10^2 - 10^3 times larger than the enthalpy of reaction of chemical processes.

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1202. Fleischmann, M. The Present Status of Research in Cold Fusion. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: review, heat, history, ICCF-2


1203. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons. Calorimetry of the Pd-D2O System: from Simplicity via Complications to Simplicity. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S.
Keywords: calorimetry heat Pd D2O electrolysis boiling method, ICCF-3

It is shown that accurate values of the rates of enthalpy generation in the electrolysis of light and heavy water can be obtained from measurements in simple, single compartment Dewar type calorimeter cells. This precise evaluation of the rate of enthalpy generation relies on the non-linear regression fitting of the "black-box" model of the calorimeter to an extensive set of temperature time measurements. The method of data analysis gives a systematic underestimate of the enthalpy output and, in consequence, a slightly negative excess rate of enthalpy generation for an extensive set of blank experiments using both light and heavy water. By contrast, the electrolysis of heavy water at palladium electrodes shows a positive excess rate of enthalpy generation; this rate increases markedly with current density, reaching values of approximately 100 W cm^-3 at approximately 1 A cm^-2. It is also shown that prolonged polarization of palladium cathodes in heavy water leads to bursts in the rate of enthalpy generation; the thermal output of the cells exceeds the enthalpy input (or the total energy input) to the cells by factors in excess of 40 during these bursts. The total specific energy output during the bursts as well as the total specific energy output of fully charged electrodes subjected to prolonged polarization (5-50 MJ cm^-3) is 10^2 - 10^3 times larger than the enthalpy of reaction of chemical processes.

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1204. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, Some comments on the paper Analysis of experiments on the calorimetry of LiOD-D2O electrochemical cells, R.H. Wilson et al., J. Electroanal. Chem. 332 [1992] 1. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 332: p. 33.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S.
Keywords: critique, Wilson


1205. Fleischmann, M., et al. Calorimetry of the Pd-D2O System: The Search for Simplicity and Accuracy. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S., Le Roux, M., Roulette, J.
Keywords: heat+, theory, method, ICCF-4

Our search for high levels of the rates of excess enthalpy generation in the Pd-D2O and Pd-alloy-D2O systems has been based inter alia on the following preconditions and suppositions:

(i) that it is necessary to use materials which will withstand the high stresses induced by the experiments;
(ii) given that (i) is assured, that it is necessary to adopt particular experimental protocols to achieve excess enthalpy generation at elevated temperatures;
(iii) that the protocols (ii) should ensure a high D/Pd ratio under all conditions;
(iv) that the protocols (ii) and (iii) should allow one to take advantage of "positive feedback" in the systems;
(v) that the systems are sensitive to "hidden state variables;"
(vi) that the state variables need to be further generalised to take account of cross-terms and of gradients with position.

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1206. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, Calorimetry of the Pd-D2O system: from simplicity via complications to simplicity. Phys. Lett. A, 1993. 176: p. 118.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, D2O, life after death

This version of the Fleischmann paper appeared in the ICCF-3 proceedings. It is similar to the Physics Letters A version referenced in the index.

ABSTRACT
We present here one aspect of our recent research on the calorimetry of the Pd/D2O system which has been concerned with high rates of specific excess enthalpy generation (> 1kWcm^-3) at temperatures close to (or at) the boiling point of the electrolyte solution. This has led to a particularly simple method of deriving the rate of excess enthalpy production based on measuring the times required to boil the cells to dryness, this process being followed by using time-lapse video recordings.
Our use of this simple method as well as our investigations of the results of other research groups prompts us to present also other simple methods of data analysis which we have used in the preliminary evaluations of these systems.

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1207. Fleischmann, M., S. Pons, and G. Preparata, Possible theories of cold fusion. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1994. 107: p. 143.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S., Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory

Summary. -- We review some of the key facts in the phenomenology of Pd-hydrides usually referred to as «cold fusion». We conclude that all theoretical attempts that concentrate only on few-body interactions, both electromagnetic and nuclear, are probably insufficient to explain such phenomena. On the other hand we find good indications that theories describing collective, coherent interactions among elementary constituents leading to macroscopic quantum-mechanical effects belong to the class of possible theories of those phenomena.

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1208. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, Reply to the critique by Morrison entitled 'Comments on claims of excess enthalpy by Fleischmann and Pons using simple cells made to boil. Phys. Lett. A, 1994. 187: p. 276.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S.
Keywords: critique, Morrison

These two documents first appeared in the Internet sci.physics.fusion forum in 1993. The first was written by Douglas Morrison (CERN), and the second by Martin Fleischmann (Univ. Southhampton) and Stanley Pons (IMRA Europe). A version of this was published as: Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, Reply to the critique by Morrison entitled ‘Comments on claims of excess enthalpy by FLeischmann and Pons using simple cells made to boil. Phys. Lett. A, 1994. 187: p. 276. This debate refers mainly to paper "Calorimetry of the PD-D2O System: from Simplicity via Complications to Simplicity," published in Physics Letters A. A simlar paper was later published in the ICCF-3 conference proceedings and handed out by Fleischmann, which is on this web site.

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1209. Fleischmann, M. The Experimenters' Regress. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Harwell, critique, electrolysis, heat, Pd, ICCF-5, D2O

Introduction
At the beginning of any new and controversial field of investigation, we cannot tell which of the following two statements is true:

A. "Positive" conclusions are correct; "negative" results are due to bad experimentation.
B. "Negative" conclusions are correct; "positive" results are due to bad experimentation.

This is the basis of the Experimenters' Regress, a concept drawn from the field of the Sociology of Science, e.g. see ( 1 ). As scientists, we also need to examine the possible validity of the following statement (as well as its corollary) . . .

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1210. Fleischmann, M. More About Positive Feedback; More About Boiling. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, electrolysis, heat, positive feedback, enthalpy of formation, ICCF-5

We have already described elsewhere ( 1 ,2) some of the principles which have guided our search for the generation of high rates of excess enthalpy generation at elevated temperatures, say, up to the boiling points of the electrolytes (3,4) . One of these principles has been the prediction that the partial molar enthalpy of absorption of hydrogen (or deuterium) in palladium (5) will become positive at the high charging ratios (X = DlPd) required for excess enthalpy generation (6,7), see Fig 1.
Although a transition from exothermic to endothermic absorption is probably not a necessary condition for achieving excess enthalpy generation at elevated temperaturesl , such a transition will certainly facilitate the achievement of high charging ratios. For example, increases of temperature will then themselves lead to increases in X and thereby in the rates of excess enthalpy generation. These are the conditions required for the development of "positive feedback" and; in this paper, we report on two lines of investigation which have indicated the presence of these effects. We then outline the way in which our understanding of this phenomenon has guided our investigation of excess enthalpy generation at elevated temperatures.

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1211. Fleischmann, M. Cold Fusion; Past, Present & Future. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: review, ICCF-7

In reviewing first of all some of the early history of research into the nuclear reactions of D + compressed into host lattices we need to consider the applicability (or otherwise) of existing paradigms . . .

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1212. Fleischmann, M. Giuliano Preparata: An Appreciation. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: history, ICCF-8


1213. Fleischmann, M., Reflections on the Sociology of Science and Social Responsibility in Science, in Relationship to Cold Fusion. Accountability Res., 2000. 8.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords:

Section 1.  Introduction I have been asked on several occasions during the last ten years to provide a commentary on subjects such as the Sociology of Science, Social Responsibility in Science etc. with special reference to the topic of "Cold Fusion".  I have always been reluctant to do so for two principal reasons.    The first is that I believe that the consideration of these topics is premature.   The reason is that I am convinced that there is much more information which bears on such topics which will be revealed in the fullness of time.  Furthermore, there are aspects of the past history, developments and, indeed, of the science which I do not wish to discuss even at the present time. Inevitably, therefore, any such article will be incomplete, will lack focus and will be couched in rather general terms.  This is the way the present article has turned out to be; in view of the evident deficiencies, it should only be taken as a first step in trying to develop a discussion of the important Social Issues.

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1214. Fleischmann, M. Searching for the consequences of many-body effects in condensed phase systems. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: history, theory, ICCF-9, electrolysis

           Some of the background work which led to the decision to investigate the behaviour of D+ electrochemically compressed into Pd host lattices is outlined. The key features of such "Cold Fusion" systems are described.

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1215. Fleischmann, M. Background to Cold Fusion: the Genesis of a Concept. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: theory, history

The scheme of research which led to the start-up of the project now known as "Cold Fusion" is illustrated by Fig. 1. We note that it is commonly believed that there is absolutely no way of influencing Nuclear Processes by Chemical means: therefore, any results that demonstrate that this might be possible must be due to faulty experimentation, delusion, fraud etc. However, any enquiry as to the experimental foundation of the first statement in Fig. 1 is normally met by the response: "because quantum mechanics, Q.M., shows that this is so". We are driven to the conclusion that this first statement is just part of the belief-system of Natural Scientists and we naturally also have to ask the question; "what conclusion would we draw if we subject the statement to the dictates of Field Theory?"

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1216. Fleischmann, M. and M. Miles. The "Instrument Function" of Isoperibolic Calorimeters; Excess Enthalpy Generation due to the Parasitic Reduction of Oxygen. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Miles, M.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

Two criticisms which are frequently advanced to counter observations of the generation of excess enthalpy in the cathodic polarisations of Pd-based electrodes in D2O-based electrolytes (e.g. see (1), (2)) are usually based on the assertion that the isoperibolic calorimeters used in these studies are imprecise and inaccurate. Furthermore, any excess enthalpy generation is then attributed to the reduction of electrogenerated oxygen although such assertions have not been accompanied by appropriate measurements. There is naturally a link between these two assertions.

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1217. Fleischmann, M., Background to Cold Fusion: The Genesis of a Concept, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 19-36.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords:


1218. Fleischmann, M. and M. Miles, Thermal Behavior of the Polarized Pd/D2O System, P.A. Mosier-Boss, Editor. 2012, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Miles, M.
Keywords: Excess heat

The research in the thermal behavior of the polarized Pd/D-D2O system was, and still is, directed towards determining the conditions maximizing excess enthalpy production. At the present time, a sustained low grade heat source can be maintained for considerable periods of time.

Although the excess enthalpy production in these systems is generally accepted, there are still instances of misunderstanding even among seasoned scientists. In the series of papers entitled "Our penultimate papers on the isoperibolic calorimetry of the Pt/D2O and Pd/D2) systems", Prof. Fleischmann (and his collaborators) deals with the correct and incorrect interpretation of calorimetric data.

In a separate paper "More about positive feedback; more about boiling" Prof. Fleischmann discusses aspects of this system of interest to practical applications, viz the design of an effective energy source.

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1219. Fleischmann, M., et al., Experimental Evidence of Nuclear Reactions Generated in a Polarized Pd/D Lattice. 2012, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F., Dea, J., Miles, M., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Excess heat, tritium

This report reviews research activities on the polarized Pd/D2O system. In contrast to the pioneering work of Fleischmann and his collaborators, we consider only events at, and/or, within Pd electrodes prepared by the co-deposition technique developed in this laboratory. Our effort proceeded along two paths: (i) investigation of thermal and nuclear events in the Pd host lattice and (ii) examination of the role of the interphase region. These paths were undertaken to assess the intensity of events and to provide some information on the factors controlling the initiation and maintenance of excess enthalpy generation, i.e., the "performance envelope".

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1220. Fleming, J.W., et al., Calorimetric studies of electrochemical incorporation of hydrogen isotopes into palladium. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 517.

First Author: Fleming, J. W.
All Authors: Fleming, J. W., Law, H. H., Sapjeta, J., Gallagher, P. K., Marohn, W. F.
Keywords: heat-, method, electrolysis, Pd, D2O


1221. Flitt, H.J. and J. Bockris, Concerning Adsorbed and Absorbed Hydrogen on and in Ferrous Metals. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1982. 7: p. 411.

First Author: Flitt, H. J.
All Authors: Flitt, H. J., Bockris, J.
Keywords: Fe, H, overvoltage


1222. Focardi, S., R. Habel, and F. Piantelli, Anomalous heat production in Ni-H systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1994. 107A: p. 163.

First Author: Focardi, S.
All Authors: Focardi, S., Habel, R., Piantelli, F.
Keywords: Ni, H2, heat+


1223. Focardi, S., et al., Large excess heat production in Ni-H systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1998. 111A: p. 1233.

First Author: Focardi, S.
All Authors: Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Veronesi, S.
Keywords: Ni, H2, heat+

Summary. -- Evidence of a large heat excess produced in Ni-H systems and details of the calorimetric measurements are reported in this paper. Two cells which ran for long periods (about 300 days) produced an energy excess of 600MJ and 900MJ, respectively.

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1224. Focardi, S., et al. On the Ni-H System. in Anomalies in Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Metals. 1999. Bologna.

First Author: Focardi, S.
All Authors: Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Veronesi, S.
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen NiH, loading, heat+, neutron, gamma emission transmutation


1225. Focardi, S., et al. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H Systems. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Focardi, S.
All Authors: Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Veronesi, F.
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen NiH, loading, heat

We report evidence of photon emission in three experiments with hydrogen loading of Ni slabs, during the degassing phase, when hydrogen was introduced into the cell, and during thermal cycling. In the first experiment we obtained excess power of about 20 W, while in the second experiment photon emission was observed instead of power production. In the third experiment, a Ni sample in hydrogen underwent thermal excitation and showed an increasing photon emission for a few hours.

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1226. Focardi, S. and A. Rossi, A new energy source from nuclear fusion. www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com, 2010.

First Author: Focardi, S.
All Authors: Focardi, S., Rossi, A.
Keywords:

A process (international patent publication no WO 2009/125444 A1) capable of producing large amounts of energy by a nuclear fusion process between nickel and hydrogen, occurring below 1000 K, is described. Experimental values of the ratios between output and input energies obtained in a certain number of experiments are reported. The occurrence of the effect is justified on the basis of existing experimental and theoretical results. Measurements performed during the experiments allow to exclude neutron and gamma rays emissions.

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1227. Foglio, P.A., et al., Neutron monitoring and related measurements during electrolysis of heavy water with palladium and titanium cathodes: activity report. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 131.

First Author: Foglio, P. A.
All Authors: Foglio, P. A., Sangiust, V., Cavallotti, P. L., Ducati, U., Bortignon, P. F.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, Ti, neutron, tritium, D2O


1228. Fonda, L. and G.L. Shaw. Flucturations and Nonreproducibility in Cold Fusion From Free Quark Catalysis. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Fonda, L.
All Authors: Fonda, L., Shaw, G. L.
Keywords: theory, quark


1229. Fonda, L. and G.L. Shaw, Deuteron cold fusion by anti-diquark catalysis. Fizika (Zagreb), 1990. 22: p. 371.

First Author: Fonda, L.
All Authors: Fonda, L., Shaw, G. L.
Keywords: Theory, anti-diquarks


1230. Forsley, L., et al. Analyzing Nuclear Ash from the Electrocatalytic Reduction of Radioactivity in Uranium and Thorium. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Forsley, L.
All Authors: Forsley, L., August, R., Jorne, J., Khim, J., Mis, F., Phillips, G.
Keywords: transmutation, U, Th, ICCF-7


1231. Forsley, L. and P.A. Mosier-Boss. Nuclear Products Observed in the PdD Co-Dep System (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Forsley, L.
All Authors: Forsley, L., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: Co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, heat+, film

Conclusion

* Multiple Nuclear Channels   * Fast protons   * Fast neutrons * Collateral Damage   * Tritium previously observed   * Elemental transmutation * Aneutronic Thermal Channel

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1232. Fou, C., Deuteron-Deuteron [dd] Binding via Neutron Exchange. Infinite Energy, 2006. 11(66): p. 26.

First Author: Fou, C.
All Authors: Fou, C.
Keywords:


1233. Fou, C., Coulomb Field for LENR in Solid. Infinite Energy, 2007. 12(71): p. 25.

First Author: Fou, C.
All Authors: Fou, C.
Keywords: theory,


1234. Fou, C. Investigation of Deuteron-Deuteron Cold Fusion in a Cavity. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Fou, C.
All Authors: Fou, C.
Keywords: theory

A cavity in a solid, first of all, serves as a place of confinement for a Deuterium molecule. Two deuterons in the molecule are trapped together in close proximity. Thus, they may engage in 'Low Energy Nuclear Reaction' which requires longer time, unlike collision type of nuclear reaction. Secondly, the electric field in the cavity (to be shown below) superimposed on this deuteron-pair would lower the Coulomb barrier between them facilitating a 'Low Energy Fusion' reaction. Furthermore, neutron exchange reaction between two deuterons (in an analogous manner like the electron exchange that forms a Deuterium molecule) is like a 'Long Range' force (as compared to the range of nuclear force) that can pull two deuterons together. This range is longer than that of the pi-plus exchange nuclear force between a proton and a neutron, because neutrons are charge neutral. [1] Longer reaction time; [2] Lowered Coulomb Barrier; [3] Longer range are the necessary conditions for (d-d) 'Cold Fusion'.

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1235. Fowler, W.A., et al., The synthesis and destruction of elements in peculiar stars of types A and B. Astrophys. J., 1965. 142(2): p. 423-450.

First Author: Fowler, W. A.
All Authors: Fowler, W. A., Burbidge, E. M., Burbidge, G. R., Hoyle, F.
Keywords:


1236. Fowler, W.A., G.R. Caughlan, and B.A. Zimmermann, Thermonuclear Reaction Rates. Ann. Rev. Astr. Astrophys., 1967. 5: p. 525.

First Author: Fowler, W. A.
All Authors: Fowler, W. A., Caughlan, G. R., Zimmermann, B. A.
Keywords: branching ratio


1237. Fowler, W.A., Cold fusion results still unexplained. Nature (London), 1989. 339(6223): p. 345.

First Author: Fowler, W. A.
All Authors: Fowler, W. A.
Keywords: Theory


1238. Fox, H., Cold Fusion Impact in the Enhanced Energy Age. 1992, Salt Lake City: Fusion Information Center.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: history,


1239. Fox, H. Cold Nuclear Fusion & Enhanced Energy Devices: A Progress Report. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: review, ICCF-4


1240. Fox, H., Comments on 'Experiments of one-point cold fusion'. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 347.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: critique, Matsumoto


1241. Fox, H. Cold Nuclear Fusion, Space Energy Devices & Commercialization. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: review


1242. Fox, H. A Survey of Current International "Cold Fusion" Research. in IECEC Conference. 1995. Paper #95-247.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: Review


1243. Fox, H., Cold Fusion and the Coulomb Barrier. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 23.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: theory,


1244. Fox, H., R.W. Bass, and S.X. Jin, Plasma-injected transmutation. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 222.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H., Bass, R. W., Jin, S. X.
Keywords: transmutation, electron cluster


1245. Fox, H., Charge clusters in operation. Infinite Energy, 1997. 2(12): p. 62.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: charge clusters, theory


1246. Fox, H., Do Thorium Daughter Products Explain LENT-1 Experiments? J. New Energy, 1997. 2(3/4): p. 20.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: transmutation,, LENT


1247. Fox, H. and S.X. Jin, Operating the LENT-1 transmutation reactor: Preliminary report. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(2): p. 110.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H., Jin, S. X.
Keywords: transmutation, method, LENT


1248. Fox, H. and S.X. Jin, Operating the LENT-1 Transmutation Reactor: A Preliminary Report. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(2): p. 110.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H., Jin, S. X.
Keywords: transmutation,, LENT


1249. Fox, H., New-Energy Anomalies. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(2/3): p. 47.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: review,


1250. Fox, H. and S.X. Jin, Low-energy nuclear reactions and high-density charge clusters. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(20): p. 26.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H., Jin, S. X.
Keywords: charge clusters, theory transmutation LENT


1251. Fralick, G.C., A.J. Decker, and J.W. Blue, Results Of An Attempt To Measure Increased Rates Of The Reaction 2D + 2D --> 3He + n In A Nonelectrochemical Cold Fusion Experiment. 1989, NASA: Cleveland, OH.

First Author: Fralick, G. C.
All Authors: Fralick, G. C., Decker, A. J., Blue, J. W.
Keywords:

An experiment was performed at the Lewis Research Center to look for evidence of deuterium fusion in palladium. The experiment, which involved introducing deuterium into the palladium filter of a hydrogen purifier, was designed to detect neutrons produced in the reaction

2D + 2D → 3He + n

as well as heat production. The neutron counts for deuterium did not differ significantly from background or from the counts for a hydrogen control. Heat production was detected when deuterium, but not hydrogen, was pumped from the purifier.

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1252. Fralick, G.C., et al., LENR at GRC (PowerPoint slides). 2011, NASA Glenn Research Center: Cleveland, OH.

First Author: Fralick, G. C.
All Authors: Fralick, G. C., Wrbanek, J., Wrbanek, S., Niedra, J. M.
Keywords: Excess heat

Excess heat experiments were performed at NASA using a Johnson Matthey HP Series palladium membrane hydrogen purifier.

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1253. Fralick, G.C., et al. LENR at GRC (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Fralick, G. C.
All Authors: Fralick, G. C., Wrbanek, J., Wrbanek, S., Niedra, J. M.
Keywords: review

BACKGROUND: Changes from 1989 to 2009

* Previous NASA D-Pd experiment (Fralick, et al.; 1989) looked for neutrons (saw none) -but saw anomalous heating * NASA H2O-Ni-K2CO3 Electrolytic Cell experiment (Niedra et al,1996) Apparent current-dependent excess heat consistent as heat from hydrogen-oxygen  recombination * NASA Sonoluminescence Experiment (Wrbanek, et al) - Cratering seen with heavy water, not seen with light water * After 1989, Cold Fusion research evolved into research in "Low Energy Nuclear Reactions" (LENR), primarily at U.S. Navy, DARPA & various Universities

2009: NASA IPP-sponsored effort to:

-- Repeat the initial tests to investigate this anomalous heat -- Apply GRC's instrumentation expertise to improve the diagnostics for this experiment -- Establish credible framework for future work in LENR

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1254. Frattolillo, A., A. De Ninno, and A. Rizzo. Experimental techniques for detecting small quantities of 4He gas: problems and solutions. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Frattolillo, A.
All Authors: Frattolillo, A., De Ninno, A., Rizzo, A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, 4He, method

The problems arising from the techniques of measurement so far used to detect 4He in the gases coming out from Fleishmann-Pons cells are discussed. Innovative solutions are proposed. The results of extensive tests carried out with a facility built at ENEA Frascati are reported, which prove the ability of this equipment to overcome the problems discussed in this paper.

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1255. Frazier, G.A. and R. Glosser, Charcterization of Thin Films of the Pd-H System. J. Less-Common Met., 1980. 74: p. 89.

First Author: Frazier, G. A.
All Authors: Frazier, G. A., Glosser, R.
Keywords: Pd, layer, resistivity, pressure, phase Diagram


1256. Fredericks, K., Possibility of Tachyon Monopoles Detected in Photographic Emulsions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Fredericks, K.
All Authors: Fredericks, K.
Keywords: Detection, Mass Estimate, Monopoles, Parabolic curvature, Photographic emulsion, Superluminal, Tachyons

Low-energy nuclear reaction experiments using photographic emulsions, including those by Urutskoev, et.al, Ivoilov, and others have shown unique particle tracks. Analysis of a sample population of these types of tracks suggests detection of magnetically charged particles with faster-than-light velocities. Particle kinetic energy was estimated from energy deposition and momentum was estimated from track curvature in magnetic fields. Measured values were plotted on a kinetic energy versus momentum graph and were found to fall in the v > c region. Track curvature was found to be parabolic, which is a signature for monopoles. Using the classical theory of tachyons, the plane of parabolic curvature suggests electrically charged tachyons detected as slower-than-light monopoles. Preliminary lower limits for particle mass are found. Further study is suggested to broaden this search.

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1257. Frederico, T., et al., Microscopic calculation of the molecular-nuclear d+d-->3He+n or 3H+p reactions at close to zero energies. Braz. J. Phys., 1993. 23(1): p. 96.

First Author: Frederico, T.
All Authors: Frederico, T., de Groote, J. J., Hornos, J. E., Hussein, M. S.
Keywords: Theory, fusion rate


1258. Freedman, S. and D. Krakauer, Biases in cold fusion data. (Scientific correspondence). Nature (London), 1990. 343: p. 703.

First Author: Freedman, S.
All Authors: Freedman, S., Krakauer, D.
Keywords: critique, statistics, Jones


1259. French, D. Patents and Cold Fusion. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: French, D.
All Authors: French, D.
Keywords: Commercialization


1260. French, D., Patents and Cold Fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: French, D.
All Authors: French, D.
Keywords: Commercialization

Patents are available for any arrangement that exploits Cold Fusion. The arrangement must incorporate a feature which is new. Furthermore, the Patent Office may require proof that the procedures defined in the patent actually work. And the description must be sufficient to enable others to duplicate the invention.

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1261. Friedmann, H., et al., Search for 'cold fusion'. Kerntechnik, 1990. 55: p. 161.

First Author: Friedmann, H.
All Authors: Friedmann, H., Hundegger, P., Kirchmayr, H. R., Pavlik, A., Vonach, H., Wiesinger, G., Winkler, G.
Keywords: D2, Ti, Ti-Fe, Y, neutron


1262. Frisone, F., Study of the probability of interaction between the plasmons of metal and deuterons. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1996. 18D: p. 1279.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Theory


1263. Frisone, F. Can Impurities Within a Deuterated Crystalline Lattice Have an Effect Favouring Cold Fusion? in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory, impurity, plasmons, ICCF-7


1264. Frisone, F., Can variations in temperature influence deuteron interaction within crystalline lattices? Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1998. 20 D: p. 1567.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Theory


1265. Frisone, F. Fusion reaction within a microcrack in a crystalline lattice at room temperature. in AIP Conf. Proc. 513(Nuclear and Condensed Matter Physics). 2000.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory, fusion rate


1266. Frisone, F. Probability of Deuteron Plasmon Fusion at Room Temperature within Microcracks of Crystalline Lattices with Deuterium Loading. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory, cracks, ICCF-8


1267. Frisone, F., Deuteron Interaction Within a Microcrack in a Lattice at Room Temperature. Fusion Technol., 2001. 39(2 (March)).

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory, crack


1268. Frisone, F., Theoretical model of the probability of fusion between deuterons within deformed crystalline lattices with microcracks at room temperature. Fusion Sci. & Technol., 2001. 40: p. 139.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory, cracks


1269. Frisone, F. Theoretical Model Of The Probability Of Fusion Between Deuterons Within Deformed Lattices With Micro-Cracks At Room Temperature. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory


1270. Frisone, F. Theoretical Comparison Between Semi-Classic And Quantum Tunneling Effect. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory


1271. Frisone, F. Theoretical Comparison Between Semi-Classic And Quantum Tunneling Effect Any Application Coherence Theory On The Tumor (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory


1272. Frisone, F. Theoretical Hypothesis of a Double Barrier Regarding the D-D Interaction in a Pd Lattice: A Possible Explanation of Cold Fusion Experiment Failures. in 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory,


1273. Frisone, F., Tunneling Effect Enhanced by Lattice Screening as Main Cold Fusion Mechanism: An Brief Theoretical Overview. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 16-26.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Collective plasmonic excitation, Dislocations, Fusion within a microcrack, Nuclear reaction,Tunneling effect,Vibrational frequency of the lattice

In this paper are illustrated the main features of tunneling traveling between two deuterons within a lattice. Considering the screening effect due lattice electrons, we compare the d-d fusion rate evaluated from different authors assuming different screening efficiency and different d-d potentials. Then, we propose an effective potential which describe very well the attractive contribute due to plasmon exchange between two deuterons and by means of it we will compute the d-d fusion rates for different energy values. Finally the good agreement between theoretical and experimental results proves the reality of cold fusion phenomena and the reliability of our model.

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1274. Frisone, F., Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter: A Theoretical Study of D-D Reaction within Palladium Lattice by Means of the Coherence Theory of Matter. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 27-40.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Collective plasmonic excitation, Dislocations, Fusion within a microcrack, Nuclear reaction,Tunneling effect,Vibrational frequency of the lattice

In the last decades, an indisputable experimental evidence was built up for Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction (LERN) phenomena in specialized heavy hydrogen systems. Actually, the real problem is that, the theoretical statements of LERN are not known; in fact, no new branch of science has begun, yet. In this work, we seek to analyse the deuteron-deuteron reactions within palladium lattice by means of Preparata model of palladium lattice and we will show the occurrence probability of fusion phenomena according to more accurate, but not claimed, experiments, in order to demonstrate theoretically the possibility of cold fusion. Further, we focus on tunnelling the Coulomb barrier existent between two deuterons. Analysing the possible contributions of lattice on improving the tunnelling probability, we will find that there is a real mechanism through which this probability could be increased: this mechanism is the screening effect due to d-shell electrons of palladium lattice. Finally the good agreement between theoretical and experimental results proves the reality of cold fusion phenomena and the reliability of our model.

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1275. Frisone, F., Calculation of Deuteron Interactions within Microcracks of a D2 Loaded Crystalline Lattice at Room Temperature. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 41-46.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Collective plasmonic excitation, Dislocations, Fusion within a microcrack, Tunneling effect

We have analysed the possibility that the coefficient of lattice deformation, linked to the formation of microcracks at room temperature and low energies, could influence the process of fusion. The calculated probability of fusion within a microcrack, in the presence of D2 loading at room temperature and for impure metals, shows moderately elevated values compared with the probability of fusion on the surface. For all the temperatures in the 150-350 K range and for all the energies between 150 and 250 eV, the formation of microcracks increases the probability of fusion compared to non-deformed lattices, and also reduces the thickness of the Coulomb barrier. Using the trend of the curve of potential to evaluate the influence of the concentration of impurities, a very high barrier is found within the pure lattice (J ≈ 0.25%). However, under the same thermodynamic conditions, the probability of fusion in the impure metal (J ≈ 0.75%) could be higher, with a total energy less than the potential so that the tunneling effect is amplified. Finally, we analysed the influence of forced D2 loading on the process.

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1276. Frisone, F. "The Coulomb Barrier not Static in QED," A correction to the Theory by Preparata on the Phenomenon of Cold Fusion and Theoretical hypothesis. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Theory

In the last two decades, irrefutable experimental evidence has shown that Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) occur in specialized heavy hydrogen systems. Nevertheless, we are still confronted with a problem: the theoretical basis of LENR are not known and, as a matter of fact, little research has been carried out on this subject. In this work we seek to analyse the deuteron-deuteron reactions within palladium lattice by means of Preparata's model of the palladium lattice [5,15]. We will also show the occurrence probability of fusion phenomena according to more accurate experiments [6]. We are not going to use any of the research models which have been previously followed in this field. Our aim is to demonstrate the theoretical possibility of cold fusion. Moreover, we will focus on tunneling the existent Coulomb barrier between two deuterons. Analysing the possible contributions of the lattice to the improvement of the tunneling probability, we find that there is a real mechanism through which this probability could be increased: this mechanism is the screening effect due to d-shell electrons of palladium lattice. The accordance between theoretical and experimental results will prove the reality of cold fusion phenomena and show the reliability of our model.

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1277. Frisone, F. Theoretical Model Of The Probability of Fusion Between Deuterons within Deformed Crystalline Lattices with Micro-Cracks at Room Temperature. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords:

In this paper, we wish to demonstrate that the deformation of the crystalline lattice, at room temperature, can influence the process of fusion of the deuterons introduced into the lattice by deuterium loading. In fact, calculating the probability of deuteron-plasmon fusion within a micro-crack, showed, together with the enhancement of the tunnelling effect, an increase of at least 1-3 orders of magnitude compared to the probability of fusion on the surface of the lattice. These phenomena open the way to the theoretical hypothesis that a kind of chain reaction, catalysed by the micro-cracks produced in the structure as a result of deuterium loading, can favour the process.

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1278. Frisone, F., Nuclear Exothermic Reactions in Lattices Pd: A Theoretical Study of d-d Reaction. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Coulomb barrier, d-d Reactions, Many body

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the Coulomb barrier has variations in both time and space. Further, in this paper, we have taken the interaction between deuteron-optical photons, we want to clarify this point, of course, these photons have a vibrational frequency of interest because it was discovered that the interaction between photons and deuterons causes the Coulomb barrier is not static, that has of oscillations in different directions within the lattice. So we can conclude that this phenomenon of cold fusion that breaks new ground in modern nuclear physics. In recent years, over 20 years, have seen thousands of experiments and theoretical models to explain the phenomenon of fusion at low energy (LENR) in specialized heavy hydrogen systems. We can say that a new possible way to obtain nuclear energy without waste is emerging. Nevertheless in spite of experimental contributions, the theoretical framework is not known. In this work, we try to explain the deuteron-deuteron reactions within palladium lattice by means of the coherence theory of nuclear and condensed matter. The coherence model of condensed matter affirms that within a deuteron-loaded palladium lattice there are three different plasmas: electrons, ions and deuterons plasma. Then, according to the loading percentage x = D/Pd, the ions deuterium can take place on the octahedrical sites or in the tetrahedral in the (1,0,0)-plane. In the coherence theory it is called β-plasma the deuterons plasma in the octahedral site and γ -plasma which in tetrahedral. We propose a general model of effective local time-dependent deuteron-deuteron potential, that takes into account the electrons and ions plasma oscillations. The main features of this potential are extracted by means of many-body theory considering the interaction deuteron-phonon-deuteron. In fact the phonon exchange produces a attractive component between two deuteron within the D2 molecular. This attractive force is able to reduce the inter-nuclear distance from about 0.7 to 0.16 Å. It means that the lattice strongly modifies the nuclear environment with respect to free space. In this way according to deuterons energy, loading percentage and plasma frequency we are able to predict high o low tunneling probability. The fusion rates (s−1) computed vary from 10^−70 to 10^−17 and also a set of other mechanism, which could be enhanced these values, are proposed. In this way we hope that by means of this approach in the future will be possible to realize and control the nuclear exothermic reactions that take place in the condensed matter in order to obtain clean energy.

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1279. Frisone, F., Nuclear Exothermic Reactions in Lattices: A Theoretical Study of D-D Reaction. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 17.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Coherence theory, Condensed matter, Dislocations within the ions of the metal, Low energy nuclear reactions

In this work we try to explain the deuteron-deuteron reactions within palladium lattice by means of the coherence theory of nuclear and condensed matter. The coherence model of condensed matter affirms that within a deuteron-loaded palladium lattice there are three different plasmas: electrons, ions and deuterons plasma. Then, according to the loading percentage x = D/Pd, the ions deuterium can take place on the octahedrical sites or in the tetrahedral in the (1,0,0)-plane. In the coherence theory it is called β-plasma the deuterons plasma in the octahedral site and γ-plasma which in tetrahedral. We propose a general model of effective local time-dependent deuteron-deuteron potential, that takes into account the electrons and ions plasma oscillations. The main features of this potential are extracted by means of many-body theory considering the interaction deuteron-phonon-deuteron. In fact the phonon exchange produces a attractive component between two deuteron within the D2 molecular. This attractive force is able to reduce the inter-nuclear distance from about 0.7 to 0.16 Å. It means that the lattice strongly modifies the nuclear environment with respect to free space. In this way according to deuterons energy, loading percentage and plasma frequency we are able to predict high o low tunneling probability.

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1280. Frodl, P., et al., Possible participation of lithium in Fleischmann-Pons reaction is testable. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1990. 45: p. 757.

First Author: Frodl, P.
All Authors: Frodl, P., Roessler, O. E., Hoffmann, M., Wahl, F.
Keywords: theory, Li


1281. Frolov, A.M. and V.H. Smith, On stimulated nuclear fusion in the cold generalized DT hydrides of fissionable elements. Phys. Lett. A, 1994. 196: p. 217.

First Author: Frolov, A. M.
All Authors: Frolov, A. M., Smith, V. H.
Keywords: theory, fission


1282. Fromm, E. and E. Gebhardt, Gases and Carbon in Metals. 1976: Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

First Author: Fromm, E.
All Authors: Fromm, E., Gebhardt, E.
Keywords: Pd, H, O, D, solubility, phase Diagram, diffusion, thermodynamic, resistivity, Pd-Ag, review


1283. Fujii, Y., et al. Anomalous Neutron Burst in Heavy Water Electrolysis. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Fujii, Y.
All Authors: Fujii, Y., Takahashi, M., Nakada, M., Kusunoki, T., Kamoto, O.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, electrolysis, ICCF-2


1284. Fujii, M., et al. Measurement of Neutrons in Electrolysis at Low Temperature Range. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Fujii, M.
All Authors: Fujii, M., Chiba, M., Fukushima, K., Katada, M., Hirose, T., Kubo, K., Miura, H., Miyamoto, S., Nakahara, H., Nakamitsu, Y., Seimiya, T., Shirakawa, T., Sueki, K., Toriumi, H., Uehara, T., Watanabe, T.
Keywords: Pd, DCl, methanol, neutron, electrolysis, low temperature, ICCF-3, loading

We observed three neutron trains continuing 2 or 3 h as the excess flux during electrolysis of due to rated alcoholic electrolyte at low temperature range with Pd cathode for 1878 h. those were 22 counts/2h and two times of 27 counts/3h in the average background counts of 4/h. We could not find any excess in other time intervals between 28.6 ms and 1878h. The production rates of the 22 and 27 pounds were 6.3×10^-24 and 4.5×10^-24/d-d/s during the 2 and 3h, respectively. The confidence level of neutron emission for the 22/2h and 27/3h were 88% and 59%, respectively, established from the statistics. And for the total of the three trains, the confidence level became 98%.

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1285. Fujii, M., et al. Heat measurement during light water electrolysis using Pd/Ni rod cathodes. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Fujii, M.
All Authors: Fujii, M., Mitsushima, S., Kamiya, N., Ota, K.
Keywords: ICCF-9, heat, H2O, electrolysis, Pd, Ni, Li2SO4, heat capacity

The heat balance under electrolysis in 1M Li2SO4 light water solutions was measured using Pd rods or Pd coated Ni (Pd/Ni) rods for cathode. We detected large excess heat of more than 10% in 6 of 28 experiments. However, in many other experiments, no excess or only small excess heat was observed. In most cases the excess heat was 5% or less. In order to confirm the excess heat, we have to find the reason why these differences take place.

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1286. Fujita, S., On the feasibility of nuclear fusion in fcc metals. Phys. Stat. Sol. B, 1989. 156: p. K17.

First Author: Fujita, S.
All Authors: Fujita, S.
Keywords: theory


1287. Fujiwara, M. and K. Sakuta. Statistically Significant Increase in Neutron Counts for Palladium Plate Filled with Deuterons by Electrolysis. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Fujiwara, M.
All Authors: Fujiwara, M., Sakuta, K.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, electrolysis, ICCF-3

The comparison of the neutron count rate was executed among the Pd states different in the absorbed deuteron amounts. Charge and discharge of deuterons to the Pd plate was repeated cyclically by electrolysis. Highly significant difference of 1% level in statistics was observed between filled and emptied states in one sample among the four samples tested. This excess neutron count rate corresponds to the fusion rate of 0.8×10^ -23 fusions/deuteron pair/sec.

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1288. Fukada, S., et al., Neutron emission from some metal deuterides. Technol. Rep. Kyushu Univ., 1990. 63(5): p. 475 (in Japanese.

First Author: Fukada, S.
All Authors: Fukada, S., Furuya, S., Matsumoto, Y., Ishibashi, K., Mitsuishi, N.
Keywords: D2, Pd, Ti, Pd-coated C, neutron


1289. Fukada, S., et al., Measurement of exoelectrons from palladium and palladium deuteride with gas proportional counter. J. Alloys Comp., 1994. 204: p. 223.

First Author: Fukada, S.
All Authors: Fukada, S., Furuya, S., Sakae, T., Mitsuishi, N.
Keywords: fractofusion, electron emission, Pd


1290. Fukai, Y., From Metal Hydrides to the Metal-Hydrogen System. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 172-174: p. 8.

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y.
Keywords: phase Diagram, H, high Pressure, V, Ti


1291. Fukai, Y. Some Properties of the Fe-H System at High Pressures and Temperatures. and their Implications for the Earth's Core. in High-Pressure Research: Application to Earth and Planetary Sciences. 1992. Terra Scientific Publishing Co, Tokyo.

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y.
Keywords: Fe, H2, phase Diagram


1292. Fukai, Y. The ABC's of the Hydrogen-Metal System. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y.
Keywords: Pd, D, distance, theory, ICCF-3, PdD, lattice parameter

Some basic properties of the hydrogen- metal system are described with particular attention paid to the availability of close D-D pairs in metals. A brief description is also given of the behavior of energetic D+ ions during their passage through a metal lattice.

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1293. Fukai, Y. and H. Sugimoto, Hydrogen Diffusion in Metals-Unsolved Problems. Defect and Diffusion Forum, 1992. 83: p. 87.

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y., Sugimoto, H.
Keywords: hydrogen, diffusion


1294. Fukai, Y., Computer Aided Innovation of New Materials II Some Unsolved Problems of Hydrogen in Metals, ed. M. Doyama, et al. 1993: Elsevier Sci. PubFukai, Y.

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y.
Keywords: volume, structure, Pd, Ni, Mn, alloys, H2,


1295. Fukai, Y., Present status on cold fusion. Nippon Butsuri Gakkaishi, 1993. 48(5): p. 354 (in Japanese).

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y.
Keywords: Review


1296. Fukai, Y. and N. Okuma, Formation of superabundant vacancies in Pd hydride under high hydrogen pressures. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1994. 73: p. 1640.

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y., Okuma, N.
Keywords: PdH, phase diagram, structure, high Pressure


1297. Fukuhara, M., Possible dynamic interaction of deuterons between tetrahedral and octahedral interstices of palladium lattice at cryogenic temperatures. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 151.

First Author: Fukuhara, M.
All Authors: Fukuhara, M.
Keywords: theory, structure, gamma phase


1298. Fukuhara, M. Possible Nuclear Transmutation Of Nitrogen In The Earth's Atmosphere. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Fukuhara, M.
All Authors: Fukuhara, M.
Keywords: theory


1299. Fukushima, K. Is Sono-Fusion to be a Possible Mechanism for Cold Fusion? in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Fukushima, K.
All Authors: Fukushima, K.
Keywords: theory, accustic, sonofusion, ICCF-3

Phenomena of sono-Iuminescence now appear before the footlights. Recently direct measurement of the temperature of a hot spot created in a liquid by applying a supersonic field was carried out and very large values, T ~ 0.5 eV, were obtained.

It seems, therefore, to be an urgent problem to determine the upper bound for temperatures and densities realizable in the hot spot, in connection with cold fusion. In this paper we calculate it by use of the bubble dynamics so far developed by many authors and estimate the fusion rate per bubble.

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1300. Fukushima, K. Sonofusion, Compressibility of Liquid and Stability of Spherical Cavity. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Fukushima, K.
All Authors: Fukushima, K.
Keywords: sonofusion, theory, compressibility, ICCF-5

We proposed the sonofusion at ICCF3 and theoretically predicted by use of a simplified model that the temperature of gas within a supersonic cavity reaches more than 10^8 K if the initial radius of the cavity is less than 10 µm, that is temperatures high enough for the occurrence of hot fusion.

In the present paper we consider a more realistic model by taking into account the compressibility of liquid and search for the optimum values of supersonic parameters for getting high gas-temperature. In addition the stability of a spherical cavity is examined.

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1301. Fullenwider, M., Electrochemical current balance with the hydrogen-palladium system. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1975. 122(5): p. 648.

First Author: Fullenwider, M.
All Authors: Fullenwider, M.
Keywords: loading, PdH, Pd, electrolysis, H2O


1302. Fullenwider, M., A Method for the Determination of Energy Gaps in Hydrogen-Metal Systems. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1986. 285: p. 285.

First Author: Fullenwider, M.
All Authors: Fullenwider, M.
Keywords: H2, Pd, Band Gap, PdH, density of states


1303. Fulvio, F. Theoretical model on the relationship between low energies in the probability of deuterium nuclei cold fusion. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Fulvio, F.
All Authors: Fulvio, F.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory, micro crack, fractofusion


1304. Gabovich, A.M., Possibility of cold fusion in palladium deuterides: screening effects and connection to superconducting properties. Philos. Mag. B, 1997. 76: p. 107.

First Author: Gabovich, A. M.
All Authors: Gabovich, A. M.
Keywords: Theory, superconductivity, screening


1305. Gai, M., et al., Upper limits on neutron and gamma-ray emission from cold fusion. Nature (London), 1989. 340: p. 29.

First Author: Gai, M.
All Authors: Gai, M., Rugari, S. L., France, R. H., Lund, B. J., Zhao, Z., Davenport, A. J., Isaacs, H. S., Lynn, K. G.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2, Ti, neutron gamma emission


1306. Gai, M., et al., Upper limits on emission rates of neutrons and gamma-rays from 'cold fusion' in deuterated metals. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 217.

First Author: Gai, M.
All Authors: Gai, M., Rugari, S. L., France, R. H., Lund, B. J., Zhao, Z., Davenport, A. J., Isaacs, H. S., Lynn, K. G.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, gamma emission


1307. Gajda, M. and J. Rafelski, Jovian limits on conventional fusion. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 1991. 17: p. 653.

First Author: Gajda, M.
All Authors: Gajda, M., Rafelski, J.
Keywords: theory, Jupiter


1308. Gajewski, R., Investigation of some aspects of cold fusion. 1989.

First Author: Gajewski, R.
All Authors: Gajewski, R.
Keywords: proposal, history


1309. Gajewski, R., Fuzja, nadzieja czy iluzja? (Nuclear fusion, hope or illusion?). Postepy Fiz., 1991. 42: p. 85 (in Polish).

First Author: Gajewski, R.
All Authors: Gajewski, R.
Keywords: Discussion


1310. Gamarra, N., Erroneous Predictions. Library of Congress, 1967.

First Author: Gamarra, N.
All Authors: Gamarra, N.
Keywords: predictions, history


1311. Gamberale, L., D. Garbelli, and G. Piana. Measurement of heat capacity of PdHx. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Gamberale, L.
All Authors: Gamberale, L., Garbelli, D., Piana, G.
Keywords: ICCF-9, heat capacity, PdH, resistivity

We present experimental data on heat capacity and thermal coefficient of resistance of PdHx system at loading ratio 0<x<0.93 at room temperature. To this purpose a dynamic measurement method has been devised.  Data confirm the existence of a phase transition around x; 0.7 (gamma phase).

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1312. Gamberale, L., Final technical report on the Defkalion GT calorimetric protocol. 2014, Personal Communication.

First Author: Gamberale, L.
All Authors: Gamberale, L.
Keywords: excess heat, calorimeter

I show that the experimental protocol used by Defkalion Green Technologies (DGT) is not reliable to demonstrate the production of large amounts of energy with the use of the reactor R5. Experimental tests
carried out using the same measurement system used by DGT in public demonstrations show that the measurement of excess of thermal energy carried out following the experimental protocol of DGT is obtainable regardless of the use of H2 and of the high voltage excitation.

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1313. Gammon, B.E., Cathode cooling by expansion of hydrogen in calorimetric tests for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 342.

First Author: Gammon, B. E.
All Authors: Gammon, B. E.
Keywords: theory, heat, Joule-Thompson critique


1314. Gann, V.V. and V.I. Pokhodyashchii, Metastable bound states of deuterium in palladium and its role in cold nuclear fusion. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1990(1): p. 89 (in Russian).

First Author: Gann, V. V.
All Authors: Gann, V. V., Pokhodyashchii, V. I.
Keywords: Theory, effective mass, tunnelling


1315. Ganz, J. and J. Newman, Cold Fusion : Will It Be Harnessed?, in High Technology Careers Magazine. 1989. p. 60.

First Author: Ganz, J.
All Authors: Ganz, J., Newman, J.
Keywords: history, theory, muon


1316. Gareev, F., I. Zhidkova, and Y. Ratis. Enhancement Mechanisms of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Gareev, F.
All Authors: Gareev, F., Zhidkova, I., Ratis, Yu.
Keywords: theory


1317. Gareev, F. and I. Zhidkova. New Cooperative Mechanisms of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Using Superlow Energy External Field. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Gareev, F.
All Authors: Gareev, F., Zhidkova, I.
Keywords: theory


1318. Gareev, F., G. Gareeva, and I. Zhidkova. Quantization of Atomic and Nuclear Rest Masses. in 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Gareev, F.
All Authors: Gareev, F., Gareeva, G., Zhidkova, I.
Keywords: theory,


1319. Gareev, F., G. Gareeva, and I. Zhidkova. Common Mechanism of Superconductivity, Superfluidity, Integer and Fractional Hall Effects, and Cold Fusion. in 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Gareev, F.
All Authors: Gareev, F., Gareeva, G., Zhidkova, I.
Keywords: theory,


1320. Garfinkle, M., Ion implantation as a definitive means of investigating any possibility of intracrystalline nuclear fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 160.

First Author: Garfinkle, M.
All Authors: Garfinkle, M.
Keywords: Suggestion, ion implantation, method


1321. Garg, A.B., et al. Protocol for Controlled and Rapid Loading/Unloading of H2/D2 Gas in Self Heated Pd Wires to Trigger Nuclear Events. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Garg, A. B.
All Authors: Garg, A. B., Rout, R. K., Srinivasan, M., Sankarnarayanan, T. K., Shyam, A., Kulkarni, L. V.
Keywords: Pd, D2, H2, gas loading, autoradiography, ICCF-5

It has now been established that during electrolysis of LiOD using Pd cathodes a threshold loading ratio of at least 0.85 needs to be achieved before excess heat production can be expected, However for emission of neutrons and tritium and possibly charged particles and transmutation products too much lower D/Pd ratios, in the region of 0.4 to 0.7 appears to be adequate. This has been independently corroborated in a variety of electrolytic and gas loading experiments. It is not so much the magnitudes of the steady state loading ratio, but rather creation of non-equilibrium conditions which facilitates rapid migration/transport of deuterons within the Pd lattice that seems to be required. With this in view a systematic study has been undertaken using electrically self-heated 0.1 25 mm dia Pd wires in H2/D2 atmospheres to optimize the conditions under wh ich rap id load ing/unloading or H2 or D2 can be achieved. Pd wire was of 99.9% purity and was procured from Lieco Industries USA.

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1322. Garwin, R.L., Consensus on Cold Fusion. Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 616.

First Author: Garwin, R. L.
All Authors: Garwin, R. L.
Keywords: review, critique, history


1323. Garwin, R.L., SRI Deuterated Metals Project. 1993, Thomas J. Watson Research Center: Yorktown Heights, NY.

First Author: Garwin, R. L.
All Authors: Garwin, R. L.
Keywords: review


1324. Gdowski, G.E., T.E. Felter, and R.H. Stulen, Effect of Surface Temperature on the Sorption of Hydrogen by Pd(111). Surf. Sci. Lett., 1987. 181: p. L147.

First Author: Gdowski, G. E.
All Authors: Gdowski, G. E., Felter, T. E., Stulen, R. H.
Keywords: Pd, H, adsorption


1325. Gentsch, H., DD-fusion reactions at a PdAg(D) target in a minireactor. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 1991. 95: p. 1283 (in German).

First Author: Gentsch, H.
All Authors: Gentsch, H.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd-Ag, ion beam, neutron, gamma emission, D2O,, tritium


1326. Gentsch, H., Reply to: R. Behrisch, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 733 [1992]. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 1992. 96: p. 734 (in German).

First Author: Gentsch, H.
All Authors: Gentsch, H.
Keywords: Polemic


1327. George, R., The cold fusion phenomenon -- An interview with Dr. Mahadeva Srinivasan, in Cold Fusion. 1994.

First Author: George, R.
All Authors: George, R.
Keywords: Review

Dr. Mahadeva Srinivasan was the head of the Neutron Physics Division and an Associate Director of the Physics Group of BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Center) in Mumbai (Bombay), India when this interview was held on March 1, 1994 at SRI International in Menlo Park, California. At that time he was a visiting scientist there, participating in the Cold Fusion experiments underway at the laboratories of the Energy Research Center.

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1328. George, R., Production of He4 from deuterium via reaction on a palladium carbon hydrogenation catalyst at 200C. 1996.

First Author: George, R.
All Authors: George, R.
Keywords: 4He, Pd-black, Case, heat+


1329. George, R. and R. Stringham, Technical report on the demonstration of new technology producing heat and nuclear products via cavitation induced micro-fusion in E-quest sciences Mark II research device. 1996.

First Author: George, R.
All Authors: George, R., Stringham, R.
Keywords: E-quest, sonofusion, cavitation, heat+, 4He+, transmutation,


1330. George, R., Observations of helium bubbles in thin palladium metal foil using scanning electron microscopy. 1997.

First Author: George, R.
All Authors: George, R.
Keywords: Pd, 4He, sonofusion, cavitation, ultrasonic


1331. Gerischer, H., Memorandum on the present state of knowledge on cold fusion. 1991, Fritz Harber Institute der Max Planke: Berlin.

First Author: Gerischer, H.
All Authors: Gerischer, H.
Keywords: review,


1332. Gerischer, H. Is Cold Fusion a Reality? The Impressions of a Critical Observer. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Gerischer, H.
All Authors: Gerischer, H.
Keywords: review, critique, history, ICCF-2, surface

"In spite of my earlier conclusion, -- and that of the majority of scientists, -- that the phenomena reported by Fleischmann and Pons in 1989 depended either on measurement errors or were of chemical origin, there is now undoubtedly overwhelming indications that nuclear processes take place in the metal alloys." Professor Heinz Gerischer

COLD FUSION John O'M. Bockris Chemistry Dept., Texas A&M University College Station, TX  77843

October 30, 1991

A memorandum has been written on the present state of cold fusion research as of October, 1991, by Professor Heinz Gerischer. The significance of this memorandum arises from Professor Gerische-s status.  He is widely recognized to be the leading physical electrochemist in Europe and would vie for the title on a still wider basis.  Apart from his long term involvement in electrochemistry he is well known as a physical chemist of the highest standing and was, until 1988, the Director of the Max Planck Institute for Physical Chemistry in Berlin.

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1333. Gerlovin, I.L., R.K. Baranova, and P.S. Baranov, New approach to low-temperature nuclear fusion. Zh. Obshch. Khim., 1992. 62: p. 230 (in Russian).

First Author: Gerlovin, I. L.
All Authors: Gerlovin, I. L., Baranova, R. Kh., Baranov, P. S.
Keywords: Theory, suggestion


1334. Gernert, N. and R.M. Shaubach, Nascent Hydrogen: An Energy Source. 1993, Department of the Air Force.

First Author: Gernert, N.
All Authors: Gernert, N., Shaubach, R. M.
Keywords: heat

Anomalous heat was measured from a reaction of atomic hydrogen in contact with potassium carbonate on a nickel surface. The nickel surface consisted of 500 feet of 0.0625 inch diameter tubing wrapped in a coil. The coil was inserted into a pressure vessel containing a light water solution of potassium carbonate. The tubing and solution were heated to a steady state temperature of 249C using an FR heater. Hydrogen at 1100 psig was applied to the inside of the tubing. After the application of hydrogen, a 32C increase in temperature of the cell was measured which corresponds to 25 watts of heat. Heat production under these conditions is predicted by the theory of Mills where a new species of hydrogen is produced that has a lower energy state then normal hydrogen. ESCA analyses, done independently by Lehigh University, have found the predicted 55 eV signature of this new species of hydrogen. Work is continuing at Thermacore with internal funding to bring this technology to the marketplace.

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1335. Gerstein, S.S., The Critical Test Experiments in Cold Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Gerstein, S. S.
All Authors: Gerstein, S. S.
Keywords: theory, history


1336. Ghosh, S.K., H.K. Saidhukhan, and A.K. Dhara, A Theory of Cold Nuclear Fusion in Deuterium Loaded Palladium, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. C 4.

First Author: Ghosh, S. K.
All Authors: Ghosh, S. K., Saidhukhan, H. K., Dhara, A. K.
Keywords: theory,


1337. Ghosh, S.K., H.K. Sadhukhan, and A.K. Dhara, A theory of cold nuclear fusion in deuterium-loaded palladium. Pramana, 1989. 33: p. L339.

First Author: Ghosh, S. K.
All Authors: Ghosh, S. K., Sadhukhan, H. K., Dhara, A. K.
Keywords: Theory, screening, jellium


1338. Gibb, T.R.P., Lattice-Distension and the Magnetic Susceptibility of Palladium Hydride. 1966.

First Author: Gibb, T. R. P.
All Authors: Gibb, T. R. P.
Keywords: Pd, H, Magnetic Susceptibility, lattice Parameter, density Of States,


1339. Gibbs, M., Cold Fusion Gets a Little More Real [Updated], in Forbes. 2012.

First Author: Gibbs, M.
All Authors: Gibbs, M.
Keywords: excess heat


1340. Gieryn, T.F., "The Social Dimensions of Science", The ballad of Pons and Fleischmann: Experiment and narrative in the (un)making of cold fusion, ed. E. McMullin. 1992: U. Notre Dame Press, Gieryn, T.F. 214.

First Author: Gieryn, T. F.
All Authors: Gieryn, T. F.
Keywords: sociology, review, history


1341. Gillespie, L.J. and W.R. Downs, The Palladium-Deuterium Equilibrium. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1937. 61: p. 2494.

First Author: Gillespie, L. J.
All Authors: Gillespie, L. J., Downs, W. R.
Keywords: Phase Diagram, pressure, Pd, D, PdD


1342. Gillespie, D.J., et al., A search for anomalies in the palladium-deuterium system. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 526.

First Author: Gillespie, D. J.
All Authors: Gillespie, D. J., Kamm, G. N., Ehrlich, A. C., Mart, P. L.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, neutron, heat-, D2O, dimension, resistivity


1343. Gimpel, R. Multicell Reactors. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Gimpel, R.
All Authors: Gimpel, R.
Keywords:

A growing body of experimental evidence in this last decade has shown that some types of low-energy-induced nuclear reactions are possible. Key cathode characteristics considered important for these non-Joule heating reactions, as documented in a US patent application, are discussed. These concepts are incorporated into an electrolytic reactor system to encourage these reactions while discourage Joule heating of the electrolyte. However, even the more efficient reactor designs appear to have diminishing returns upon scale up. The MultiCell unit's unique design allows for repetitive replication of the unit (much like a component on a circuit board or computer chip) to acquire the desired power output while still maintaining the efficiency of the small MultiCell unit. The design uses a plurality of small cells arranged in an interconnected array, wherein each cell is characterized by having a relatively small cathode separated from a relatively large anode by a small gap.

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1344. Giordano, N., A.S. Arico, and V. Antonucci, Thermal effects during the electrolytic charging of deuterium in the palladium lattice. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 105.

First Author: Giordano, N.
All Authors: Giordano, N., Arico, A. S., Antonucci, V.
Keywords: theory, thermal conductivity


1345. Gittus, J. and J. Bockris, Explanations of cold fusion (section editor's title). Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 105 (Scientific Correspondence).

First Author: Gittus, J.
All Authors: Gittus, J., Bockris, J.
Keywords: theory, polemic, Loading


1346. Gluck, P., Understanding Reproducibility: Topology Is The Key. Fusion Facts, 1992. 3(11).

First Author: Gluck, P.
All Authors: Gluck, P.
Keywords: theory

Lack of reproducibility was a kind of original sin and a rich source of troubles, despair and skeptics from the start of the cold fusion story. Now the situation is much improved, but the progress has resulted mainly from trial and error experiments and not from cause-effect considerations, principles, models or theories. This statement is valid even for the newly born light-water excess energy experiments [1]. The most developed theories, e.g. the T.R.M. model of Bush [2] must be combined with purely empirical descriptions of know-how and engineering data as those of Cravens [3] for electrochemical cells. Scaramuzzi [4] for gas-metal systems, Mills [5] (the experimental part) and Mallove [1] for light water experiments. An example of spectacular irreproducibility was obtained by the scientists of the Bhabha Atomic Research Center [6,7]: "not only are the anomalous fusion reactions found to take place in only a very few chips (obtained from the same piece of titanium) but even in those chips, tritium production is restricted to a small number of selected localized ‘hot spots' only..."

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1347. Gluck, P., The surfdyne concept: an attempt to solve (or to rename) the puzzles of cold nuclear fusion. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 122.

First Author: Gluck, P.
All Authors: Gluck, P.
Keywords: Theory, surfdyne, catalysis, layer


1348. Gluck, P. Cold Fusion - A Logical Network Approach. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Gluck, P.
All Authors: Gluck, P.
Keywords: theory


1349. Gluck, P., A new definition for 'chemical element? Chem. Innov., 2001. 31(10): p. 44.

First Author: Gluck, P.
All Authors: Gluck, P.
Keywords: theory, Mills, hydrino


1350. Godes, R. Quantum Fusion Hypothesis. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Godes, R.
All Authors: Godes, R.
Keywords: Theory

The field of cold fusion is not "fusion" as the current establishment defines it.

A basic tenant of research is that correlation does not equal causation. The current assumption of Deuterium Deuterium (DD) fusion based on the excellent work of Dr. Michael McKubre showing a near perfect match of excess heat to helium produced is only a correlation. The assumption of DD fusion may be fallacious and leading to a dead end. In many cases the Pons Fleischmann reaction starts with deuterium and ends with helium. This would seem to indicate DD fusion, but this is assuming that correlation equals causation.

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1351. Godes, R., et al., Controlled Electron Capture and the Path toward Commercialization. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Godes, R.
All Authors: Godes, R., George, R., Tanzella, F. L., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Cold neutrons, Electrolysis, Electron Capture, Excess Heat

We have run over 150 experiments using two different cell/calorimeter designs. Excess power has always been seen using Q pulses tuned to the resonance of palladium and nickel hydrides in pressurized vessels. Excess energies of up to 100% have been seen using this excitation method.

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1352. Godshall, N.A., et al., Calorimetric and thermodynamic analysis of palladium-deuterium electrochemical cells. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 229.

First Author: Godshall, N. A.
All Authors: Godshall, N. A., Roth, E. P., Kelly, M. J., Guilinger, T. R., Ewing, R. I.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, heat, neutron, method, D2O, thermodynamic


1353. Goedkoop, J.A., Koude kernfusie in de vaste stof?" (Cold nuclear fusion in solids?). Energiespektrum, 1989. 13: p. 156 (in Dutch).

First Author: Goedkoop, J. A.
All Authors: Goedkoop, J. A.
Keywords: Review


1354. Gold, T., New ideas in science. J. Sci. Expl., 1989. 3(2): p. 103.

First Author: Gold, T.
All Authors: Gold, T.
Keywords: history


1355. Goldanskii, V.I. and F.I. Dalidchik, Mechanism of solid-state fusion (Title given by Letters editor). Nature (London), 1989. 342: p. 231.

First Author: Goldanskii, V. I.
All Authors: Goldanskii, V. I., Dalidchik, F. I.
Keywords: theory


1356. Goldanskii, V.I. and F.I. Dalidchik, On the possibilities of 'cold enhancement' of nuclear fusion. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 234: p. 465.

First Author: Goldanskii, V. I.
All Authors: Goldanskii, V. I., Dalidchik, F. I.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion


1357. Goloborodsky, B., V. Ovchinnikov, and V. Semionkin, Long-Range Effects in the FePd2Au Alloy Under Ion Bombardment. Fusion Technol., 2001. 39(3 (May)).

First Author: Goloborodsky, B.
All Authors: Goloborodsky, B., Ovchinnikov, V., Semionkin, V.
Keywords: ion bombardment


1358. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., A possible mechanism for cold nuclear fusion. J. Kratk. Soobshch. Fiz., 1989(6): p. 56 (In Russian).

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Kurakin, V. A., Filonenko, A. D., Tsarev, V. A., Tsarik, A. A.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion


1359. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., Possible mechanism of cold nuclear fusion. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Khim., 1989. 307: p. 99 (in Russian).

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Kurakin, V. A., Filonenko, A. D., Tsarev, V. A., Tsarik, A. A.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion


1360. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., Correlation between nuclear, acoustic, and electromagnetic emissions during the electrolytic saturation of palladium with deuterium. Sov. Phys. - Lebedev Inst. Rep., 1990(8): p. 31.

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Merzon, G. I., Filonenko, A. D., Tsarev, V. A., Tsarik, A. S.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd accustic gamma emission, D2O


1361. Golubnichii, P.I., et al. Observation of Nuclear Particles and Their Correlation with Acoustic and Electromagnetic Emission from Palladium Targets Loaded by Deuterium. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Philonenko, A. D., Tsaric, A. A., Kovalchuk, E. P., Merzon, G. I., Tsarev, V. A.
Keywords: neutron, RF, Pd, D2O, acoustic, tritium, electrolysis


1362. Golubnichii, P.I., et al. Recording of Neutron and Acoustic Emissions From Palladium Target in a Low-Background Underground Experiment. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Philonenko, A. D., Tsaric, A. A., Kuzminov, V. V., Pritichenko, B. V., Merzon, G. I., Tsarev, V. A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, acoustic, fractofusion, electrolysis


1363. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., Verification of the accelerator model for low-temperature nuclear fusion. Sov. Phys. - Lebedev Inst. Rep., 1990. 9: p. 16.

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Filonenko, A. D., Tsarev, V. A., Tsarik, A. A., Chechin, V. A.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion


1364. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., Detection of neutrons and tritium from solid palladium targets by electrolytic deuterium charging. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1990. 16(21): p. 46 (in Russian).

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Koval'chuk, E. P., Merzon, G. I., Filonenko, A. D., Tsarev, V. A., Tsarik, A. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, tritium, electroplate


1365. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., Proton emission in low-temperature nuclear fusion. Sov. Phys. - Lebedev Inst. Rep., 1991. 12: p. 6.

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Kayumov, F. F., Merzon, G. I., Petrii, O. A., Tsarev, V. A., Tsirlina, G. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, particle emission, D2O


1366. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., Correlated neutron and acoustic emission from a deuterium-saturated palladium target. JETP Lett., 1991. 53: p. 122.

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Kuz'minov, V. V., Merzon, G. I., Pritichenko, B. V., Filonenko, A. D., Tsarev, V. A., Tsarik, A. A.
Keywords: fractofusion, Pd, neutron, electrolysis, D2O, accustic


1367. Goncharov, A.I. and V.A. Kirkinskii. Theoretical Modeling Of Electron Flow Action On Probability Of Nuclear Fusion Of Deuterons. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Goncharov, A. I.
All Authors: Goncharov, A. I., Kirkinskii, V. A.
Keywords: theory


1368. Good, W.R., Comments on 'Calorimetry, excess heat, and Faraday efficiency in Ni-H2O electrolytic cells'. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 132.

First Author: Good, W. R.
All Authors: Good, W. R.
Keywords: critique, Shkedi


1369. Goods, S.H. and S.E. Guthrie, Mechanical Properties of Palladium and Palladium Hydride. 1991.

First Author: Goods, S. H.
All Authors: Goods, S. H., Guthrie, S. E.
Keywords: Pd, PdH, strength, stress, strain, hardness,


1370. Goodstein, D., Pariah Science. Whatever Happened to Cold Fusion? The American Scholar, 1994. 63(4): p. 527.

First Author: Goodstein, D.
All Authors: Goodstein, D.
Keywords: history


1371. Goodstein, D., Whatever Happened to Cold Fusion? Accountability Res., 2000. 8.

First Author: Goodstein, D.
All Authors: Goodstein, D.
Keywords: history

The article that follows was written in 1994, and first appeared in The American Scholar (vol. 63 p. 527).  In the three years since then much has happened, but little has changed.  There have been reports of increasingly reliable production of excess heat, and of the detection of 4He residue, and much more.  Nevertheless, the most remarkable fact remains that cold fusion has neither been accepted by mainstream science, nor has it withered away.  The general situation that the article describes still seems to be in place today.

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1372. Goodwin, I., Fusion in a Flask: Expert DOE Panel Throws Cold Water on Utah Discovery. Physics Today, 1989. December: p. 43.

First Author: Goodwin, I.
All Authors: Goodwin, I.
Keywords: history


1373. Goon, E.J., The Non-Stoichiometry of Lathanum Hydride. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1959. 63: p. 2018.

First Author: Goon, E. J.
All Authors: Goon, E. J.
Keywords: Lattice Parameter, La, H, structure, Phase Diagram


1374. Gorodetskii, V.G., et al., Emission of neutrons and gamma quanta from palladium upon its saturation with deuterium in the gas phase. Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 1991(7): p. 176 (in Russian).

First Author: Gorodetskii, V. G.
All Authors: Gorodetskii, V. G., Polosukhin, B. G., Sulimov, E. M., Novikov, P. I., Bychin, V. P.
Keywords: D2, Pd, neutron, gamma emission


1375. Goryachev, I.V. Registration of synthesis of 45Rh102 in media of excited nuclei of 28Ni58. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Goryachev, I. V.
All Authors: Goryachev, I. V.
Keywords: ICCF-9, transmutation, electron bombardment

For the purpose of searching for heavy nuclei generated in the result of low energy nuclear processes we used samples of 28Ni58 which were bombarded with 27 MeV electrons from the Resonance accelerator MI-30. The samples of nickel of 48 mm in diameter and 20 mm thick were irradiated with electrons to the level of absorbed energy of around 2.5 106 J/cm^3 which is approximately 5 times exceeds the minimum specific energy at which as it followed from the authors' theoretical model the process of generating transmuted elements will become quite noticeable.

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1376. Goryachev, I.V. Abnormal results of experimenting with excited substances and interpretation of the discovered effects within the frames of the model of collective interactions. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Goryachev, I. V.
All Authors: Goryachev, I. V.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory

During a number of years there were carried out experiments to investigate interactions of excited substances with radiation, gravity and other kinds of fields. Converting atoms of the substances into excited state was fulfilled by means of bombarding the samples used with intensive beams of electrons with energy of 27 MeV and the accompanying bremsstrahlung generated by the electrons in the substances and intermediate targets.

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1377. Goryachev, I.V. and Y. Bazhutov. Organization, current status and main results of Russian research in cold fusion and transmutation of chemical elements. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Goryachev, I. V.
All Authors: Goryachev, I. V., Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: ICCF-9, review

We can not help remembering that in the Soviet Union investigations of a number of abnormal phenomena which later were related to the problem of Cold Nuclear Fusion were carried out long before Fleischmann and Pons announced their experiments at the American University of Utah.

At present these kind of research works are widely carried on in Russia despite the absence of any state support and while part of the official scientific community remains skeptical.

In total there are more than 30 groups of scientists engaged in research in this field in Russia . . .

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1378. Gottesfeld, S., et al. Experiments and Nuclear Measurements in Search of Cold Fusion Proceses. in Workshop on Cold Fusion Phenomena. 1989. Santa Fe, NM.

First Author: Gottesfeld, S.
All Authors: Gottesfeld, S., Anderson, R. E., Leonard, E. M., Springer, T. E., Baker, D. A., Zawodzinski, T., Bolton, R. D., Butterfield, K. B., Garzon, F. H., Goulding, C. A., Johnson, M. W.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma emission, heat-


1379. Gottesfeld, S., et al., Experiments and nuclear measurements in search of cold fusion processes. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 287.

First Author: Gottesfeld, S.
All Authors: Gottesfeld, S., Anderson, R. E., Baker, D. A., Bolton, R. D., Butterfield, K. B., Garzon, F. H., Goulding, C. A., Johnson, M. W., Leonard, E. M., Springer, T. E., Zawodzinski, T.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, gamma emission, heat, D2O, Titanium, D2


1380. Gou, Q., Z. Zhu, and Q. Zhang, Possible mechanism of cold fusion and experimental research. Yuanzi Yu Fenzi Wuli Xuebao, 1990. 7: p. 1491 (in Chinese).

First Author: Gou, Q.
All Authors: Gou, Q., Zhu, Z., Zhang, Q.
Keywords: theory, electrolysis, heat, He, Pd, Ti, D2O


1381. Gou, Q., Further discussion on the mechanism of cold fusion and cold fusion materials. Chin. J. At. Mol. Phys., 1998. 15(1): p. 7 (in Chinese).

First Author: Gou, Q.
All Authors: Gou, Q.
Keywords: theory, TiD2, PdD


1382. Govorov, B.V., et al., Neutron Emission from Palladium Alloys Saturated with Deuterium. Russ. J. Phys. Chem., 1990. 64(2): p. 287.

First Author: Govorov, B. V.
All Authors: Govorov, B. V., Gryaznov, V. M., Eremin, N. V., Karavanov, A. N., Roshan, N. R., Tulinov, A. F., Tyapkin, I. V.
Keywords: Pd, neutron, D2, Pd-Sm, Pd-Ru, fractofusion


1383. Gozzi, D., et al., Neutron and Tritium Evidences in the Electrolytic Reduction of Deuterium on Pd Electrodes. 1989.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Petrucci, L., Tomellini, M., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Ghio, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium


1384. Gozzi, D., et al. First Results from a Ten Electrolytic Cells Experiment. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Petrucci, L., Tomellini, M., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Ghio, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma emission, tritium, electrolysis


1385. Gozzi, D., et al., Nuclear and thermal effects during electrolytic reduction of deuterium at palladium cathode. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 241.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Petrucci, L., Tomellini, M., De Maria, G., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Ghio, F., Jodice, M., Tabet, E.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat, neutron, gamma emission, tritium, D2O


1386. Gozzi, D., et al., Evidences for associated heat generation and nuclear products release in palladium heavy-water electrolysis. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1990. 103: p. 143.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Petrucci, L., Tomellini, M., De Maria, G., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Ghio, F., Jodice, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, neutron+, gamma emission, D2O


1387. Gozzi, D., et al. Multicell Experiments for Searching Time-Related Events in Cold Fusion. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Tomellini, M., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Ghio, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O neutron tritium gamma emission heat+ Current density ICCF-2 electrolysis


1388. Gozzi, D., et al. Experiments with Global Detection of Cold Fusion Byproducts. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Caputo, R., Tomellini, M., Balducci, G., Gigli, G., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron, tritium, electrolysis, ICCF-3, negative

On the line of the previous experiments carried out in a multicell electrochemical system, we will present the results obtained with an improved experimental apparatus recently assembled. In the present experimental configuration, we have a 60 3He tubes neutron counter from Jomar/Canberra (Los Alamos, NM) in which the ten cells system is located. In this way the efficiency of the neutron detection has been increased from 5x 10^-5 to 0.22. The sixty tubes are divided in twelve groups to localize which cell is generating neutrons owing to the counting of the twelve separated scalers. 4He detelmination by mass-spectrometry is another feature recently added to our experiment.

Preliminary results confirm what we already obtained and presented at ICCF2 last year. They are essentially the production of excess heat up to 43% without any appreciable neutron and tritium excesses compared to the respective backgrounds. A carefull check of the neutron data, through the analysis and dating of the single pulse shape, is still in progress to identify if intense spikes observed in the R+A count are due to a real in situ nuclear phenomena or background or artifact effects.

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1389. Gozzi, D., et al., Neutron and tritium evidence in the electrolytic reduction of deuterium on palladium electrodes. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 60.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Tomellini, M., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Ghio, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, tritium, D2O


1390. Gozzi, D., et al. Excess Heat and Nuclear Product Measurements in Cold Fusion Electrochemical Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Caputo, R., Cignini, P. L., Tomellini, M., Gigli, G., Balducci, G., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, He, neutron, heat+, tritium, electrolysis, ICCF-4


1391. Gozzi, D., et al. Helium-4 Quantitative Measurements in the Gas Phase of Cold Fusion Electrochemical Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Caputo, R., Cignini, P. L., Tomellini, M., Gigli, G., Balducci, G., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: He, heat+, D2O, electrolysis, Pd, ICCF-4


1392. Gozzi, D., et al., Calorimetric and nuclear byproduct measurements in electrochemical confinement of deuterium in palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 380: p. 91.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Caputo, R., Cignini, P. L., Tomellini, M., Gigli, G., Balducci, G., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, heat+, neutron, He, tritium, D2O


1393. Gozzi, D., et al., Quantitative measurements of helium-4 in the gas phase of Pd + D2O electrolysis. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 380: p. 109.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Caputo, R., Cignini, P. L., Tomellini, M., Gigli, G., Balducci, G., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, Helium, D2O, method


1394. Gozzi, D., et al., X-ray, heat excess and 4He in the D/Pd system. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1998. 452: p. 251.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cellucci, F., Cignini, P. L., Gigli, G., Tomellini, M., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, x-ray, heat+, He

Abstract The energy balance between heat excess and 4He in the gas phase has been found to be reasonably satisfied even if the low levels of 4He do not give the necessary confidence to state definitely that we are dealing with the fusion of deuterons to give 4He. In the melted cathode, the data of which are reported, no 4He was found at the achieved sensitivity. X-ray film, positioned at 50 mm from the cell, roughly gave the image of the cathode through spots. Extended considerations have been made to explain this evidence on the basis of the bundle nature of the cathode. From these considerations, the energy of the radiation and the total energy associated to it have been estimated as 89 keV and 12 kJ, respectively. This value is :0.5% of the energy measured by calorimetry in the same interval of time. The highest values of energy and excess power are 8.3 MJ and 10 W, respectively.

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1395. Gozzi, D., et al., Erratum to "X-ray, heat excess and 4He in the D/Pd system" [J. Electroanal. Chem. 435 (1997) 113]. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1998. 452: p. 251.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cellucci, F., Cignini, P. L., Gigli, G., Tomellini, M., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, x-ray, heat+, He


1396. Grabowski, K.S., et al. Evaluation of the Claim of Transmutation of Cesium to Praseodymium with the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) Structure -- Part 1 (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Grabowski, K. S.
All Authors: Grabowski, K. S., Kidwell, D., Cetina, C., Carosella, C.
Keywords:

The MHI claim to transmute elements upon permeation of deuterium though a specific multilayer structure was carefully evaluated. Initially, an attempt was made to replicate the work at NRL in collaboration with MHI. When replication proved difficult, another set of experiments were conducted at MHI in three sets consisting of two control blanks and one positive foil (that should have transmuted Cesium to Praseodymium) per set. Foil samples were split for analysis at both NRL and MHI. Extensive analytical work was performed to characterize the foils and the blanks. When extracted at MHI, low nanogram amounts of Pr were found by ICP-MS on 3 of 3 foils that should have had Pr whereas the 6 controls were blank. Split solutions of these extracts were also tested independently at NRL and the presence of Pr was confirmed. The Pr found did not have the characteristic rare earth contamination expected if the Pr was from the environment and thus looked like it was produced in the experiment. Unfortunately, we could not find Pr at NRL (even at trace levels) on our split foil samples no matter what extraction method was employed. After considering and evaluating several unlikely scenarios for these disparate results, we visited MHI and participated in the extraction process on new foils. These extracts were blank when tested at both laboratories. Environmental samples were obtained at various locations where samples were handled. Pr was found in large amounts at one location used in sample preparation and this Pr had the signature of pure material rather than an inadvertent contaminate. No record of how it got there could be established. Other rare and characteristic impurities also were found in the extracts from MHI that were present in the laboratory environment. Thus, we concluded that the transmutation of Cs to Pr when deuterium permeated MHI's multilayer structure could not be firmly established, as contamination during the foil production or during the foil analysis could not be ruled-out. The design of the replication experiments, the lessons learned, and the results will be discussed.

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1397. Grabowski, K.S., et al. Robust Performance Validation of LENR Energy Generators (PowerPoint slides). in 16th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2011. Chennai, India.

First Author: Grabowski, K. S.
All Authors: Grabowski, K. S., Knies, D., Melich, M. E., Moser, A. E., Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method

Motivation: Develop a robust test for a "Black Box" device, to show that more energy is produced than can be explained by conventional physics and chemistry

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1398. Graesjo, L. and M. Seo, Measurement of absorption of hydrogen and deuterium into palladium during electrolysis by a quartz crystal microbalance. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 296: p. 233.

First Author: Graesjo, L.
All Authors: Graesjo, L., Seo, M.
Keywords: Pd, loading, method, frequency


1399. Granada, J.R., et al. Neutron Measurements on (Pd-D2O) Electrolytic Cells Under Pulsed Current Conditions. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Granada, J. R.
All Authors: Granada, J. R., Mayer, R. E., Florido, P. C., Guido, G., Gillette, V. H., Gumez, S. E., Patino, N. E., Larreteguy, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, pulsed, neutron, H2O


1400. Granada, J.R., et al., Neutron measurements on electrolytic cells (Pd-D2O) performed under very low background conditions. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 1990. 27(4): p. 379.

First Author: Granada, J. R.
All Authors: Granada, J. R., Mayer, R. E., Florido, P. C., Gillette, V. H., Gomez, S. E.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, Pd, D2O, pulsed current


1401. Granada, J.R., et al., Thermal neutron measurements on electrolytic cells with deuterated palladium cathodes subjected to a pulsed current. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 1990. 27(3): p. 30.

First Author: Granada, J. R.
All Authors: Granada, J. R., Mayer, R. E., Guido, G., Florido, P. C., Larreteguy, A., Gillette, V. H., Patino, N. E., Converti, J., Gomez, S. E.
Keywords: electrolysis, pulsed current, Pd, neutron, D2O, H2O


1402. Graneau, P. and N. Graneau, The role of Ampere forces in nuclear fusion. Phys. Lett. A, 1992. 165: p. 1.

First Author: Graneau, P.
All Authors: Graneau, P., Graneau, N.
Keywords: ampere forces, filament fusion, theory


1403. Graneau, P. and N. Graneau, Ampere force calculation for filament fusion experiments. Phys. Lett. A, 1993. 174: p. 421.

First Author: Graneau, P.
All Authors: Graneau, P., Graneau, N.
Keywords: ampere forces, filament fusion, theory


1404. Granite, E. and J. Jorne, A novel method for studying electrochemically induced cold fusion using a deuteron-conducting solid electrolyte. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 317: p. 285.

First Author: Granite, E.
All Authors: Granite, E., Jorne, J.
Keywords: Pd, neutron, solid electrolyte, layer, heat-, 4He, tritium, photon conductor


1405. Grant, P.M., et al., Hydrocarbon oil found in the interior of a 'cold fusion' electrolysis cell after fatal explosion. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 207.

First Author: Grant, P. M.
All Authors: Grant, P. M., Whipple, R. E., Alcaraz, A., Haas, J. S., Andresen, B. D.
Keywords: accident, SRI


1406. Grant, P., Author response:" (to the polemic by E.S. Shanley, ibid, same page). Chem. Health & Saf., 1995. 2(2): p. 4.

First Author: Grant, P.
All Authors: Grant, P.
Keywords: critique, SRI, accident, Shanley


1407. Grant, P.M., R.E. Whipple, and B.D. Andresen, Comprehensive forensic analyses of debris from the fatal explosion of a 'cold fusion' electrochemical cell. J. Forensic Sci., 1995. 40: p. 18.

First Author: Grant, P. M.
All Authors: Grant, P. M., Whipple, R. E., Andresen, B. D.
Keywords: accident, SRI


1408. Grant, P.M., et al., Search for evidence of nuclear involvement in the fatal explosion of a 'cold fusion' experiment. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1995. 193: p. 165.

First Author: Grant, P. M.
All Authors: Grant, P. M., Whipple, R. E., Bazan, F., Brunk, J. L., Wong, K. M., Russo, R. E., Andresen, B. D.
Keywords: accident, SRI, radioactivity


1409. Grant, P., et al., Advanced techniques in physical forensic science. Physics Today, 1998: p. 32.

First Author: Grant, P.
All Authors: Grant, P., Chambers, D., Grace, L., Phinney, D., Hutcheon, I.
Keywords: mass spectrometer, method, accident, SRI


1410. Greber, T., et al. Cold Fusion Experiments in Fribourg. in Understanding Cold Fusion Phenomena. 1989.

First Author: Greber, T.
All Authors: Greber, T., Fischer, A., Rheme, C., Drissi, S., Osterwalder, J., Kern, J., Schlapbach, L.
Keywords: Pd, Surface Analysis, neutron, x-ray, gamma emission, transmutation, D2O, electrolysis


1411. Green, J.A.S. and F.A. Lewis, Overvoltage Component at Palladized Cathodes of Palladium and Palladium Alloys Prior to and During Bubble Evolution. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1964. 60: p. 2234.

First Author: Green, J. A. S.
All Authors: Green, J. A. S., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Overvoltage, Pd, H2, resistivity, deloading, bubbles


1412. Green, T.A. and T.I. Quickenden, Electrolytic preparation of highly loaded deuterides of palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 368: p. 121.

First Author: Green, T. A.
All Authors: Green, T. A., Quickenden, T. I.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat, loading, method, review, resistance, D2O


1413. Green, T.A. and T.I. Quickenden, Calorimetric studies of highly loaded deuterides and hydrides of palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 389: p. 91.

First Author: Green, T. A.
All Authors: Green, T. A., Quickenden, T. I.
Keywords: heat-, loading, Pd, D2O, H2O, electrolysis


1414. Green, T.A. and D. Britz, Kinetics of the deuterium and hydrogen evolution reactions at palladium in alkaline solutions. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1996. 412: p. 59.

First Author: Green, T. A.
All Authors: Green, T. A., Britz, D.
Keywords: Pd, PdD, PdH, loading


1415. Green, B.A., High-yields assisted fusion from heavy-quasiparticle production in Ti with a D/O welder. 1997.

First Author: Green, B. A.
All Authors: Green, B. A.
Keywords: theory, quasiparticle


1416. Green, B.A., Quantitative determination of high-Tc superconductivity from the lattice polarization, structure effect and approach. Phys. Lett. A, 1997. 227: p. 372.

First Author: Green, B. A.
All Authors: Green, B. A.
Keywords: superconductivity, theory


1417. Greenland, T., Numbers off an envelope. Physics World, 1989. 2: p. 16.

First Author: Greenland, T.
All Authors: Greenland, T.
Keywords: Theory, screening


1418. Greenland, T., Issues connected with cold fusion: a room temperature mechanism for the production of x-rays. J. Phys B, 1990. 23: p. 1679.

First Author: Greenland, T.
All Authors: Greenland, T.
Keywords: Theory, X-ray


1419. Greiner, W. and A. Sandulescu, New Radioactivities. Sci. Am., 1990. March: p. 58.

First Author: Greiner, W.
All Authors: Greiner, W., Sandulescu, A.
Keywords: theory


1420. Griessen, R. and D.G. deGroot, Effect of anharmonicity and Debye-Waller Factor on the Superconductivity of PdHx and PdDx. Helv. Phys. Acta, 1982. 55: p. 699.

First Author: Griessen, R.
All Authors: Griessen, R., deGroot, D. G.
Keywords: PdD, PdH, superconductivity


1421. Griggs, J.L. A Brief Introduction to the Hydrosonic Pump and the Associated "Excess Energy" Phenomenon. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Griggs, J. L.
All Authors: Griggs, J. L.
Keywords: heat+, sonic, acoustic, cavitation, ICCF-4


1422. Grimshaw, T., Cold Fusion -- A Cogent Topic for Rigorous Policy Analysis. 2006.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

Cold fusion burst upon the scene in 1989 as a major scientific breakthrough with enormous promise as a source of unlimited and virtually free energy to meet society's needs. In the ensuing weeks tremendous fervor in the scientific and political arenas at first gradually and then rather suddenly gave way to disillusion, marginalization and even ridicule. By early 1990 most "mainstream" scientists became convinced that the phenomenon did not exist, and politicians and the public generally followed suit. Since then nearly everyone, including scientists and energy policymakers, have believed that cold fusion is a dead issue. . . .

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1423. Grimshaw, T. Public Interest and Level-of-Evidence Considerations in Cold Fusion Public Policy (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: Review

Public Policy toward Cold Fusion: Approach 1. Focus on the Public Interest in Cold Fusion 2. Assess CF policy in Evidence-Based framework 3. Delineate 5 Levels of Evidence in rational framework 4. Consider evidence of CF specifically

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1424. Grimshaw, T. Open Source Science Applied to CMNS Research: A Paradigm for Enhancing Cold Fusion Prospects and the Public Interest. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: Review, history

Open Source Science (OSSc) is a collaborative, voluntary (uncompensated) and highly distributed method of research that emphasizes the power of new digital technologies, particularly the Internet. The OSSc paradigm grew out of the open source software movement of the last 20 years, which has resulted in wide availability of free software (such as the Linux operating system) as an alternative to proprietary software products. In many respects, OSSc represents a return to the concept that scientific research results are a public good rather than a proprietary product -- an attitude clearly articulated in the 1940s by Robert Merton, the "father" of the sociology of science.

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1425. Grimshaw, T., Evidence-Based Public Policy Toward Cold Fusion: Rational Choices for A Potential Alternative Energy Source. 2008, LBJ School of Public Affairs, The University of Texas at Austin.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

Cold fusion (CF) is a possible phenomenon in which energy-producing nuclear reactions occur at earth-surface temperatures rather than at high temperatures that are characteristic of hot fusion, such as in the interior of the sun. CF was dramatically and unexpectedly announced at a press conference in 1989. For a variety of reasons, including the method of announcement and difficulties in experimental replication, CF was rejected by mainstream science within a year. Continued experimental success under highly marginalized conditions in the years since rejection indicates, with reasonable probability, that CF may eventually be found to be a real phenomenon. The scientific results accumulated in the years since rejection include over 300 verifications of CF-related phenomena.

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1426. Grimshaw, T. Public Policy Planning for Broad Deployment of Cold Fusion for Energy Production. in 17th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2012.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: LENR public policy, technology assess-ment for LENR impacts, LENR disruptive innovation, LENR impact mitigation

Cold fusion (LENR) may soon be deployed as a major energy source. Despite its immense public welfare benefit, CF/LENR will likely have adverse secondary impacts that must be addressed through proactive public policy planning. Technology Assessment is a proven method of dealing with the impacts of emerging technologies like CF/LENR.

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1427. Grimshaw, T. Evidence-Based Public Policy for Support of Cold Fusion (LENR) Development (Poster). in 17th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2012.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

Six Questions to Guide Rational Policy Decisions
1. What is the potential public welfare benefit of CF/LENR?
•Cheap, unlimited energy
•Elemental transmutation
•Other direct benefits (e.g. dispersed units, low O&M)
•Many indirect benefits (e.g. reduced energy related environmental impacts)

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1428. Grimshaw, T. Evidence-Based Public Policy for Support of Cold Fusion (LENR) Development. in 17th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2012.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

Cold fusion (LENR) has enormous potential public welfare benefit. The level of public support for its development should be determined by evidence-based policymaking. The CF/LENR level of evidence mandates its support with other emerging energy technologies. The evidence may even indicate that a crash program is the most rational policy.

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1429. Grimshaw, T., Public Policy Planning for Broad Deployment of Cold Fusion for Energy Production in the U.S.: Technology Assessment of LENR Impacts. 2012, University of Texas at Austin.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: LENR public policy, technology assess-ment for LENR impacts, LENR disruptive innovation, LENR impact mitigation

Cold fusion (LENR) may soon be deployed as a major energy source. Despite its immense public welfare benefit, CF/LENR will likely have adverse secondary impacts that must be addressed through proactive public policy planning. Technology Assessment is a proven method of dealing with the impacts of emerging technologies like CF/LENR.

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1430. Grimshaw, T., et al. Verifications of Francesco Celani's LENR Observations in Nickel-Copper Alloy (Constantan) and Hydrogen Experiments (Poster). in ICCF18 Conference. 2013. University of Missouri.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T., Concezzi, S., Wenzel, L., Glass, B.
Keywords:

A list of attempted replications of the Celani constantan experiment.

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1431. Grimshaw, T. Cold Fusion Public Policy: Rational -- and Urgent -- Need for Change (PowerPoint slides). in Cold Fusion/LANR Colloquium at MIT. 2014. Cambridge, MA.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

Cold Fusion Energy Policy Two Main Questions

•How do we get it?
•How do we deal with it when it gets here?

•That is…
•Public support for R&D
•Dealing with secondary impacts

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1432. Grimshaw, T. Integrated Policymaking for Realizing Benefits and Mitigating Impacts of LENR (PowerPoint slides). in ICCF19 conference. 2015.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

Setting the Stage...
ll LENR potential as energy source understood since 1989
ll Changing landscape since rejection by mainstream science
ll Four lines of argument for LENR policy changes
1. Number and location of researchers
2. Large body of evidence
3. Advances in LENR explanation
4. Recent developments (e.g., proposed devices)

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1433. Grimshaw, T., Integrated Policymaking for Realizing Benefits and Mitigating Impacts of LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords:

The potential benefits of LENR as a source of energy have been well understood since its announcement in 1989. The improved prospects of LENR in the past few years are indicated by the significant numbers and varied locations of researchers in several countries, a large body of accumulated evidence, major advances in explanation and theory development, and recent favourable occurrences, including a plethora of proposed energy-producing devices. The changing landscape creates policymaking opportunities for supporting LENR to realize its potential benefits, planning proactively to deal with anticipated adverse secondary impacts, and integrating the updates in a comprehensive policy program. The first policymaking opportunity, updates of current policies for LENR support, may best be accomplished in a framework of evidence-based policymaking. The level of evidence for the existence of LENR is at least a preponderance of evidence (greater than 50% probability). There may even be clear and convincing evidence (greater than 70%). Correspondingly, the policy response should be at least reinstatement and research comparable to other emerging energy technologies. Enhanced support, perhaps on a par with hot fusion, is indicated if there is clear and convincing evidence. The second policymaking opportunity related to LENR's changing landscape is to address potential adverse secondary impacts with proactive planning. Broad deployment of LENR for energy supply may be expected to have major secondary impacts as a disruptive technology. Direct impacts will take place on all phases of the energy chain - supply, transport, storage, and consumption. Indirect impacts will be felt most by the components of society that are closely tied to the energy cycle, such as sectors of the workforce and energy-based communities. Technology assessment is a mature and readily available methodology for identifying secondary impacts and developing mitigative measures. A third policymaking opportunity is to integrate LENR policy updates that are needed as demonstrated by its changing landscape. Policies for mitigating adverse secondary impacts, for example, can be formulated based on policies for LENR support and the resulting pace of its development and deployment. New and updated policies may also be integrated at the national and international level and between the public and private sectors. The public interest will be served by update and integration of LENR policies for its development and mitigating its impacts. However, many challenges must be overcome to achieve the update and integration objectives. The world desperately needs new sources of clean and inexpensive energy. The case of cold fusion would perhaps be a curiosity in the history of science if the stakes were not so high.

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1434. Groenlund, F., Electrolysis in calorimetry. J. Thermal Anal., 1992. 38: p. 229.

First Author: Groenlund, F.
All Authors: Groenlund, F.
Keywords: critique, review, Fleischmann


1435. Grotz, T., Investigation of reports of the synthesis of iron via arc discharge through carbon compounds. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 106.

First Author: Grotz, T.
All Authors: Grotz, T.
Keywords: transmutation, carbon, arc, critique


1436. Gruber, J., "Cold Fusion" and space energy technology. 1996.

First Author: Gruber, J.
All Authors: Gruber, J.
Keywords: review, CETI


1437. Gryaznov, V.M., et al., Palladium Alloys as Hydrogen Permeable Catalysts in Hydrogenation and Dehydrogenation Reactions. J. Less-Common Met., 1983. 89: p. 529.

First Author: Gryaznov, V. M.
All Authors: Gryaznov, V. M., Ermilova, M. M., Morozova, L. S., Orekhova, N. V., Polyakova, V. P., Roshan, N. R., Savitsky, E. M., Parfenova, N. I.
Keywords: Pd-Re, H, Pd-Ni


1438. Gryzinski, M., Low-temperature fusion of light nuclei in the Fleischmann-Pons reaction. Inz. Aparat. Chem., 1989. 28(5): p. 3 (in Polish).

First Author: Gryzinski, M.
All Authors: Gryzinski, M.
Keywords: Commentary, history


1439. Gryzinski, M., Cold fusion: what's going on? Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 712.

First Author: Gryzinski, M.
All Authors: Gryzinski, M.
Keywords: theory, tunnelling


1440. Gryzinski, M. Theory of Electron Catalyzed Fusion in Pd Lattice. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Gryzinski, M.
All Authors: Gryzinski, M.
Keywords: theory


1441. Gu, A.G., et al., Preliminary experimental study on cold fusion using deuterium gas and deuterium plasma in the presence of palladium. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 248.

First Author: Gu, A. G.
All Authors: Gu, A. G., Teng, R. K. F., Miller, M. S., Sprouse, W. J.
Keywords: D2, Pd, ion bombardment, neutron


1442. Gu, A.G., et al., Experimental study on cold fusion using deuterium gas and deuterium ion beam with palladium. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 329.

First Author: Gu, A. G.
All Authors: Gu, A. G., Teng, R. K. F., Miller, M. S., Sprouse, J.
Keywords: Pd, D2, high pressure, ion bombardment, neutron


1443. Guffey, M.J., Y. Tang, and P.J. King, Attempted Replication of Excess Heat in the Letts Dual-laser Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Guffey, M. J.
All Authors: Guffey, M. J., Tang, Y., King, P. J.
Keywords: Dual-laser experiment, Phonon, THz, Triggering

By attempting a nearly exact replication of prior published work, we test the claim that release of non-chemical excess heat from loaded palladium deuteride (PdD) can be triggered by the application of two laser beams with wavelengths selected at specific difference frequencies around 8, 15 and 20 THz. No significant excess heat events were observed in 231 laser triggered trials across 9 cathode runs. The average excess heat rate observed from all runs was 6.1  21.6 mW with 10 W of input electrical power. We found no evidence of excess heat on the order of 100 mW reported by Letts. Calorimetry artifacts stemming from apparatus design issues often exceeded 100 mW and contributed to larger-than-desired uncertainties on individual excess heat measurements.

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1444. Guggeler, H.W., et al., Cold Fusion Reactions with 48Ca. Nucl. Phys. A, 1989. 502: p. 561c.

First Author: Guggeler, H. W.
All Authors: Guggeler, H. W., Jost, D. T., T'rler, A., Armbruster, P., Br'chle, W., Folger, H., Hebberher, F. P., Hofmann, S.
Keywords: fusion, Ca, ion bombardment


1445. Guilinger, T.R., et al., Investigation of Fusion Reactions in Palladium and Titanium Tritide Using Galvanostatic, Coulometric, and Hydrogen Permeation Techniques. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 299.

First Author: Guilinger, T. R.
All Authors: Guilinger, T. R., Kelly, M. J., Scully, J. R., Christensen, T. M., Ingersoll, D., Knapp, J. A., Ewing, R. I., Casey, W. H., Tsao, S. S.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, tritium, D2O, neutron


1446. Guinan, M.W., G.F. Chaplin, and R.W. Moir, Catalysis of Deuterium Fusion in Metal Hydrides by Cosmic Ray Muons. 1989: Los Alamos.

First Author: Guinan, M. W.
All Authors: Guinan, M. W., Chaplin, G. F., Moir, R. W.
Keywords: muon, D, Ti, Pd, D2O, theory,


1447. Gulko, A.G., The Mechanism of Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy, 2001. 7(40): p. 52.

First Author: Gulko, A. G.
All Authors: Gulko, A. G.
Keywords: theory fractional hydrogen fission


1448. Gupta, M. and J.P. Burger, The electronic structure and its relationship to superconductivity in NiH. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1980. 10: p. 2649.

First Author: Gupta, M.
All Authors: Gupta, M., Burger, J. P.
Keywords: NiH, theory, superconductivity


1449. Gupta, S.D. and J.K. Jacobs, Process and apparatus for generating high density hydrogen in a matrix. 1991: US patent # 4,986,887.

First Author: Gupta, S. D.
All Authors: Gupta, S. D., Jacobs, J. K.
Keywords: loading, Pd, electrolysis, patent,


1450. Gur, T.M., et al. Experimental Considerations in Electrochemical Isoperibolic Calorimetry. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Gur, T. M.
All Authors: Gur, T. M., Schreiber, M., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J. A., Chao, J., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: heat, method, apparatus, ICCF-1


1451. Gur, T.M., et al. Experimental Considerations Involved in the Generation of Excess Power as a Result of the Electrochemical Insertion of Hydrogen and Deuterium in Palladium. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Gur, T. M.
All Authors: Gur, T. M., Schreiber, M., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J. A., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: heat+, apparatus, method


1452. Gur, T.M., et al., An isoperibolic calorimeter to study electrochemical insertion of deuterium into palladium. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 487.

First Author: Gur, T. M.
All Authors: Gur, T. M., Schreiber, M., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J. A., Chao, J., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: heat, method


1453. Gurrath, M., et al., Palladium Catalysts on Activated Carbon Supports, Influence of Reduction Temperature, Origin of the Support and Pretreatments of the Carbon Surface. Carbon, 2000. 38: p. 1241.

First Author: Gurrath, M.
All Authors: Gurrath, M., Kuretzky, T., Boehm, H. P., Okhopkova, L. B., Lisitsyn, A. S., Likholobov, V. A.
Keywords: carbon,, Case,, caralyst


1454. Guruswamy, S. and M.E. Wadsworth. Metallurgical Aspects in Cold Fusion Experiments. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Guruswamy, S.
All Authors: Guruswamy, S., Wadsworth, M. E.
Keywords: Pd, surface analysis, metallurgy, heat+, ICCF-1

Deuterium loading of palladium cathodes in Pons-Fleischmann type electrolytic cells has been observed to result in generation of excess heat on several occasions. Metallurgical examination of some of the electrodes showed extensive damage associated with deuterium loading. Surfaces have been found to be covered with large number of impurities. Initiation and sustaining these heat bursts, monitoring of nuclear products and materials aspects of these electrolytic cells have been the focus of our current efforts. As D/Pd loading appear to be critical, the measurement of deuterium loading using dilatometry as a function of current density, surface and heat treatment of the cathode and poisoning are currently being investigated.

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1455. Guthrie, S.E., Helium Effects on Palladium Hydride Equilibrium Properties. 1990.

First Author: Guthrie, S. E.
All Authors: Guthrie, S. E.
Keywords: PdT, 3He, phase diagram, PdH


1456. Gygax, F.N. and A. Schenck, Local Hydrogen Arrangement Around the µ+ in a PdH0.74 Single Crystal. Hyperfine Interactions, 1986. 31: p. 75.

First Author: Gygax, F. N
All Authors: Gygax, F. N, Schenck, A.
Keywords: PdH, muon, structure


1457. Hagans, P.L., D.D. Dominguez, and M.A. Imam. Surface composition of Pd cathodes. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Hagans, P. L.
All Authors: Hagans, P. L., Dominguez, D. D., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: Pd, surface analysis, electrolysis, ICCF-6, D2O

Results will be presented for the surface analyses of cathodes before and after electrolysis using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Composition as a function of depth was obtained by employing argon ion sputtering to gradually erode away the surface. Although most of the emphasis will be on Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Pd (i.e., Johnson Matthey high purity sponge processed into rod and plate at NRL), data will also be presented from other Pd sources and from reported excess heat-producing cathodes provided by SRI International and NAWC, Naval Air Warfare Center at China Lake, CA. XPS results will be compared with bulk sample cathode and anode analyses obtained by Glow Discharge Mass Spectroscopy (GDMS) and with electrolyte solution analyses obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy.

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1458. Hage, H., Boundary conditions in electrochemical measurements of diffusion coefficients of hydrogen in a-palladium. Materials Transactions JIM, 1990. 31(10): p. 842.

First Author: Hage, H.
All Authors: Hage, H.
Keywords: Pd, diffusion, H2


1459. Hagelstein, P.L. Coherent Fusion Theory. in Winter Annual Meeting of Am. Soc. Mechan. Eng. 1989. San Francisco, CA.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory


1460. Hagelstein, P.L., Phonon Interactions in Coherent Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory


1461. Hagelstein, P.L., Rates for Neutron and Tritium Production in Coherent D-D Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory


1462. Hagelstein, P.L., A Simple Model for Coherent D-D Fusion in the Presence of a Lattice. 1989.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory


1463. Hagelstein, P.L. Coherent Fusion Mechanisms. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory


1464. Hagelstein, P.L. Status of Coherent Fusion Theory. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-1, coherent


1465. Hagelstein, P.L., Coherent fusion theory. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 451.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Theory


1466. Hagelstein, P.L. Coherent and Semi-coherent Neutron Transfer Reactions. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-2


1467. Hagelstein, P.L. Coherent and Semi-Coherent Neutron Transfer Reactions. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-3

Neutron transfer reactions are proposed to account for anomalies reported in Pons-Fleischmann experiments. The prototypical reaction involves the transfer of a neutron (mediated by low frequency electric or magnetic fields) from a donor nucleus to virtual continuum states, followed by the capture of the virtual neutron by an acceptor nucleus. In this work we summarize basic principles, recent results and the ultimate goals of the theoretical effort .

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1468. Hagelstein, P.L., Coherent and semicoherent neutron transfer reactions I: The interaction Hamiltonian. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 172.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Theory


1469. Hagelstein, P.L., Summary of ICCF3 in Nagoya, Feb. 16, 1993. 1993.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Trip Report, ICCF3, history

Abstract We review highlights of the international cold fusion conference that was held recently in Nagoya, Japan. Excess heat results in heavy water electrolysis experiments constitute the observations with the most important potential applications. Experiments in gas phase systems exhibit fast particle and gamma emission that make progress toward elucidating mechanisms. The evidence in support of a light water heat effect has improved.

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1470. Hagelstein, P.L. Lattice-Induced Atomic and Nuclear Reactions. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-4


1471. Hagelstein, P.L. and S. Kaushik. Neutron Transfer Reactions. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Ma: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Kaushik, S.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-4


1472. Hagelstein, P.L., Coherent and semicoherent neutron transfer reactions III: Phonon frequency shifts. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 353.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Theory


1473. Hagelstein, P.L. Update on Neutron Transfer Reactions. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

We discuss progress in our studies of two new basic physical mechanisms that may be relevant to recent experiments that exhibit anomalies in metal hydrides and deuterides.

Anomalous energy transfer from phonon modes to the constituents of a lattice may occur through frequency-shifting phonon modes that are highly excited. . . .

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1474. Hagelstein, P.L. Anomalous Energy Transfer between Nuclei and the Lattice. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, lattice induced, ICCF-6


1475. Hagelstein, P.L. Anomalous Energy Transfer. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, energy transfer, ICCF-7


1476. Hagelstein, P.L. A Unified Model for Anomalies in Metal Deuterides. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8


1477. Hagelstein, P.L. A unified model for anomalies in metal deuterides. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory, phonon

Nuclear reactions in a lattice are described using an extension of the resonating group method to include the lattice explicitly.  Phonon exchange during fusion and dissociation reactions is predicted   Second-order site-other-site reactions are predicted under conditions where the reactions at each site exchange phonons with a common phonon mode.  The null reaction in which a dd-fusion at one site is coupled to 4He dissociation at another site is modeled. Coupled-channel equations are developed for the two-site problem, as an illustration of the application of the lattice resonating group method. We have proposed previously that there should exist compact state solutions of the coupled-channel equations, as the associated exchange potential can be attractive.  Such states have been proposed to account for the Kasagi effect, and to provide a foundation for many of the anomalies that are seen in metal deuterides.  Our analysis of the two-site system suggests so far has not yielded compact state solutions.  Preliminary results for the many-site problem are presented, which leads to evidence in support of the stability of the compact states, and which leads to a new overall picture for the anomalies.

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1478. Hagelstein, P.L. Unified Phonon-Coupled SU(N) Models For Anomalies In Metal Deuterides. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory

We present a systematic, but abbreviated, account of issues and models for anomalies in metal deuterides. To interact, deuterons must get close to one another, and we consider conditions under which this occurs and the ramifications. Within the general picture under discussion, anomalies are ultimately a consequence of phonon exchange that occurs when nuclear reactions take place in the solid state. We review the generalization of the resonating group method for reactions in vacuum to include solid state effects, and discuss implications for experiment. Phonon exchange in the case of a much simplified scalar Gaussian nuclear model is reviewed. The coupling of reactions at different sites is explored, and connections are made with recent experiments on alpha emission. The fastest site-other-site reactions are null reactions in which fusion reactions and their inverses are coupled. A consideration of these processes leads to the conclusion that compact states should be present stabilized by phonon exchange, and that these may be responsible for anomalies in recent beam experiments with metal deuterides. Energy exchange between nuclei and the lattice can be very efficient, according to results from idealized models for null reactions involving many sites. Aspects of excess heat production and other effects appear to be addressed by the new models.

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1479. Hagelstein, P.L. Resonant Tunneling and Resonant Excitation Transfer. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory

Issues involved in the tunneling of deuterons in metal deuterides are considered in relation to experimental claims of anomalies in metal deuterides. From earlier studies, screening is thought to be similar to the case of molecular D2 . Resonant tunneling has been advocated in the literature as a possible mechanism to achieve tunneling enhancements. We develop a two-level system for a piecewise constant potential model for resonant tunneling that matches the energy levels in the vicinity of a level crossing, arguing that such models are applicable for more general potential models. Resonant tunneling effects and dynamics, including acceleration due to coherence, are accounted for in the model. The model is extended to include relaxation effects, and it is found that one would not expect to find coherent effects associated with tunneling in the case of two deuterons in a metal lattice. We present a simple model for the transfer of excitation from a collection of deuterons to a collection of helium nuclei, a model closely related to resonant tunneling and also to new phonon-coupled SU(N) models under development. The excitation transfer models show coherent enhancements as well as collective effects.

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1480. Hagelstein, P.L. Thermal to Electric Energy Conversion. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: thermoelectric, Energy Conversion

As research in the area of excess power production moves forward, issues associated with thermal to electric conversion become increasingly important. This paper provides a brief tutorial on basic issues, including the Carnot limit, entropy, and thermoelectric conversion. Practical thermal to electric conversion is possible well below the Carnot limit, and this leads to a high threshold for self-sustaining operation in Pons-Fleischmann type experiments. Excess power production at elevated temperatures will become increasingly important as we move toward self-sustaining devices and energy production for applications. Excess power production in heatproducing systems that do not require electrical input have an enormous advantage over electrochemical systems. Such systems should be considered seriously within our community in the coming years.

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1481. Hagelstein, P.L. Forward. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: review

The Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion was held at the Royal Sonesta Hotel in Cambridge, about a mile from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, August 24-29, 2003. More than 150 people registered for the conference. There were 113 abstracts submitted prior to the conference, and several talks were added during the conference. About 60 oral presentations were scheduled with 25 minutes allowed for most talks. All oral presentations were given in the main hall, and there were no parallel sessions. Abstracts were submitted for talks on excess heat and related topics, tritium, transmutation, nuclear emissions, theory, and a small number of other topics. . . .

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1482. Hagelstein, P.L., et al. New Physical Effects in Metal Deuterides. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., McKubre, M. C. H., Nagel, D. J., Chubb, T. A., Hekman, R.
Keywords: Review

The experimental evidence for anomalies in metal deuterides, including excess heat and nuclear emissions, suggests the existence of new physical effects.

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1483. Hagelstein, P.L. Models for anomalies in condensed matter deuterides. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory

Models based on phonon exchange for excess heat production in Fleischmann-Pons experiments are considered. In the case that sufficient phonon exchange occurs to stabilize intermediate states containing a neutral, then a model in which excitation is transferred from the D2 /4He system to a strongly coupled quantum system made up of an oscillator (highly-excited phonon mode) and a Dicke system (ground state and excited state receiver nuclei) seem appropriate. We find that a coupled Dicke system and oscillator can support energy coupling in the case of strong coupling. We present evolution equations for resonant coupled Dicke systems, augmented with loss. An update is provided on phonon exchange in nuclear calculations.

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1484. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary. Excitation transfer and energy exchange processes for modeling the Fleischmann-Pons excess heat effect. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Theory

The absence of energetic particles commensurate with the energy produced is the single most notable feature of the Fleischmann-Pons experiment for theory, assuming that a new nuclear process is involved.  We discuss briefly energy exchange between two-level systems and a low energy oscillator, concluding that spin-boson models augmented with loss are able to describe coherent energy exchange involving a large number of oscillator quanta.  Since the coupling between deuterons and the lattice is weak, the excitation must be transferred to a different system with stronger coupling, in order to develop a simple model relevant for heat production.  The resulting toy model can be used for simulation, and we describe briefly ongoing efforts to develop a computational model.

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1485. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Models Relevant to Excess Heat Production in Fleischmann-Pons Experiments, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 249-267.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords:

Observations of excess heat in the absence of commensurate energetic charged particles challenges local energy and momentum conservation, a foundation of nuclear physics. We have explored models based on excitation transfer, in which global energy is conserved but local energy conservation is violated. We present recent results on both excitation transfer and anomalous energy exchange within the context of lossless spin-boson models. We introduce a rotation that allows us to isolate terms in the rotated Hamiltonian responsible for both processes. Spin-boson type models augmented with loss appear to be sufficiently strong to account for the excess heat effect.

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1486. Hagelstein, P.L., et al. A Theoretical Formulation for Problems in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I., Melich, M. E., Johnson, R.
Keywords: Theory,


1487. Hagelstein, P.L., M.E. Melich, and R. Johnson. Input To Theory From Experiment In The Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Melich, M. E., Johnson, R.
Keywords: Theory

Excess heat in the Flesichmann-Pons effect constitutes a new physical effect unlike other physical processes with which we are familiar. Many groups have proposed theoretical mechanisms to account for the effect, but at present none has been generally accepted. This motivates us to review what experiment tells us about theory. There exists a relatively large body of experimental results, and it is possible to connect many of these individual results to theoretical statements, which might then be used as the basis for the development of new theoretical models.

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1488. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Electron mass shift in nonthermal systems. J. Phys. B, 2008. 41(12).

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords:


1489. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary. Modeling excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Theory

Over the past several years we have described models based on the linear coupling between two-level systems and an oscillator which are able to convert a large energy quantum into a large number of small energy quantum. At ICCF14 we presented a formula that can be used to calculate the phonon exchange matrix element for a nuclear reaction occurring in a lattice; in this presentation we report on our progress in the brute force computation of the matrix element based on realistic nuclear models. We consider also the development of semiclassical models which can approximate the dynamics of the quantum model. Finally, we describe the use of these models in a numerical simulation of the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. In these models a bottleneck occurs associated with helium diffusion out of the active region. We find that if the active region is thin (100 nm or less) that helium diffusion is fast, and excess heat production can occur in a steady state mode. If the active region is thick (500 nm or greater), then helium diffusion is slow and excess heat in these models occurs in bursts.

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1490. Hagelstein, P.L., D. Letts, and D. Cravens. Progress on two-laser experiments (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Letts, D., Cravens, D.
Keywords: Laser stimulation, excess heat

Goal: to see if Pxs responds to the beat frequency

* In previous years Letts and Cravens showed that a laser could trigger excess heat
* Hope was that two lasers might trigger excess heat
* If so, then could study the dependence of excess heat on the difference frequency
* Possible method to see whether optical phonons involved

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1491. Hagelstein, P.L., M.C.H. McKubre, and F.L. Tanzella. Electrochemical models for the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords:

The loading of Pd by hydrogen isotopes in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment does not seem to be well described by the hydrogen/deuterium evolution reaction model that is commonly used for hydrogen in metals. We consider modified versions of the model that may be more relevant to the loading of deuterium in Pd.

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1492. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary. Arguments for dideuterium near monovacancies in PdD. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords:

Molecular D2 does not form in bulk PdD because the electron density sufficiently high so that antibonding orbitals are occupied. The electron density can be lower in the vicinity of a vacancy. We examine the possibility that sigma-bonded dideuterium can occur at the lowered electron density near a monovacancy in PdD.

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1493. Hagelstein, P.L., Simple Parameterizations of the Deuteron-Deuteron Fusion Cross Sections. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 31-34.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: dd-Fusion cross section, Fitting functions for cross section, Nuclear fusion, Numerical fits

Simple parameterizations of the deuteron-deuteron fusion cross sections are given in a form suitable for numerical calculations.

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1494. Hagelstein, P.L., NeutronYield for Energetic Deuterons in PdD and in D2O. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 35-40.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Fleischmann-Pons effect, Correlation of neutrons with heat, Neutron yield for deuterons in PdD, Energy exchange with deuterons

To account for the excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, it has been proposed that the reaction energy can be shared among a large number of deuterons. In order to help quantify how many deuterons are required to be consistent with experiment, we have computed the neutron yield for deuteron-deuteron fusion reactions in both PdD and in D2O.

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1495. Hagelstein, P.L., Secondary NeutronYield in the Presence of Energetic Alpha Particles in PdD. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 41-49.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Secondary neutron yield, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Aneutronic fusion, Correlation of excess power and neutrons

It has been proposed that energy can be released in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment as energetic alpha particles in aneutronic fusion reactions. In this scenario, the energetic alpha particles could be "hidden" since they have a relatively short range in PdD. We evaluate the yield of secondary neutrons which result from deuteron-deuteron fusion reactions from energetic deuterons produced in collisions with energetic alpha particles.

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1496. Hagelstein, P.L., On the connection between K&alpha; X-rays and energetic alpha particles in Fleischmann-Pons experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 50-58.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Fleischmann-Pons experiments, K-alpha emission, Gamma-emission, 478 keV line of 7Li

X-ray emission at Kα energies has been reported in Fleischmann-Pons experiments, and alpha particle emission has been reported in others. It is possible for energetic alpha particles to result in Kα radiation following impact ionization. As a result, one might imagine that Kα radiation is a signature of energetic ions in these experiments. We have calculated yields for Kα X-rays as a function of the energetic alpha particle energy in PdD. As a result of these calculations, we conclude that it is unlikely that these X-rays are a result of energetic alpha particles. We note that energetic alpha particles can produce excitation in lithium at 478 keV, and that the relative line strength of the Pd Kα, the Pt Kα and the Li 478 keV line can be used as a consistency check for energetic alpha particles.

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1497. Hagelstein, P.L., D. Letts, and D. Cravens, Terahertz difference frequency response of PdD in two-laser experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 59-76.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Letts, D., Cravens, D.
Keywords: Fleischmann-Pons experiment, 2-Laser stimulation, Optical phonon modes, THz difference frequency

The cell responded to three difference frequencies in the THz range at 8.2 THz, at 15.1 THz, and at 20.8 THz. The first two of these frequencies can be associated with optical phonon frequencies of PdD with zero velocity. We examine the conjectures that the response at 20.8 THz is due to deuterium in vacancies in the gold coating, or due to hydrogen contamination.

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1498. Hagelstein, P.L. and D. Letts, Analysis of some experimental data from the two-laser experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 77-92.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Letts, D.
Keywords: Data analysis, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Optical phonons, Two-laser experiment

We consider simple relaxation models for fitting data from two-laser experiments. The approach has been used to analyze the data systematically from many data sets. A result of the fitting is that we find that the excess power responds quickly near 8 THz, and slowly near 15 and 21 THz.

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1499. Hagelstein, P.L., Constraints on energetic particles in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. Naturwiss., 2010. 97(4).

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: particle emission

In recent Fleischmann-Pons experiments carried out by different groups, a thermal signal is seen indicative of excess energy production of a magnitude much greater than can be accounted for by chemistry. Correlated with the excess heat appears to be 4He, with the associated energy near 24 MeV per helium atom. In nuclear reactions, the energy produced is expressed through the kinetic energy of the products; hence it would be natural to assume that some of the reaction energy ends up as kinetic energy of the 4He nucleus. Depending on the energy that the helium nucleus is born with, it will result in radiation (such as neutrons or x-rays) that can be seen outside of the cell. We have computed estimates of the expected neutron and x-ray emission as a function of helium energy, and compared the results with upper limits taken from experiments. Experimental results with upper limits of neutron emission between 0.008 to 0.8 n/J are found to correspond to upper limits in alpha energy between 6.2 keV and 20.2 keV.

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1500. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Energy Exchange Using Spin-Boson Models with Infinite Loss. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 202-212.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Excess power, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Lossy-spin boson model, Phonon exchange

From experiment we know that energy is produced in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, and that commensurate 4He is observed, with about 24 MeV per helium atom. From the absence of neutrons in experiments producing excess heat, we know that the helium nuclei are born with less than 10 keV energy on average. This results in the key theoretical problem associated with the Fleischmann-Pons experiment: where does the energy go? In the lossy spin-boson model, a large energy quantum is converted into many small quanta. Here we present a new analysis of the lossy spin-boson model.

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1501. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Energy Exchange In The Lossy Spin-Boson Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 52-71.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent energy exchange, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Lossy spin-boson model, Theory

Excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment is observed without commensurate energetic particles, which is inconsistent with known nuclear reactions. Any proposed model must address this at the outset. At present, we recognize are two general approaches to the problem: mechanisms which transfer the reaction energy directly to a condensed matter mode, which requires the fractionation of a large quantum into many small quanta; mechanisms in which the large energy quantum is converted to kinetic energy over a very large number of neighboring nuclei. We have focused on the first approach, and we have found a model that seems to accomplish this. Here we introduce the model, which we call the "lossy spin-boson model". We find that energy exchange in the lossless spin-boson model is hindered due to destructive interference effects. Augmenting the model with loss removes the destructive interference, and we use perturbation theory on a specific example for illustration. Feshbach projection operators and the Brillouin-Wigner formalism which we adopt to describe loss in the model are reviewed in Appendix A.

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1502. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Dynamics in the Case of Coupled Degenerate States. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 72-86.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent dynamics, Degenerate states, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Lossy spin-boson model

Excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment has been observed in a great many experiments, and we have been working toward the development of a theoretical model to account for it. In the experiments, excess heat is correlated with 4He, but there are no commensurate energetic particles. This has motivated us to consider models in which the excess energy is communicated directly to low energy degrees of freedom associated with the solid state environment. We have found relatively simple models which are capable of splitting up a large energy quantum into a very large number of much smaller energy quanta. In order to analyze these new models, we are motivated to consider the dynamics associated with a set of ordered degenerate states with nearest neighbor coupling.

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1503. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Second-order Formulation and Scaling in the Lossy Spin-Boson Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 87-101.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent energy exchange, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Lossy spin-boson model, Theory

In the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, energy is produced without commensurate energetic reaction products. To account for this we have proposed new models in which coherent energy exchange occurs between two-level systems with a large energy quantum, and an oscillator with a much smaller characteristic energy. In earlier work we demonstrated using perturbation theory that the lossy spin-boson model is capable of efficient coherent energy exchange when many oscillator quanta are exchanged for a two-level system quanta on resonance. Here we introduce a formulation that isolates nearly degenerate states in the lossy spin-boson model, and allows the computation of the self-energy and indirect coupling matrix elements. From calculations of simple lossy spin boson models we establish a scaling law and define the dimensionless coupling constant g for the system. Direct calculations using this approach is not possible for large models in which a great many oscillator quanta are exchanged, but the formulation provides a foundation for understanding this kind of model, and will allow us to develop more powerful approximate methods.

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1504. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Local Approximation for the Lossy Spin-boson Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent energy exchange, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Lossy spin-boson model, Theory

We are interested in the problem of coherent energy exchange in the spin-boson model augmented with loss, in the limit of infinite loss. This model is interesting because it predicts rapid coherent energy exchange under conditions when the transition energy of the two-level systems is much greater than the characteristic energy of the oscillator. Here we introduce the local approximation, in which we assume that the matrix elements change little when an energy exchange event occurs. This approximation results in a periodic system when a resonance condition is satisfied, which is much easier to solve than the original problem. We consider a model problem where we analyze the self-energy and indirect coupling matrix elements numerically and in the local approximation, with good agreement. Systematic results from the local approximation are obtained for the self-energy and indirect coupling matrix elements in models where 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 quanta are exchanged.

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1505. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Coherent Energy Exchange in the Strong Coupling Limit of the Lossy Spin-Boson Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 116-139.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent energy exchange, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Lossy spin-boson model, Theory

We focus on the lossy spin-boson model since it is capable of efficient energy exchange between two-level systems and an oscillator under conditions where the characteristic energy of the oscillator is small compared to the transition energy of the two-level systems. We are considering this model as the essential component for a theoretical understanding of the excess heat effect in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. We introduce an iterative algorithm that allows the numerical calculation of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the coefficient eigenvalue equation that arises in the local approximation. From systematic calculations in the strong coupling limit we establish scaling laws for the self-energy and for the indirect coupling matrix element in the local approximation. These results are used to study the system dynamics for simple strong coupling models.

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1506. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Generalization of the Lossy Spin-Boson Model to Donor and Receiver Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 140-154.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent Fusion, Donor-receiver Model, Excitation Transfer, Theory Excess Heat in the Fleischmann-Pons Experiment

Energy in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment is produced without commensurate energetic particles, and 4He is seen in amounts proportional to the energy produced (with a ratio of energy to number near 24 MeV). Correspondingly we focus on the D2/ 4He transition as a two-level system coupled to an oscillator, in order to make a connection with the lossy spin-boson model considered in previous work. Because of the strong Coulomb repulsion between the deuterons, the associated coupling matrix element is very small, and there is no possibility of converting the transition energy to oscillator quanta within a simple lossy spin-boson model. This motivates us to generalize to more complicated model that includes a set of (donor) two-level systems for the D2/ 4He transition, and a set of (receiver) two-level systems that are strongly coupled to the oscillator. We analyze the resulting model in the limit that the receiver system is very strongly coupled. Within this formulation, the associated dynamics can be interpreted in terms of a transition from D2 to 4He with direct conversion (and fractionation) of the large energy quantum to the oscillator, once the coupling with the receiver system is sufficiently strong.

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1507. Hagelstein, P.L. Modeling Karabut's collimated x-rays, and excess heat in the Piantelli NiH exp't (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Theory

Take away message

* Excess heat seen in NiH
* Electrochemical systems, gas systems
* Harder to load
* Easier to make vacancies
* HD formation good
* Donor-receiver model happy
* Is some D in H
* Larger interaction matrix element since Gamow factor smaller

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1508. Hagelstein, P.L. Modeling excess heat and related issues (PowerPoint Slies). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Theory

Take away message

* If d+d -> 4He, would expect 24 MeV for Q-value
* But experiments need to weigh in (might be other reactants)
* 4He retention problem
* Results from (2) experiments with scrubbing give 24 MeV
* Consistent with d+d -> 4He (but not proof of)
* Need more experiments (prevented by lack of support)
* Theoretical issues loom large since no 24 MeV gamma

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1509. Hagelstein, P.L., Bird's EyeView of Phonon Models for Excess Heat in the Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 169-180.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Excess heat, Coherent energy exchange, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Theory

Over the past several years, we have been developing models relevant to excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. Here we review some of the key issues, and give an account of some of the progress that we have made. The excess heat effect is prodigious, and 4He seems to be correlated with the energy, but there are no energetic particles seen in amounts commensurate with the energy. This motivated us to seek models which fractionate a large energy quantum, and the lossy spin-boson model appears to do the job. Coherent energy exchange in the fractionation limit and excitation transfer are the mechanisms required which allow us to describe a new set of reactions and associated models which seem to be relevant to the experiments. The resulting models allow us to develop interpretations for numerous experimental observations.

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1510. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Including Nuclear Degrees of Freedom in a Lattice Hamiltonian. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 7.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Theory, Condensed matter nuclear science, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Fundamental Hamiltonian, Lattice-nuclear coupling, Relativistic effects, Spin-boson model

Motivated by many observations of anomalies in condensed matter systems, we consider a new fundamental Hamiltonian in which condensed matter and nuclear systems are described initially on the same footing. Since it may be possible that the lattice will respond to the mass change associated with a excited nuclear state, we adopt a relativistic description throughout based on a many-particle Dirac formalism. This approach has not been used in the past, perhaps due to the difficulty in separating the center of mass and relative degrees of freedom of the nuclear system, or perhaps due to an absence of applications for such a model. In response to some recent ideas about how to think about the center of mass and relative separation, we obtained from the Dirac model a new fundamental Hamiltonian in which the lattice couples to different states within the composite nuclei within the lattice. In this description the different nuclear states have different mass energies and kinetic energies, as we had expected. In addition there appear new terms which provide for nuclear excitation as a result of coupling to the composite momentum. This new effect comes about because of changes in the composite nuclear state as a result of the dynamical Lorentz boost in the lattice.

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1511. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Errata and Comments on a Recent Set of Papers in Journal of Condensed Matter in Nuclear Science. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 7.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Theory, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Spin-boson model

Recently we published a series of papers that focused on coherent energy exchange in the context of the lossy spin-boson model in this journal. Minor errors have been identified, and we provide corrections here. In addition, we give additional discussion of some of the issues.

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1512. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Pulse and Amplitude Approximation for the Lossy Spin-Boson Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 30-49.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Fleischmann-Pons effect, Lossy spin-boson model, Phonon exchange, Quantum fractionation

The lossy spin-boson model is of interest to us since it predicts efficient energy exchange between identical two-level systems and an oscillator when the transition energy is a large (odd) multiple of the the oscillator energy. This model is not so easy to solve directly in the strong coupling regime, so we have developed approximate versions of the model that are easier to analyze. Here we introduce the pulse and amplitude approximation which compares very well with exact numerical solutions when the coupling is strong, and when the characteristic oscillator energy is much less than the transition energy. We examine discrete and continuum versions of the approximation, and find that they give good results for the solutions and for the self-energy. We show that the indirect coupling matrix element can be estimated from differences in the eigenvalue of the pulse optimization constraint for solutions with different phases.

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1513. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Coupling between a Deuteron and a Lattice. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 50-63.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: a · cP interaction, Deuteron, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Quantum fractionation, Phonon exchange matrix element

We recently put forth a new fundamental lattice Hamiltonian based on an underlying picture of electrons and deuterons as elementary Dirac particles. Within this model there appears a term in which lattice vibrations are coupled to internal nuclear transitions. This is interesting as it has the potential to provide a connection between experiment and models that describe coherent energy transfer between two-level systems and an oscillator. In this work we describe a calculation of the coupling matrix element in the case of the deuteron based on the old empirical Hamada-Johnston model for the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The triplet S and D states of the the deuteron in the rest frame couples to a singlet P state through this new interaction. The singlet P state in this calculation is a virtual state with an energy of 125 MeV, and a coupling matrix element for z-directed motion given by 2.98 × 10−3 MJ cPˆz .

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1514. Hagelstein, P.L., On Theory and Science Generally in Connection with the Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Review

I was encouraged to contribute to an editorial generally on the topic of theory in science, in connection with publication of a paper focused on some recent ideas that Ed Storms has put forth regarding a model for how excess heat works in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. Such a project would compete for my time with other commitments, including teaching, research and family-related commitments; so I was reluctant to take it on. On the other hand I found myself tempted, since over the years I have been musing about theory, and also about science, as a result of having been involved in research on the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. As you can see from what follows, I ended up succumbing to temptation.

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1515. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Central and Tensor Contributions to the Phonon-exchange Matrix Element for the D2/4He Transition. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 15-58.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: D2/4H phonon exchange matrix element, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Nuclear physics calculation, Phonon exchange, Selection rules

The biggest theoretical problem associated with excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment in our view has been the absence of energetic particles in amounts commensurate with the energy produced. In response we have pursued models in which the large nuclear energy quantum is fractionated into a great many lower energy quanta. To connect these idealized models to the physical system we need to evaluate the associated coupling matrix elements. Recently we have found a new coupling mechanism that arises when a lattice model is derived starting from a Dirac description of individual nucleons; this coupling mechanism can be considered a generalization of spin-orbit coupling and produces interactions between the center of mass dynamics and internal nuclear degrees of freedom. In this work we develop a simplified model for 4He and molecular D2 states with which we evaluate the phonon exchange matrix element for D2/4He transitions based on the new interaction. We restrict our calculation to the central and tensor contributions of the Hamada-Johnston nucleon-nucleon potential, which are the strongest, and find coupling between ground state 4He and triplet P and F molecular states. This interaction matrix element can be used in generalized lossy spin-boson models for the calculation of excess heat production in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment.

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1516. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Lossy Spin-boson Model with an Unstable Upper State and Extension to N-level Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 59-92.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent energy exchange, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Lossy spin-boson model, Theory

In the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, excess heat is thought to have a nuclear origin due to the amount of energy produced, yet there are no commensurate energetic particles. This has motivated us over the years to focus attention on models in which a large quantum is fractionated into a great many small quanta. We have found that many two-level systems with a large transition energy are able to exchange energy coherently with an oscillator with a much smaller characteristic energy as long as decay channels are present in the vicinity of the two-level transition energy. In previous work we analyzed this basic model, and obtained estimates for the coherent energy exchange rate in the strong coupling limit. In this work we consider a version of this model where the upper states of the two-level systems are unstable. In this case, there is no coherent energy exchange, but instead we find a dynamical polarization effect which we have analyzed. We extend the model to the case of three-level systems, and generalize the result to apply to general N-level systems. Coherent energy exchange is possible within the context of a donor and receiver model, where the receiver transitions have unstable upper states. We give results for the donor dynamics in this case. This model provides a foundation for a new kind of model that we put forth recently for which the predictions appear to be closely connected to experiment.

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1517. Hagelstein, P.L., Electron Mass Enhancement and the Widom-Larsen Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 18-40.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Electric field fluctuations, Increased electron mass, LENR theory, Weak interaction models, Widom–Larsen theory

Widom and Larsen have put forth a model to describe excess heat and transmutation in LENR experiments. This model is the single most successful theoretical model that the field has seen since it started; it has served as the theoretical justification for a program at NASA; and it has accumulated an enormous number of supporters both within and outside of the condensed matter nuclear science community. The first step in the model involves the proposed accumulation of mass by electrons through Coulomb interactions with electrons and ions in highly-excited coupled plasmon and optical phonon modes. Historically for us this mass increase has been hard to understand, so we were motivated in this study to understand better how this comes about. To study it, we consider simple classical models which show the effect, from which we see that the mass increase can be associated with the electron kinetic energy. The basic results of the simple classical model carry over to the quantum problem in the case of simple wave packet solutions. Since there are no quantum fluctuations of the longitudinal field in the Coulomb gauge, the resulting problem is conventional, and we find no reason to expect MeV electron kinetic energy in a conventional consideration of electrons in metals. We consider the numerical example outlined in a primer on the Widom-Larsen model, and find that multiple GW/cm2 would be required to support the level of vibrational excitation assumed in the surface layer; this very large power per unit area falls short by orders of magnitude the power level needed to make up the expected energy loss of the mass-enhanced electrons. We note that the mass enhancement of an electron in a transverse field is connected to acceleration, so that the electron radiates. A similar effect is expected in the longitudinal case, and a very large amount of easily detected X-ray radiation would be expected if an MeV-level mass enhancement were present even in a modest number of electrons

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1518. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Born-Oppenheimer and Fixed-point Models for Second-order Phonon Exchange in a Metal. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 69-104.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Phonon theory, Born-Oppenheimer approximation, phonon fluctuations, fractionation

We have been interested in the development of a model for anomalies in condensed matter nuclear science, and over the past few years we have developed new models that describe coherent phonon exchange between a highly-excited vibrational mode and nuclei under conditions of fractionation. When we modeled collimated X-ray emission in the Karabut experiment, we found that the conditions required by the model did not match the conditions of the experiment. One possible reason for this might be the neglect of phonon fluctuations due to coupling with conduction electrons. We would like to add a description of this effect to our phonon-nuclear model; however, models normally used for electron-phonon interactions in metals are based on the Bloch picture, and we were concerned that it may not be well suited to the problem. This has motivated us to develop a new model for phonon fluctuations in a metal that is based on the Born-Oppenheimer picture, within the context of a Brillouin-Wigner formulation. The Born-Oppenheimer results are complicated, so we have reduced them in a simpler fixed-point picture (which is based on a Taylor series expansion of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation around fixed nuclear equilibrium points). In order to verify the resulting formalism, we constructed a simplified model for the monatomic crystal phonon dispersion relation, which is well known in the Bloch picture literature. From this model we are able to extract the longitudinal dielectric constant. We find that the fixed-point dielectric constant at second order is more accurate than the Bloch picture equivalent, and that it includes dynamic corrections that match the result from field theory up to O(ω2). This model is used in a subsequent paper for the development of phonon fluctuation models, where it is found that the Bloch picture is appropriate when the metal sample is micron scale or larger, and that the Born-Oppenheimer picture is appropriate for nano-scale samples.

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1519. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Phonon-nuclear Coupling for Anomalies in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 105-142.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Phonon theory, fractionation, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Karabut experiment, fundamental Hamiltonian

Excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment is thought to have a nuclear origin, yet there are no energetic particles observed in amounts commensurate with the energy produced. This in our view is the most fundamental issue in connection with theory. In earlier work we developed a mathematical model (the lossy spin-boson model) which shows coherent energy exchange between two-level systems and an oscillator under conditions of fractionation. Recently, we have found an interesting physical model that is closely connected, and which is capable of coherent energy exchange with fractionation; this model is based on a relativistic description of composite nuclei in a lattice. In this work we present a much stronger development of the model directly from field theory than given previously. In the lossy spin-boson model, the ability of the model to fractionate a large quantum depends on the presence of suitable loss mechanisms; the same is true in the case of the new physical model. The new model predicts anomalies such as excess heat without energetic nuclear radiation, 4He production, low-level gamma emission, and collimated X-ray emission in the Karabut experiment; however, as yet we have not demonstrated agreement between theory and experiment. Last summer we concluded (erroneously) that coupling with strong static transitions might impact the fractionation power of the model on dynamic transitions, and the resulting model appeared to be in agreement with our interpretation of the experiment. Here we review this kind of model more carefully, and find that no such enhancement is present. Our conclusion in the end is that the theory, model, and interpretation are "close" to the experimental results in the case of the Karabut experiment, but some problem remains.

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1520. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Models for Phonon-nuclear Interactions and Collimated X-ray Emission in the Karabut Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Collimated X-rays, Fractionation, Karabut experiment, Phonon–nuclear coupling, Phonon theory

Excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment occurs without commensurate energetic nuclear radiation, which motivated us to seek mechanisms capable of fractionating a large quantum, resulting in the lossy spin-boson model. Collimated x-ray emission in the Karabut experiment we interpreted as demonstrating the conversion of vibrational energy to nuclear excitation, as predicted from the lossy spin-boson model; this motivated us to seek physical models that could account for the effect. We found that the coupling strength associated with electron-nuclear and electron-electron coupling was too weak to fractionate keV quanta into 100 MHz vibrations, which motivated us to seek a theory in which nuclear transitions coupled directly to vibrations. These considerations led us to a lattice model with a relativistic description of compound nuclei, in which a strong phonon-nuclear interaction is present. This interaction is normally rotated out with the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, but in the presence of strong loss mechanisms
this transformation becomes unhelpful. The model that results describes the coupling of vibrational energy to nuclear excitation, but earlier efforts to apply it to the Karabut experiment resulted in inconsistencies. This motivated us to analyze fluctuations due to electron-phonon coupling in metals, which we find here to be a weak effect for Bloch picture phonon exchange, and a somewhat stronger effect with Born-Oppenheimer phonon exchange. As no new physics were found to substantially enhance fractionation, we returned to the basic theory, and carried out a systematic analysis of the three different degrees of freedom that result from simple product approximations for the wavefunction. We find that when there are more virtual phonons than real, a significant enhancement of the coupling strength occurs, corresponding to a new anomalous regime. Conditions on the coupling matrix element and relative state occupation are derived for the anomalous regime, which favors strongly-coupled low energy transitions which constitute a large
fraction of all nuclei present. The fractionation power of a sample in the anomalous regime is very much constrained, which allows us to be able to make predictions with the new model. We find that the 30.77 keV transition in 93Nb is likely to be in the anomalous regime in a Nb cathode; that the threshold fractionation energy is too low for excitation of the 30.77 keV transition; but that the threshold fractionation energy is high enough to result in the excitation of the 1565 eV transition in 201Hg, and x-ray emission in the few keV regime consistent with Karabut's observations.

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1521. Hagelstein, P.L. and D. Letts, Temperature Dependence of Excess Power in Two-laser Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Letts, D.
Keywords: Active site blocking by helium, Letts 2-laser experiment, Temperature dependence of excess heat

Data published previously on the two-laser experiment shows that the excess heat depends on temperature, and is mostly zero in the absence of a magnetic field. A new experiment shows higher excess power at higher temperature. We augment our previous empirical model with temperature dependence. A picture for the temperature dependence is described in terms of the elimination of 4He which blocks active sites when the excess power is high.

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1522. Hagelstein, P.L., Molecular D2 Near Vacancies in PdD and Related Problems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Donor and receiver model, Excess heat production, Lossy spin–boson model, Theory

Excess heat is observed correlated with 4He in PdD excess heat experiments, consistent with proposed D2/4He reaction mechanisms. The electron density is too high in PdD for molecular D2 to form, so we consider the problem of D2 formation in a monovacancy, and related problems involving other metal deuterides and hydrides.

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1523. Hagelstein, P.L., Equation of State and Fugacity Models for H2 and for D2. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Equation of state, Fugacity, Gaseous H2 and D2, Nonideal gas, Quantum cellmodel

When Pd is in equilibrium with H2 or D2 in gas, the chemical potentials are equal, and this allows a determination of the chemical potential and other thermodynamic properties of palladium hydride and palladium deuteride. At high loading near room temperature, the gas pressure must be very high, and an ideal gas law no longer applies. In this case a knowledge of the fugacity is required to interpret and understand the results. We examine empirical models for the equation of state and fugacity of H2 which are relevant to the high pressure regime of interest, including an old model of Holley et al (1958), and the more modern models of Spycher and Reed (1988), Tkacz and Litwiniuk (2002), and Joubert (2010). At high pressure the more recent models are best, but the model of Tkacz and Litwiniuk diverges from the ideal gas equation of state at low pressure, which leads to an offset in the fugacity. We examine the difference between the equation of states for H2 and D2 in recent models, and find that the small difference at high pressure in the models of Tkacz and Litwiniuk agree best with experiment, while the larger difference in the models of Joubert (2010) and Joubert and Thiebaut (2011) is probably not reliable. We examine the possibility of developing a difference correction for the fugacity theoretically. It may be possible to account accurately for the zero-point contribution; however, accounting for
the difference in inter-molecular potentials due to the different degrees of rotational excitation requires the development of new potential models.

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1524. Hagelstein, P.L., Deuterium Evolution Reaction Model and the Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Deuterium evolution reaction, D/Pd loading, Overpotential, Tafel reaction, Volmer reaction

The hydrogen evolution reaction model was proposed many years ago by the founders of modern electrochemistry. The closely related deuterium evolution reaction model describes deuterium loading in Pd cathodes in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. We were interested in what issues were involved in the development of a high D/Pd loading, since over the years the importance of obtaining a high D/Pd ratio to obtain excess heat has been emphasized. In order to simplify things, we focus on the Volmer and Tafel reactions, and develop a steady state adsorption isotherm for the Vomer-Tafel regime. The adsorption isotherm is extended to become an absorption isotherm within a simplified picture that takes the surface sites to be equivalent to the bulk sites. While not a particularly good approximation, this allows us to model the D/Pd loading simply as a function of the overpotential, and hence the electrochemical current density. From a Tafel curve we can get some of the parameters for the Volmer current model, and from other eletrochemical data we can estimate the remaining Volmer and Tafel parameters. The resulting model fits the experimental data used well at low current density. Cathodes that load more highly with this approach require new models, potentially one for each cathode. We examine our earlier proposal that the differences in loading seen in experiment is due in part to large variations in the rate for internal D2 leaks. Consequently, we modify the Tafel reaction current model to account for internal leaks separately from the surface gas loss, and take advantage of data from the most highly loaded cathodes to estimate the surface Tafel reaction rate. Using this approach, the reference cathode that we used for our fits initially must have an internal leak rate more than two orders of magnitude higher than the rate of surface D2 loss. We conclude that minimizing the internal leaks is important in achieving high loading. Probably a key reason that there were so many negative results early in the field was because the cathode internal leak rate was very high in the cathodes used.

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1525. Hagelstein, P.L., Empirical Models for Octahedral and Tetrahedral Occupation in PdH and in PdD at High Loading. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 17.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Empirical models, Resistance ratio, Solubility of PdH and PdD at high loading, Statistical mechanics model, Tetrahedral occupation

High D/Pd loading is known to be a requirement for producing excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, and much work has in recent years been focused on electrochemical protocols and cathode processing in order to achieve D/Pd loadings approaching unity routinely. However, we know very little about PdD at a loading near unity, and almost nothing about what happens when the loading exceeds unity. It may be that when the octahedral sites are fully occupied, additional interstitial deuterium atoms occupy tetrahedral sites, a proposal which at this point has little experimental support. It is nevertheless possible to construct an empirical model for this scenario, and to make use of available experimental data to fit the associated model parameters. We worked with empirical models for both PdD and PdH that assume an O-site energy quadratic in loading, and an O-site to T-site excitation which is either constant in loading, or else taken as an empirical function fit to estimates inferred from the analysis of experimental data. There are two empirical models, each with four or more free parameters; and insufficient experimental data from which to choose each parameter or function independently. We add supplementary constraints that presume the models for PdH and PdD must be very similar, which reduces the number of degrees of freedom within the models. This allows data from PdH to be used to construct a model for PdD, and vice versa. The models which result are interesting; they suggest these complicated systems might be understood based on a simple underlying picture; they indicate that there is more T-site occupation than has been appreciated previously in the literature; they indicate that the resistance ratio calibrations for PdH and PdD are inconsistent; and finally, measurements of the chemical potential at high loading have the potential to provide information about the O-site to T-site excitation energy.

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1526. Hagelstein, P.L., O-site and T-site Occupation of alpha-phase PdHX and PdDX. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 17.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Empirical model, Mean-field lattice gas model, Solubility, !-phase PdHx and PdDx , Tetrahedral occupation

An important study of the solubility of hydrogen in α-phase PdHX and deuterium in α-phase PdDX over a wide temperature range was published by Clewley et al. (J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1: Phy. Chem. Condensed Phases 69 (1973) 449-458). An analysis of the data based on an empirical solubility model based on O-site occupation allows for an understanding of the data at low temperature, but probably is not a good starting place for understanding the solubility at high temperature. We have applied a recently developed empirical model for both O-site and T-site occupation to this data set, and find good agreement between data and a basic version of the model which assumes that the O-site and T-site partition functions are taken to be harmonic oscillator partition functions. Even better agreement is obtained when a more realistic O-site partition function is used. A range of optimum models with different assumptions about the T-site partition function is considered, and it is found to be possible to select one that matches the T-site occupation at zero loading inferred from neutron diffraction measurements of Pitt and Gray (Europhys. Let. 64 (2003) 344). The O-site to T-site excitation energy is assumed independent of temperature in these models, and we obtain specific model values of 105.3 meV for α-phase PdDX and 106.5 meV for α-phase PdHX.

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1527. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Phonon models for anomalies in condensed matter nuclear science. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords:


1528. Hagelstein, P.L., Directional X-ray and gamma emission in experiments in condensed matter nuclear science. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords:


1529. Hagelstein, P.L., Current Status of the Theory and Modeling Effort based on Fractionation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords:

The theoretical problems associated with excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment were once viewed as insurmountable; nevertheless, some progress has been made in the past quarter century. Conceptually the problem can be split into one area involving new physics which is needed to address the microscopic physics of the reaction process; and a second area involving known physics which allows one to connect with the different practical issues involved in the experiments and observations. We review the ideas and progress first in the area of new physical mechanisms, in which models that describe the down-conversion of the large nuclear quantum allowing for coherent energy exchange of the nuclear energy into vibrational energy. These ideas provide a connection between excess heat experiments with Pd and Ni, with D or a mixture of H and D; experiments where tritium or low-level nuclear emission is seen, and other experiments with collimated X-ray emission. In the area of conventional physics mechanisms, we are interested in the basic physics of PdH and PdD; modeling cathode loading and understanding why some cathodes loaded very poorly in the early days; understanding active sites which we attribute to monovacancies in PdD and NiH; figuring out how active sites are created; triggering excess heat; and removing the helium made in the new reactions.

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1530. Hagelstein, P.L., Models for the Phase Diagram of Palladium Hydride Including O-site and T-site Occupation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Mean field model, Palladium hydride, Phase diagram, Statistical mechanics, T-site occupation

Early statistical mechanics models for palladium hydride allowed for a good description of the phase diagram based on a simple parameterization of the O-site energy. In this work we study generalizations of these models to include higher-order dependence on loading, temperature-dependent O-site energies, and also to include T-site occupation. xperimental data sets for 10 isotherms were assembled, and augmented with additional extrapolated points for the low-pressure α-phase region as well as the high pressure β-phase region. Loading-dependent O-site energies are optimized by minimizing the mean square error in the chemical potential between the model and data set. The resulting models give a good match to the phase diagram. If the O-site energy is allowed to be temperature dependent then the fit is better, but the resulting optimum is a mathematical optimum not so closely connected with the physical system. Models were studied in which O-site and T-site occupation occurs. When optimized these models are able to provide a good match to the phase diagram. When the O-site to T-site excitation energy is fixed according to estimates developed in earlier studies, the resulting temperature-dependent O-site energies are physically plausible. When the excitation energy are optimized together with the O-site energy, the resulting optimum is a mathematical one much less connected to the physical system. An earlier analysis of solubility in the α-phase led to a strong argument that T-site occupation occurs in palladium hydride and in palladium deuteriude; the present study supports this conclusion based on an independent data set.

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1531. Hagelstein, P.L., Quantum Composites: A Review, and New Results for Models for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Center of mass, Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation, Phonon–nuclear coupling, Quantum composite

A composite is made up of constituent particles; the center of mass dynamics is that of a single particle, and the composite can have many internal states and degrees of freedom. The notion of a quantum composite is foundational to atomic, molecular, nuclear and particle physics; in our view it is also foundational to condensed matter nuclear science. It comes as a surprise that there do not appear to be review papers that discuss quantum composites. Here we consider elementary particles models, which are used to model composites; the most widely used example is that of the Dirac phenomenology for protons and neutrons. Quantum composite models can be developed from many-particle models, in some cases simply by rewriting in terms of center of mass and relative operators, and in other cases through a reduction or transformation. We have proposed models for anomalies in condensed matter nuclear science which rely heavily on the notion of a relativistic quantum composite. In the nonrelativistic case there is a clean separation of center of mass and internal degrees of freedom, so that any coupling between them must occur through external field interactions. The relativistic composite has a sizeable coupling between the center of mass motion and internal degrees of freedom, which we have proposed is responsible for the anomalies in condensed matter nuclear science. We have developed a new
model in which the center of mass dynamics is modeled as nonrelativistic, but the internal structure is kept relativistic; this kind of model is much better adapted to problems in condensed matter nuclear science. Our approach has been strongly criticized, since in a Poincaré invariant theory the center of mass motion separates from the internal degrees of freedom in free space. We are able to rotate out the strongest part of this coupling in free space, consistent with Poincaré invariance. However, in the lattice the problem is in general much more complicated, and more powerful tools are required to diagonalize this relativistic coupling. The spin-boson type of models that we have considered previously for this are the simplest idealized models that can be diagonalized; they describe rich dynamics not present in the free-space version of the problem.

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1532. Hagelstein, P.L., Probabilistic Models for Beam, Spot, and Line Emission for Collimated X-ray Emission in the Karabut Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 53-73.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Beam formation, Collimated X-ray emission, Karabut experiment, Phase coherence, Up-conversion

Collimated X-ray emission near 1.5 keV in the Karabut experiment is an anomaly that cannot be explained by conventional solid state, atomic, or nuclear physics. In order for the X-rays to be collimated, there must either be an X-ray laser present, or else a phased-array collimation effect produced by emitting dipoles that radiate in phase. Although there have been arguments made in support of an X-ray laser origin of the effect, from our perspective this approach suffers from an absence of a plausible mechanism, short excited-state electronic lifetimes, high power requirements, and an incompatibility between the experimental geometry and the need for an elongated laser medium for beam formation. In this work we consider a model for beam formation due to many emitting dipoles randomly positioned within a circle on a mathematically flat surface. When the emitting dipole density is low, a speckle pattern is produced. Above a critical emitting dipole density beam formation occurs. The average intensity of the speckle and beam is estimated from simple statistical models at low and high dipole density, and combined to develop an empirical intensity estimate over the full range of dipole densities which compares well with numerical simulations. Beam formation occurs above a critical number of emitting dipoles, which allows us to develop an estimate for the minimum number of emitting dipoles present in the Karabut experiment. The effect of surface deformations is considered; constant offsets do not impact beam formation, and locally linear offsets direct the beam slightly off of normal. Minor displacements quadratic in the surface coordinates can produce focusing and defocusing effects, leading to a natural explanation for intense spot and line formation observed in the experiments.

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1533. Hagi, H., Diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in palladium films prepared by RF sputtering. Materials Transactions JIM, 1990. 31(11): p. 954.

First Author: Hagi, H.
All Authors: Hagi, H.
Keywords: diffusion, Pd, H2


1534. Hajdas, W., et al., Search for cold fusion events. Solid State Commun., 1989. 72: p. 309.

First Author: Hajdas, W.
All Authors: Hajdas, W., Kistryn, S., Lang, J., Sromicki, J., Jenny, B., Wachter, P.
Keywords: D2O, Pd neutron, gamma emission LaNi5


1535. Hale, G.M., R.D. Smith, and T.L. Talley, Nuclear reactions and screened-Coulomb fusion rates. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 187.

First Author: Hale, G. M.
All Authors: Hale, G. M., Smith, R. D., Talley, T. L.
Keywords: Theory


1536. Hale, G.M. and T.L. Talley. Deuteron-Induced Fusion in Various Environments. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Hale, G. M.
All Authors: Hale, G. M., Talley, T. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-4


1537. Halley, J.W. and J.L. Valles, Estimate of nuclear fusion rates arising from a molecular-dynamics model of palladium deuteride. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 41(9): p. 6072.

First Author: Halley, J. W.
All Authors: Halley, J. W., Valles, J. L.
Keywords: Theory, coherency, tunelling


1538. Hambling, D., Cold fusion: smoke and mirrors, or raising a head of steam?, in wired.co.uk. 2012.

First Author: Hambling, D.
All Authors: Hambling, D.
Keywords:


1539. Hamm, S., et al. Electrochemical Analysis of Palladium Cathodes towards the Advancement of Reproducibly High H/Pd Loading Ratios (PowerPoint slides). in ICCF19 conference. 2015.

First Author: Hamm, S.
All Authors: Hamm, S., Dmitriyeva, O., Knies, D., Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords:

Motivation:
• A strong correlation has been found between surface impurities and H/Pd (D/Pd) loading. Impurities that promote increased loadings are referred to as "promote- impurities.
• Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of these impurities since it is believed there is a higher probability of observing the Fleischmann-Pons Effect when D/Pd>0.9.
• It is also important to determine how pure Pd in a pure electrolyte theoretically behaves, and whether it would be possible to achieve high loading in such a configuration.

Experimental Approach:

• We are studying the electrochemical properties of surface impurities and how they affect loading/de-loading behavior using impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronopotentiometry
(CP). Unless otherwise noted, experiments were performed in 0.1 M LiOH in H2O. . . .

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1540. Hanawa, T. X-ray Spectroscropic Analysis of Carbon Arc Products in Water. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Hanawa, T
All Authors: Hanawa, T
Keywords: carbon arc, water plasma, transmutation, ICCF-8


1541. Handel, P. Influence of Surface Tension, Nucleation Centers, and Electron Effective Mass on the Achievable Level of Electrolytic Deuterium Loading. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Handel, P.
All Authors: Handel, P.
Keywords: Pd, loading, reaction, bubbles


1542. Handel, P. Reformulation of the Cold Fusion Problem: Heterogeneous Nucleation - A Likely Cause of the Irreproducibility and Intermittency of Cold Fusion Observations. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Handel, P.
All Authors: Handel, P.
Keywords: surface, theory, ICCF-1


1543. Handel, P., Intermittency, irreproducibility, and the main physical effects in cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 512.

First Author: Handel, P.
All Authors: Handel, P.
Keywords: theory, gas bubble


1544. Handel, P. Subtraction of a New Thermo-Electromechanical Effect from the Excess Heat, and the Emerging Avenues to Cold Fusion. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Handel, P.
All Authors: Handel, P.
Keywords: theory, Peltier, critique, ICCF-4


1545. Handel, P., Thermoelectric excess heat effect in electrolytic cells. Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter, 1994. 95: p. 489.

First Author: Handel, P.
All Authors: Handel, P.
Keywords: Theory, Peltier, critique


1546. Hanksworth, M.R. and J.P.G. Farr, Cold Neutron Radiography of Hydrogenated Palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1981. 119: p. 49.

First Author: Hanksworth, M. R.
All Authors: Hanksworth, M. R., Farr, J. P. G.
Keywords: autoradiography, Pd, H2, diffusion, structure


1547. Hansen, W.N. Report to the Utah State Fusion/Energy Council on the Analysis of Selected Pons Fleischmann Calorimetric Data. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Hansen, W. N.
All Authors: Hansen, W. N.
Keywords: heat, critique, Pd, D2O, Pons, Fleischmann, ICCF-2

Here is reported my analysis of a series of electrochemical experiments run by Pons and Fleischmann, P/F. This series produced some remarkable results which were revealed only through a careful analysis.

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1548. Hansen, W.N. and M.E. Melich. Pd/D Calorimetry- The Key to the F/P Effect and a Challenge to Science. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Hansen, W. N.
All Authors: Hansen, W. N., Melich, M. E.
Keywords: critique, analysis, heat, Pons, Fleischmann, ICCF-4

Abstract The main issue before this conference can be stated as a simple question: Question #1: Can large amounts of heat be generated at a significant rate by Pd/D interaction as announced by Fleischmann and Pons? By now there have been many experimental results claiming to answer "yes" and which force us to take that possibility very seriously. As used here the "large amounts" are much larger than can possibly be explained by chemistry or metallurgy as known today. Up to now the only practical way of answering this question is by Pd/D calorimetry. . . .

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1549. Hansen, W.N. and M.E. Melich, Pd/D Calorimetry- The Key to the F/P Effect and a Challenge to Science. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 355.

First Author: Hansen, W. N.
All Authors: Hansen, W. N., Melich, M. E.
Keywords: critique, analysis, heat, Pons, Fleischmann


1550. Hansen, L.D., et al., COOPERATIVE INVESTIGATION OF ANOMALOUS EFFECTS IN Pd/LiOD ELECTROLYTIC CELLS. 1995.

First Author: Hansen, L. D.
All Authors: Hansen, L. D., Jones, S. E., Thorne, J. M., Shelton, D. S., Taylor, S. F., Storms, E.
Keywords: proposal, DOE, reproducibility


1551. Hansen, L.D., S.E. Jones, and D.S. Shelton, A response to hydrogen + oxygen recombination and related heat generation in undivided electrolysis cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1998. 447: p. 225.

First Author: Hansen, L. D.
All Authors: Hansen, L. D., Jones, S. E., Shelton, D. S.
Keywords: critique, recombination, Will


1552. Hansen, W.N., G. Hansen, and D. Glenn. Analysis of Some Electrochemical Calorimetry Data. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Hansen, W. N.
All Authors: Hansen, W. N., Hansen, G., Glenn, D.
Keywords: calorimetry heat

To demonstrate our techniques for analyzing the calorimetric data of an electrochemical cell, we use three sets of data taken at the NEH laboratory in Sapporo, Japan, copies of which were kindly given to us by Dr. Melvin Miles who was personally involved in their taking.

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1553. Hanson, A.O. and J.L. McKibben, A Neutron Detector Having Uniform Sensitivity from 10 Kev to 3 MeV. Phys. Rev., 1947. 72(8): p. 673.

First Author: Hanson, A. O.
All Authors: Hanson, A. O., McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: neutron, method, apparatus


1554. Harb, J.N., W.G. Pitt, and H.D. Tolley, Statistical analysis of neutron burst size and rate during electrolysis of LiOD solutions. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 669.

First Author: Harb, J. N.
All Authors: Harb, J. N., Pitt, W. G., Tolley, H. D.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, statistics, neutron, D2O, heat


1555. Hargitai, C., Considerations on cold nuclear fusion in palladium. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1989. 137(1): p. 17.

First Author: Hargitai, C.
All Authors: Hargitai, C.
Keywords: Theory, screening


1556. Hargrave, C., Cold Fusion: A Glimpse into the Future. Share International, 1992. 11: p. 17.

First Author: Hargrave, C.
All Authors: Hargrave, C.
Keywords: history


1557. Harith, M.A., et al., Theoretical and experimental studies on the cold nuclear fusion phenomena". Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 704.

First Author: Harith, M. A.
All Authors: Harith, M. A., Palleschi, V., Salvetti, A., Salvetti, G., Singh, D. P., Vaselli, M.
Keywords: Theory, screening


1558. Hasegawa, H. and K. Nakajima, Effect of Hydrogen on the Mechanical Properties of Pd. J. Phys. F, 1979. 9(6): p. 1035.

First Author: Hasegawa, H.
All Authors: Hasegawa, H., Nakajima, K.
Keywords: Pd, H, diffusion, strength


1559. Hasegawa, N., et al. Observation of Excess Heat during Electrolysis of 1 M LiOD in a Fuel Cell Type Closed Cell. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Hasegawa, N.
All Authors: Hasegawa, N., Kunimatsu, K., Ohi, T., Terasawa, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, Current Density, loading, overvoltage, OCV, electrolysis, ICCF-3

Measurement of the excess heat generation during electrolysis of 1 M LiOD has been conducted in a closed cell pressurerized by deuterium gas in which a fuel cell type gas diffusion electrode was employed as an anode, and a platinized platinum electrode served as the RHE for determination of hydrogen overvoltage at the palladium cathode. This has allowed us simultaneous determination of both excess heat generation and deuterium loading ratio, D/Pd, in the course of long term electrolysis which lasted for nearly two months.

Dependence of excess heat generation on D/Pd has been observed up to D/Pd = 0.88 with the maximum outpuVinput ratio of 1 .35. The minimum O/Pd to produce the excess heat has been found around 0.83-0.84.

Dependence of O/Pd on the overvoltage and the dependence of the excess heat generation on the O/Pd suggest that the dependence of the excess heat generation on the current density reported originally by Fleischmann and Pons and later by Storms can be interpreted in terms of the dependence of the loading ratio on the electrolysis current density. In other words, higher current density is necessary to maintain the high loading ratio.

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1560. Hasegawa, N., et al. Observation of Excess Heat during Electrolysis of 1 M LiOD in a Fuel Cell Type Closed Cell. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Hasegawa, N.
All Authors: Hasegawa, N., Hayakawa, N., Tsuchida, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, Current Density, loading, overvoltage, OCV, electrolysis, ICCF-4

Measurements of electrolytic deuterium loading into Pd and Pd-Rh alloy cathodes and excess heat during electrolysis in 1M LiOD have been conducted simultaneously in closed cells with a fuel cell anode pressurized by deuterium gas. The excess heat up to 4-5W/Pd cc has been reproduced by using Pd rod cathodes from various sources. Excess heat increases with electrolysis current density higher than ca. 0.1-0.2 A/cm^2, cathode overvoltage and D/Pd higher than 0.80-0.84, but its dependence on D/Pd or D/M appears to be specific to each cathode material in the region of high cathode loading, where the current density or overvoltage appears to be a more important parameter to control the amount of excess heat than the cathode loading.

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1561. Hasegawa, N., et al. Electrolytic Deuterium Absorption by Pd Cathode and a Consideration for High D/Pd Ratio. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Hasegawa, N.
All Authors: Hasegawa, N., Sumi, M., Takahashi, M., Senjuh, T., Asami, N., Sakai, T., Shigemitsu, T.
Keywords: single crystal, loading, Pd, heat+, surface, pressure, deloading, ICCF-5, electrolysis

Using several kinds of Pd electrodes, electrolysis were performed in "Fuel-Cell Type Closed Cell". Initial deuterium absorption (DIP d) at the first period o f electrolysis of 50 mNcm' current density. Maximum DlPd during electrolysis and deuterium desorption were measured. Single crystal Pd electrode reached the highest initial deuterium absorption, DlPd=0.89, and the highest M aximum DlPd, 0.89, during electrolysis. Except single crystal one of high purity, more than 99 .99%, Pd electrodes annealed at 850C reached the highest DlPd, 0.87. And this electrodes showed excess heat of 13 % of input power.

The results of metallographical examinations of Pd electrodes after electrolysis suggest that the electrodes of high purity, annealed at 850C , and machined & etched to remove surface defects will be preferable to reach higher DlPd.

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1562. Hassam, A.B. and A.N. Dharamsi, Deuterium molecule in the presence of electronic charge concentrations: implications for cold fusion. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1989. 40(11): p. 6689.

First Author: Hassam, A B.
All Authors: Hassam, A B., Dharamsi, A. N.
Keywords: Theory, Born-Oppenheimer


1563. Haug, A. and H. Hoegaasen, Sonoluminescence in heavy water. Phys. Scr., 1996. 54: p. 197.

First Author: Haug, A.
All Authors: Haug, A., Hoegaasen, H.
Keywords: sonoluminescence, neutron, D2O


1564. Hawkins, N., et al. Investigations of Mechanisms and Occurrence of Meteorologically Triggered Cold Fusion at The Chinese Academy of Sciences. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, "AIP Conference Proceedings 228". 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Hawkins, N.
All Authors: Hawkins, N., Xi, S. Sh., Qi, X. Zh., Li, X. D., Wang, L., Zu, Q. X.
Keywords: electron Strings weather, Pd, D2O, Abrikosov vortices


1565. Hawkins, N., Possible natural cold fusion in the atmosphere. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 2112.

First Author: Hawkins, N.
All Authors: Hawkins, N.
Keywords: atmosphere, Ball Lighting


1566. Hayden, M.E., et al., High precision calorimetric search for evidence of cold fusion using in situ catalytic recombination of evolved gases. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 161.

First Author: Hayden, M. E.
All Authors: Hayden, M. E., Naerger, U., Booth, J. L., Whitehead, L. A., Hardy, W. N., Carolan, J. F., Wishnow, E. H., Balzarini, D. A., Brewer, J. H., Blake, C. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat-, D2O


1567. He, J., et al. A Study on Anomalous Nuclear Fusion Reaction by Using a HV Pulse Discharge. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: He, J.
All Authors: He, J., Zhang, Y., Ren, G., Zhu, G., Dong, X., Chen, D., Han, H., Wang, L., Jin, S.
Keywords: Pd, D2, gas discharge, particle emission, gamma emission ICCF-4


1568. He, J., et al., Study of anomalous nuclear fusion reaction by using HV pulse discharge. Chin. Phys. Lett., 1993. 10(11): p. 652.

First Author: He, J.
All Authors: He, J., Zhang, Y., Ren, G., Zhu, G., Qian, Z., Dong, X., Dai, C., Hu, S., Wang, L., Yi, S.
Keywords: gas discharge, neutron, gamma emission Pd, ion bombardment D2


1569. He, J., Nuclear fusion inside condense matters. Front. Phys. China, 2007. 1: p. 96-102.

First Author: He, J.
All Authors: He, J.
Keywords: review


1570. Heming, G., Cold Fusion In search of Infinite Energy. MURJ, 2001. 4: p. 63-67.

First Author: Heming, G.
All Authors: Heming, G.
Keywords: review,


1571. Hemmes, H., B.M. Geerken, and R. Griessen, Contribution of optical phonons to the thermal expansion of PdHx and a'-PdDx. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1984. 14: p. 2923.

First Author: Hemmes, H.
All Authors: Hemmes, H., Geerken, B. M., Griessen, R.
Keywords: thermal expansion, PdD, PdH


1572. Henderson, R.A., et al., More searches for cold fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 475.

First Author: Henderson, R. A.
All Authors: Henderson, R. A., Czerwinski, K. R., Hall, H. L., Lesko, K. T., Norman, E. B., Sur, B., Hoffman, D. C.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd neutron, gamma emission, radioactivity Titanium, D2O, H2O


1573. Henis, Z., S. Eliezer, and A. Zigler, Cold nuclear fusion rates in condensed matter: a phenomenological analysis. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 1989. 15: p. L219.

First Author: Henis, Z.
All Authors: Henis, Z., Eliezer, S., Zigler, A.
Keywords: Theory


1574. Henry-Couannier, F., From Dark Gravity to LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 18.

First Author: Henry-Couannier, F.
All Authors: Henry-Couannier, F.
Keywords: Anti-gravity, Field discontinuities, Janus field, LENR, Negative energies, Time reversal

Dark Gravity (DG) theories are extensions of General Relativity having a stable anti-gravitational sector. From the beginning, the motivation for such an extended framework was not only phenomenological, trying to address several well-known enigmatic cosmological discoveries in an alternative way: missing mass effects, universe acceleration, ... but also theoretical, and the main achievement is that indeed, it is possible to avoid most if not all generic instability issues which are well known to prevent the introduction of negative masses in General Relativity. Moreover it was also shown that such constructions are not arbitrary but can be entirely derived following the alternative mathematical choice for understanding the Time Reversal Symmetry, that of a Unitary T operator in QFT, needing a complete rehabilitation of negative energies in theoretical physics. All versions of DG theories studied so far unsurprisingly share many phenomenological outcomes, but here we shall focus on one which, for the first time, very naturally leads us to investigate the likely existence of genuine field discontinuities. The resulting phenomenology started to be explored. The first part of the article is a reminder of the main steps that led us to Dark Gravity. The second part focuses on discontinuities to show that these are all we need to explain in an unifying and very simple way many if not all of the well known so called "LENR miracles": Large eXcess Power (XP) not possibly of chemical origin with extremely low levels of nuclear radiations (alpha, beta, gamma, neutrons) as compared to what would be expected from nuclear processes producing the same amount of energy, Transmutations and isotopic anomalies in cold conditions, Incredible properties such as huge inertia anomalies and temperature discontinuities of a new category of objects produced in association with LENR and behaving as extremely magnetic micro ball lightnings.

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1575. Henry-Couannier, F., The Dark side of Gravity and LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 59-80.

First Author: Henry-Couannier, F.
All Authors: Henry-Couannier, F.
Keywords: Anti-gravity, Field discontinuities, Janus field, LENR, Negative energies, Time reversal

A previous article paved the way from a dark gravity theory (DG) toward LENR. This article is intended to go beyond the conceptual foundations (which will only be briefly summarized), and to provide a more technical detailed road map. An important revision of the theory was also made necessary by the recent direct detection of gravitational waves by Ligo. Finally, justifications will be given for adopting a slightly modified view of the process that triggers the formation of micro lightning balls, those enigmatic objects being produced in association with (and arguably responsible for) LENR, as we have recently identified the key role being played by a local increase of the density of electrons by various methods including a high luminosity beam (pulse) of electrons on a target.

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1576. Herbst, H., Ist der Aufbau des Heliums aus Wasserstoff gelungen? (Was the production of helium from hydrogen succesful?). Chemiker-Zeitung, 1926. 50: p. 905 (in German).

First Author: Herbst, H.
All Authors: Herbst, H.
Keywords: helium critique, history


1577. Herrero, C. and F.D. Manchester, Location of the Low Temperature Resistivity Anomaly in Pd-D. Phys. Lett. A, 1981. 86: p. 29.

First Author: Herrero, C.
All Authors: Herrero, C., Manchester, F. D.
Keywords: PdD, resistivity


1578. Herrmann, G., Five Decades Ago: From the "Transuranics" to Nuclear Fission. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1990. 29: p. 481.

First Author: Herrmann, G.
All Authors: Herrmann, G.
Keywords: review, history


1579. Herzog, R.F., Fusion in a Solid: A Pump Primer, in Phys. Today. 1990. p. 120.

First Author: Herzog, R. F.
All Authors: Herzog, R. F.
Keywords: application, fusion, Ti, D2, Pump, neutron


1580. Hietschold, M., Electric field control for cold nuclear fusion? - a suggestion. Wiss. Z. TU Karl-Marx-Stadt, 1989. 31: p. 635.

First Author: Hietschold, M.
All Authors: Hietschold, M.
Keywords: theory, layer, ion trapping


1581. Higashiyama, Y., et al. Replication of MHI transmutation experiment by D2 gas permeation through Pd complex. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Higashiyama, Y.
All Authors: Higashiyama, Y., Sakano, M., Miyamaru, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: transmutation

Unusual nuclear transmutation reactions have been reported by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). In their experiment, D2 gas permeates through a Pd complexes, which consists of a thin Pd layer, alternating CaO and Pd layers and bulk Pd. When they used sample Pd complexes with additional Cs on the surface, Pr emerged on the surface while Cs decreased after the sample was subjected to D2 gas permeation at 343 K and 1 atm for about one week. The elemental analysis was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This phenomenon was reproduced qualitatively in the present replication experiment.

We performed D-permeation experiments similar to the MHI's experiment three times, and we confirmed the production of Pr. Pd complex samples were provided to us by MHI. The surface was electrolytically cleaned to remove hydrocarbons before depositing Cs. D2 gas was permeated through the Pd complexes at 343 K and 1 atm for about 5 days. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed to analyze the existence of the elements (Cs and Pr) and the mass distribution. The results showed the existence of Pr. And we also confirmed the existence of Pr by using fast Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) in Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

As a result, we confirmed that the nuclear transmutation reaction, from 133Cs to 141Pr, was occurred. This transmutation suggests that the mass numbers and atomic numbers increase 8 and 4, respectively. The model of multi-body resonance fusion of deuterons proposed by A. Takahashi2 can explain this mass-8-and-charge-4 increased transmutation.

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1582. Hill, J.C., et al., Search for cold fusion using Pd-D2O cells and Ti-D mixtures. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 305.

First Author: Hill, J. C.
All Authors: Hill, J. C., Stassis, C., Shinar, J., Goldman, A. I., Folkerts, R., Schwellenbach, D. D., Peterson, D. T., Widrig, C., Porter, M., Benesh, C. J., Vary, J. P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2, Titanium neutron, gamma emission, D2O H2O


1583. Hioki, T., et al. Influence of Deuterium Gas Permeation on Surface Elemental Change of Sr-88 Ion-Implanted Pd and Pd/CaO multi-layer system. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Hioki, T.
All Authors: Hioki, T., Gao, J., Takahashi, N., Hibi, S., Murase, A., Motohiro, T., Kasagi, J.
Keywords: transmutation, gas permeation,


1584. Hioki, T., et al. Hydrogen/Deuterium Absorption Property of Pd Fine Particle Systems and Heat Evolution Associated with Hydrogen/Deuterium Loading. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Hioki, T.
All Authors: Hioki, T., Azuma, H., Nishi, T., Itoh, A., Gao, J., Hibi, S., Motohiro, T., Kasagi, J.
Keywords:

Hydrogen absorption capacity and heat evolution upon loading with hydrogen/deuterium gas were measured for Pd-ZrO2 nanocomposite obtained from Santoku Corporation. In order to examine the influence of oxidized Pd on both hydrogen absorption capacity and heat evolution, the measurements were performed three times repeatedly. Prior to each measurement, the samples were heat treated in vacuum at 523K for more than 2 hours. The first time measurement gave an apparent H/Pd ratio of 2.6 and a heat evolution of 2.6eV/Pd. During the first time measurement, the oxidized Pd was reduced to metallic Pd. It was found that the H/Pd ratio at 1MPa was slightly smaller than that of Pd bulk. It was also noted that Pd nanoparticles grow significantly during the cycles of absorption and desorption of hydrogen. When the sample was loaded with deuterium, intermittent heat evolutions as small as at most 0.1W were observed in the second stage where heat evolutions arising from chemical reactions were hardly expected.

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1585. Hioki, T., et al., Absorption Capacity and Heat Evolution with Loading of Hydrogen Isotope Gases for Pd Nanopowder and Pd/Ceramics Nanocomposite. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 69-80.

First Author: Hioki, T.
All Authors: Hioki, T., Azuma, H., Nishi, T., Itoh, A., Hibi, S., Gao, J., Motohiro, T., Kasagi, J.
Keywords: Calorimeter, CMNS, Deuterium absorption, Heat evolution, Hydrogen storage, Pd nanoparticle

Using Sievert's method, the hydrogen (/deuterium) absorption capacitywas measured for Pd nanopowder with particle size 10-20 nm and for Pd-γAl2O3 nanocomposites with Pd particle size 2-5 nm. In order to eliminate the influence of oxidized Pd particles on the absorption capacity, measurements were repeated three or four times without exposing the samples to air. For both nano-Pd materials, the absorption capacity at 1MPa was found to be slightly smaller than that of Pd bulk. The difference in the absorption capacity between hydrogen and deuterium, i.e., the isotope effect, was negligible within the experimental error. It was found that the average size of the Pd particles was significantly increased after the repeated measurements of the absorption capacity. The heat generated upon pressurizing the materials with deuterium or hydrogen up to 1MPa was measured using a flow calorimeter. Similar to the measurements of absorption capacity, the heat measurements were also conducted repeatedly. The observed heat generation was composed of two stages, i.e., the first stage during pressurizing the samples from 0 to 1 MPa and the second stage, where the sample was kept under a fixed pressure of 1 MPa. The heat generated in the first stage was much larger at the time of the first measurement than at the second or third. The heat generated in the first stage was largely explained by taking into account two chemical reactions, i.e., the water formation reaction and the deuteride formation reaction. It was noted that in the second stage, where the heat generated from chemical reactions was hardly expected to occur, a small heat power was observed intermittently. This heat evolution was observed frequently when the samples were loaded with deuterium.

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1586. Hioki, T., et al., Effects of Self-poisoning of Pd on the Deuterium Permeation Rate and Surface Elemental Analysis for Nuclear Transmutation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 64-76.

First Author: Hioki, T.
All Authors: Hioki, T., Takahashi, N., Gao, J., Murase, A., Hibi, S., Motohiro, T.
Keywords: Deuterium permeation, Pd metal, Poisoning, S impurity, Transmutation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Factors affecting the deuterium permeation rate through Pd foils at a temperature as low as 70◦C have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that the surface segregation of S from the interior of Pd bulk during the permeation process causes a significant lowering of permeation rate with increasing permeation time, although the concentration of S impurity in Pd bulk is probably less than 10 ppm. The surface accumulated S during D2 permeation also gives rise to a difficulty in detecting small amount of elements on the surface of Pd after deuterium permeation treatment. For selected nuclear transmutation from Sr to Mo reported by Iwamura group, we have successfully observed Mo on the surface of Sr ion-implanted Pd after a deuterium permeation treatment, by adding a process that removes the sulfur accumulated on the surface of the Pd foil. A time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) study on the origin of the observed Mo will be described in a separate paper.

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1587. Hioki, T., et al., Isotope Effect for Heat Generation upon Pressurizing Nano-Pd/Silica Systems with Hydrogen Isotope Gases. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Hioki, T.
All Authors: Hioki, T., Sugimoto, N., Nishi, T., Itoh, A., Motohiro, T.
Keywords: Heat, Isotope effect, Nano-palladium, Porous silica

The isotope effect for heat generation upon pressurization with hydrogen isotope gases was clearly observed in a reproducible manner for nano-Pd/silica systems. For Pd/zeolite, the isotope effect decreased with increasing cycle of pressurization and almost disappeared at several cycles, whereas the effect was observed up to 15 cycles or more for Pd/FSM. Pd particles with sizes less than 2 nm are suggested to be essential for the isotope effect to be clearly observable.

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1588. Hirabayashi, T., Y. Yoshida, and Y. Aradono, Verification of room temperature nuclear fusion. 2. Genshiryoku Kogyo, 1991. 37(4): p. 31 (in Japanese).

First Author: Hirabayashi, T.
All Authors: Hirabayashi, T., Yoshida, Y., Aradono, Y.
Keywords: Review


1589. Hirooka, Y., M. Miyake, and T. Sano, A Study of Hydrogen Absorption and Desorption By Titanium. J. Nucl. Mater., 1981. 96: p. 227.

First Author: Hirooka, Y.
All Authors: Hirooka, Y., Miyake, M., Sano, T.
Keywords: H2, Ti, loading


1590. Ho, N.S. and F.D. Manchester, The Electrical Resistivity of Palladium-Hydrogen and Palladium-Deuterium Alloys between 4 and 300 K. Can. J. Phys., 1968. 46: p. 1341.

First Author: Ho, N. S.
All Authors: Ho, N. S., Manchester, F. D.
Keywords: PdD, PdH, resistivity


1591. Hoare, J.P. and S. Schuldiner, Mechanisms of hydrogen producing reactions on palladium. III. Hydrogen overvoltage on the polarization and diffusion sides of a cathode-diagram. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1956. 103(4): p. 237.

First Author: Hoare, J. P.
All Authors: Hoare, J. P., Schuldiner, S.
Keywords: PdH, overvoltage, loading


1592. Hoare, J.P., S. Schuldiner, and G.W. Castellan, Electrochemical behavior of the palladium-hydrogen system(III). Gas-charged palladium alloys. J. Chem. Phys., 1958. 28: p. 22.

First Author: Hoare, J. P.
All Authors: Hoare, J. P., Schuldiner, S., Castellan, G. W.
Keywords: Pd, H, Phase Diagram, overvoltage, loading, PdH


1593. Hodgkinson, N., Nuclear Confusion, in The Sunday Times (UK). 1993: LondonEditor.

First Author: Hodgkinson, N.
All Authors: Hodgkinson, N.
Keywords: newspaper, review, history


1594. Hodko, D. and J. Bockris, Possible excess tritium production on Pd codeposited with deuterium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 353: p. 33.

First Author: Hodko, D.
All Authors: Hodko, D., Bockris, J.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, tritium, D2O, coplating


1595. Hoffman, N.J., Book Review of Taubes Book. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 225.

First Author: Hoffman, N. J.
All Authors: Hoffman, N. J.
Keywords: history, Book, Review


1596. Hoffman, N., A Dialogue on Chemically Induced Nuclear Effects. A Guide for the Perplexed about Cold Fusion. 1995, La Grange Park, Ill: American Nuclear Society.

First Author: Hoffman, N.
All Authors: Hoffman, N.
Keywords: history, book,


1597. Hoffmann, B., H. Baumann, and F. Rauch, Hydrogen Uptake by Palladium-Implanted Titanium Studied by NRA and RBS. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, 1989. 15: p. 361.

First Author: Hoffmann, B.
All Authors: Hoffmann, B., Baumann, H., Rauch, F.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, D2, loading, Pd-Ti


1598. Holleck, G.L. and T.B. Flanagan, The mechanism for the isotopic exchange between deuterium and acidic solutions on palladium surfaces. J. Phys. Chem., 1967. 71: p. 3110.

First Author: Holleck, G. L.
All Authors: Holleck, G. L., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O


1599. Holst-Hansen, P. and D. Britz, Can current fluctuations account for the excess heat claims of Fleischmann and Pons? J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 388: p. 11.

First Author: Holst-Hansen, P.
All Authors: Holst-Hansen, P., Britz, D.
Keywords: critique, heat, method, current fluctuation Pons-Fleischmann


1600. Hongyu, Z., et al. Some Results on Cold Fusion Research. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Hongyu, Z.
All Authors: Hongyu, Z., Chenlin, W., Yanin, R., Guoying, F., Hua, Y., Weidong, Z., Dachun, W., Ming, H., Shuzen, L., Zhuen, H., Zhongda, W., Runhu, Y., Zhenghao, L., Guoxiao, R.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, D2O, D2, neutron, electrolysis, ICCF-2


1601. Hora, H., et al. Surface Models for Cold Fusion and the Possibilities of Multilayered Cells for Energy Production. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Ragheb, M., Scharmann, A.
Keywords: theory


1602. Hora, H., et al., Plasma and surface tension model for explaining the surface effect of tritium generation at cold fusion. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1990. 12D(3): p. 393.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Cicchitelli, L., Miley, G. H., Ragheb, M., Scharmann, A., Scheid, W.
Keywords: Theory, swimming electron


1603. Hora, H., et al., Screening in cold fusion derived from D-D reactions. Phys. Lett. A, 1993. 175: p. 138.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Kelly, J. C., Patel, J. U., Prelas, M. A., Miley, G. H., Tompkins, J. W.
Keywords: Theory, swimming electron


1604. Hora, H. and J.A. Patterson, The d and p reactions in low-energy nuclear fusion, transmutation, and fission. Trans. Amer. Nucl. Soc., 1996. 76: p. 144.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Patterson, J. A.
Keywords: Theory, screening, transmutation, fission


1605. Hora, H., J.C. Kelly, and G.H. Miley, Energy gain and nuclear transmutation by low-energy p- or d-reaction in metal lattices. Infinite Energy, 1997. 2(12): p. 48.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Kelly, J. C., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation


1606. Hora, H., et al. Nuclear Shell Magic Numbers Agree With Measured Transmutation by Low-Energy Reactions. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Kelly, J. C., Narne, Y.
Keywords: theory, transmutation, swimming electron, magic number, ICCF-7


1607. Hora, H., Magic numbers and low energy nuclear transmutation by protons in host metals. Czech. J. Phys., 1998. 48(3): p. 321.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H.
Keywords: Theory, magic number, swimming electron


1608. Hora, H. and G.H. Miley, New magic numbers from low energy nuclear transmutations predict element (306)X(126) for compound reactions. Czech. J. Phys., 1998. 48: p. 1111.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation, magic number


1609. Hora, H., et al., Proton-metal reactions in thin films with Boltzmann distribution similar to nuclear astrophysics. Fusion Technol., 1999. 36: p. 331.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Kelly, J. C., Salvaggi, G., Tate, A., Osman, F., Castillo, R.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation


1610. Hora, H., G.H. Miley, and J. Kelly. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions of Protons in Host Metals. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Kelly, J.
Keywords: theory, transmutation, ICCF-8


1611. Hora, H. and G.H. Miley, Heavy nuclide synthesis by neutrons in astrophysics and by screened protons in host metals. Czech. J. Phys., 2000. 50: p. 433.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation


1612. Hora, H. Summary about theoretical results of the 9th international conference on cold fusion. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H.
Keywords: theory, review, ICCF-9

For summarizing theoretical papers of the ICCF9 conference, a short reminder should be given about some significant experimental results that can form a basis for a theory of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). For a more historic view, the motivation for the Fleischmann-Pons experiment or the Preparata effect were well explained while-as an unusual view-L. Case reported that experiments may be understood by a simple chemical process involving catalytic surface properties. This could also explain why heat production happens in some cases and not in other cases. Contrary to this is the history of the observation of neutron emission from palladium compounds [1] or from deuterated palladium [2] that indicate nuclear processes. Today we have the significant result of Tian, Li et al [3] that the reaction of palladium wires after reacting with a hydrogen atmosphere during a current discharge, when the energy input was stopped and the gas evacuated, generated "heat after dead" for 43 hours producing about 3.6kW/cm^3 or 13 keV/atom Pd . . .

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1613. Hora, H., et al. Shrinking of hydrogen atoms in host metals by dielectric effects and Inglis-Teller depression of ionization potentials. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Kelly, J. C., Osman, F.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory, swimming electron

ABSTRACT         Conversion of deuterium to tritium in palladium has been clearly confirmed by the Arata-Zhang experiments. Endothermic element synthesis in Pd. and/or Ni layers due to high proton concentration, in analogy to stellar synthesis can be seen from the generation of very rare elements such as terbium. A convincing explanation is necessary. It was concluded phenomenologically that the reaction of the protons or deuterons by fusion or with the nuclei of the host metal occurs at a distance of about picometers with a reaction time of about megaseconds. It was noted that the Bohr radius rB of hydrogen atoms in a dielectric with refractive index n is changed to rBn2. such that with the electron concentration of the host metals a plasma refractive index of 0.076 results in a value of 3pm. In order to understand the subsequent dielectric modification of the ionization energy, we apply the model of depression of this energy by the Inglis-Teller effect for which a model with the best agreement with plasma experiments was presented before. For our model of the dielectrically shrunk picometer hydrogen atoms, the low ionization energies result in a reasonable relation between dielectric properties and the effective Debye length. Preference of the reaction at surfaces or interfaces between different host metals are due to the same reduction of the dielectric response as observed with surface plasmons. For the swimming electron layer theory, the spreading of the double layer for metal interfaces was discussed.

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1614. Hora, H., et al. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions resulting as picometer interactions with similarity to K-shell electron capture. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Li, X. Z., Kelly, J., Osman, F.
Keywords: theory

Since the appeal by Brian Josephson at the meeting of the Nobel Laureates July 2004, it seems to be indicated to summarize the following serious, reproducible and confirmed observations on reactions of protons or deuterons incorporated in host metals such as palladium. Some reflections to Rutherford's discovery of nuclear physics, the Cockroft-Oliphant discovery of anomalous low energy fusion reactions and the chemist Hahn's discovery of fission had to be included. Using gaseous atmosphere or discharges between palladium targets, rather significant results were seen e.g. from the "life after death" heat production of such high values per host atom that only nuclear reactions can be involved. This supports the earlier evaluation of neutron generation in fully reversible experiments with gas discharges hinting that a reasonable screening effect - preferably in the swimming electron layer - may lead to reactions at nuclear distances d of picometers with reaction probability times U of about megaseconds similar to the K-shell capture radioactivity. Further electrolytic experiments led to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) where the involvement of pollution could be excluded from the appearance of very seldom rare earth elements. A basically new theory for DD cross sections is used to confirm the picometer-megasecond reactions of cold fusion. Other theoretical aspects are given from measured heavy element distributions similar to the standard abundance distribution, SAD, in the Universe with consequences on endothermic heavy nuclei generation, magic numbers and to quark-gluon plasmas.

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1615. Hora, H. and G.H. Miley, Maruhn-Greiner Maximum of Uranium Fission for Confirmation of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions LENR via a Compound Nucleus with Double Magic Numbers. J. Fusion Energy, 2007. 26: p. 349-355.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: Fission of excited nuclei  Low energy nuclear reactions in metals  Compound nuclei  Coulomb screening by small Debye length  Swimming electron layer, Pd, Coehn, heat+, D2 O, electrolysis, resistivity, loading, ICCF-8

One of the most convincing facts about LENR due to deuterons of very high concentration in host metals as palladium is the measurement of the large scale minimum of the reaction probability depending on the nucleon number A of generated elements at A = 153 where a local maximum was measured. This is similar to the fission of uranium at A = 119 where the local maximum follows from the Maruhn-Greiner theory if the splitting nuclei are excited to about MeV energy. The LENR generated elements can be documented any time after the reaction by SIMS or K-shell X-ray excitation to show the very unique distribution with the local maximum. An explanation is based on the strong Debye screening of the Maxwellian deuterons within the degenerate rigid electron background especially within the swimming electron layer at the metal surface or at interfaces. The deuterons behave like neutrals at distances of about 2 picometers. They may form clusters due to soft attraction in the range above thermal energy. Clusters of 10 pm diameter may react over long time probabilities (megaseconds) with Pd nuclei leading to a double magic number compound nucleus which splits like in fission to the A = 153 element distribution.

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1616. Hora, H., G.H. Miley, and K. Philberth. Radiochemical Observations for Comparison of Uranium Fission with Low Energy Nuclear Reactions LENR. in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Philberth, K.
Keywords: theory

The discovery of nuclear fission by Hahn and Straßmann was based on a very rare microanalytical result what initially could not indicate the very complicated details of this most important process. A similarity is discussed for the low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) being proved from analogies of measurements of uranium fission. The distribution of the elements with uranium fission is similar to the element distribution with LENR. This was observed repeatedly and reproducibly with high density deuteron concentration in palladium. This discussion is specifically focussed to the Maruhn-Greiner local maximum of the distribution within the large-scale minimum if the fission nuclei are excited. The consequences of the complications in uranium fission are discussed in comparison with LENR with respect to the studies of a hypothetical fissioning compound nuclear reaction via a concluded element 306X126 with double magic numbers.

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1617. Hora, H., et al., Quark-Gluon Model for Magic Numbers Related to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 219-234.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Ghahramani, N., Miley, G. H., Ghanaatian, M., Hooshmand, M., Philberth, K., Osman, F.
Keywords:


1618. Hora, H., G.H. Miley, and X. Yang, Bose-Einstein Condensation and Inverted Rydberg States in Ultra-high Density Deuterium Clusters Related to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Yang, X.
Keywords: Bose-Einstein condensation, Generalized Bohr model, Lowenergy nuclear reactions, Rydberg matter, Ultra-high density deuterium clusters

Results about low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) are related to very high density clusters of deuterons where properties of Bose-Einstein condensation and/or inverted Rydberg states are compared. A modification of Boh-s atom model is used to overcome the problem that a quantum state with n = 1 does not emit radiation from an "orbiting" electron. This permits then the description of the inverted state of Rydberg matter in agreement with the recent measurements of Holmlid et al. for deuterium clusters with ultra-high deuteron densities in the range of 1029cm−3. A virtual oscillation model for laser excitation clusters explains the low intensity ionization threshold in clusters. MeV particle emission from LENR can then be compared with measurements from inverted Rydberg states.

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1619. Horanyi, G., Some doubts about the occurrence of electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34: p. 889.

First Author: Horanyi, G.
All Authors: Horanyi, G.
Keywords: critique


1620. Horanyi, G., Open questions concerning the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. Magy. Kem. Fol, 1989. 95: p. 140 (in Hungarian).

First Author: Horanyi, G.
All Authors: Horanyi, G.
Keywords: Discussion


1621. Horanyi, G., Some basic electrochemistry and the cold nuclear fusion of deuterium. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1989. 137(1): p. 23.

First Author: Horanyi, G.
All Authors: Horanyi, G.
Keywords: critique, overvoltage


1622. Horowitz, C.J., Cold nuclear fusion in metallic hydrogen and normal metals. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1989. 40: p. R1555.

First Author: Horowitz, C. J.
All Authors: Horowitz, C. J.
Keywords: Theory, cosmology, p-d fusion


1623. Horowitz, C.J., Cold nuclear fusion in dense metallic hydrogen. Astrophys. J., 1991. 367: p. 288.

First Author: Horowitz, C. J.
All Authors: Horowitz, C. J.
Keywords: theory, metallic hydrogen


1624. Howald, R.A., Calculations on the Palladium-Lithium System for Cold Fusion. CALPHAD, 1990. 14: p. 1.

First Author: Howald, R. A.
All Authors: Howald, R. A.
Keywords: Phase Diagram, Pd-Li


1625. Hrushovetz, S.M. Particles, Primes, and "Cold Fusion". in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Hrushovetz, S. M.
All Authors: Hrushovetz, S. M.
Keywords: theory, muon, ICCF-7


1626. Hsu, C.L., C.M. Wan, and F.R. Chen. TEM Investigation of Hydrogen Ordering in Pd. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Hsu, C. L.
All Authors: Hsu, C. L., Wan, C. M., Chen, F. R
Keywords: order, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, molten salt, TEM, ICCF-3, structure

TEM was used to study the microstructure of Pd electrodes before and after electrochemical reaction in molten salt and heavy water cells. Hydrogen ordered structure in the non-stoichiometric PHx was observed in the Pd specimens annealed in air, vacuum and hydrogen furance. On the contrary, high density of dislocations and subgrains and no superlattice structure was observed in the Pd specimens after electrochemical reactions. The reason why no superlattice structure in the electrochemically reacted Pd may be due to traping of hydrogen atoms by defects.

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1627. Hu, C.C. and T.C. Wen, Effect of pH and anion on hydrogen sorption/desorption at/within oxide-derived Pd electrodes. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1995. 142(5): p. 1376.

First Author: Hu, C. C.
All Authors: Hu, C. C., Wen, T. C.
Keywords: Pd, loading, PdCl2 electrolysis


1628. Huang, N., et al. A Flow Calorimeter Used in Duplication of 'Cold Fusion'. in Special Session Cold Fusion, Electrochemical Society. 1989. Hollywood, Fl: Electrochemical Society.

First Author: Huang, N.
All Authors: Huang, N., Gao, Q. H., Liaw, B. Y., Liebert, B. E.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, electrolysis, method


1629. Huang, N. Effect of Light Water Additions on Excess Heat Generation of Palladium Deuterium System. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Huang, N.
All Authors: Huang, N.
Keywords: Pd, H2O, D2O, heat+, H2O addition effect of H2O


1630. Huang, C.Y. and M. Rabinowitz, Some New Aspects of Super-High Temperature Superconductors. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 4(9): p. 567.

First Author: Huang, C. Y.
All Authors: Huang, C. Y., Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: review, superconductivity


1631. Huang, G., et al. The Measurements and the Control of Loading Ratio of Deuterium in Palladium. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 34